References of "2011"
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See detailTransnationale Verräumlichungen aus praxeologischer Perspektive
Wille, Christian UL

Presentation (2011, December)

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See detailEarly feeding and risk of type 1 diabetes: experiences from the Trial to Reduce Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in the Genetically at Risk (TRIGR)
Knip, M; Virtanen, S.M.; Becker, D. et al

in American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2011), 96(6), 1814-1820

Short-term breastfeeding and early exposure to complex dietary proteins, such as cow milk proteins and cereals, or to fruit, berries, and roots have been implicated as risk factors for β cell autoimmunity ... [more ▼]

Short-term breastfeeding and early exposure to complex dietary proteins, such as cow milk proteins and cereals, or to fruit, berries, and roots have been implicated as risk factors for β cell autoimmunity, clinical type 1 diabetes, or both. The Trial to Reduce Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in the Genetically at Risk (TRIGR) is an international, randomized, double-blind, controlled intervention trial designed to answer the question of whether weaning to an extensively hydrolyzed formula in infancy will decrease the risk of type 1 diabetes later in childhood. In our pilot study, weaning to a highly hydrolyzed formula decreased by ≈ 50% the cumulative incidence of one or more diabetes-associated autoantibodies by a mean age of 4.7 y. This finding was confirmed in a recent follow-up analysis to 10 y of age. Currently, the full-scale TRIGR takes place in 77 centers in 15 countries. The TRIGR initially recruited 5606 newborn infants with a family member affected by type 1 diabetes and enrolled 2159 eligible subjects who carried a risk-conferring HLA genotype. All recruited mothers were encouraged to breastfeed. The intervention lasted for 6-8 mo with a minimum study formula exposure time of 2 mo, and hydrolyzed casein and standard cow milk-based weaning formulas were compared. Eighty percent of the participants were exposed to the study formula. The overall retention rate over the first 5 y was 87%, and protocol compliance was 94%. The randomization code will be opened when the last recruited child turns 10 y of age (ie, in 2017). PMID: 21653795 [Pub [less ▲]

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See detailLes étrangers dans la chronique de Dalimil, une place de choix faite aux Allemands
Vomacka, Eloïse UL

in Cahiers du Centre français de recherche en sciences sociales (CEFRES) (2011), 31

Rédigée en 1309-1310, la Chronique de Dalimil compte parmi les tout premiers textes de la littérature tchèque à avoir été rédigés en langue vernaculaire. Le projet de l’auteur est en effet de mobiliser la ... [more ▼]

Rédigée en 1309-1310, la Chronique de Dalimil compte parmi les tout premiers textes de la littérature tchèque à avoir été rédigés en langue vernaculaire. Le projet de l’auteur est en effet de mobiliser la « nation » tchèque contre la menace allemande, à une époque où le royaume traverse une période de grande instabilité, suite à l’assassinat de Venceslas III (1306) et à l’extinction de la dynastie des Přemyslides qui en a résulté. Dans cet article, je me suis concentrée sur la manière dont l’auteur faisait entrer les étrangers en scène au fil de sa chronique. Dans sa vision exclusive de la nation, les étrangers sont logiquement des intrus dont il faut se méfier. Néanmoins, les résultats de l’analyse lexicométrique réalisée grâce au logiciel HYPERBASE m’ont permis de me rendre compte que tous les étrangers n’étaient pas logés à la même enseigne et que les Allemands bénéficiaient d’un traitement tout particulier. Même si Polonais et Hongrois sont décrits comme des voisins contre lesquels les Tchèques sont entrés régulièrement en guerre, ils ne suscitent aucun sentiment négatif de la part de l’auteur qui, tout au plus, dépeint leurs défaites – parfois inventées – avec ironie. Les Allemands sont au contraire à l’origine d’une phraséologie haineuse extrêmement acérée pour l’époque, dont l’analyse et la compréhension sont au cœur de cette contribution. [less ▲]

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See detailRelationship between ZnT8Ab, the SLC30A8 gene and disease progression in children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes
Nielsen, L. B.; Vaziri-Sani, F.; Pörksen, S. et al

in Autoimmunity (2011), 44(8), 616-623

Autoantibodies against the newly established autoantigen in type 1 diabetes, zinc transporter 8, ZnT8, are presented as two types, ZnT8RAb and ZnT8WAb. The rs13266634 variant of the SLC30A8 gene has ... [more ▼]

Autoantibodies against the newly established autoantigen in type 1 diabetes, zinc transporter 8, ZnT8, are presented as two types, ZnT8RAb and ZnT8WAb. The rs13266634 variant of the SLC30A8 gene has recently been found to determine the type of ZnT8Ab. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of this genetic variant and the ZnT8Ab on the residual beta-cell function during disease progression the first year after disease diagnosis in children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes. This cohort consists of 257 children aged < 16 years, all patients were newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. A Boost-test was carried out at 1, 6, and 12 months to characterize the residual beta-cell function. Carriers of the CC and CT genotype groups of the rs13266634 SNP of the SLC30A8 gene had higher stimulated C-peptide levels the first year after onset compared with those of the TT genotype group (29%, p = 0.034). CC genotype carriers were highly associated with the presence of ZnT8RAb subtype during disease progression (compared with TT, p < 0.0001). On the other hand, the TT genotype was associated with the presence of ZnT8WAb subtype during disease progression (compared with CC, p < 0.0001).The C allele of the SLC30A8 gene is associated with preserved beta-cell function in type 1 diabetes patients. The genetic determination of the rs13266634 variant on the ZnT8Ab specificity is sustained the first 12 months after the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in a pediatric cohort. © 2011 Informa UK, Ltd. [less ▲]

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See detailPredicting the itentions to buy fair-trade products: the role of attitude, social norm, perceived behavioral control, and moral norm
De Leeuw, Astrid UL; Valois, Pierre UL; Houssemand, Claude UL

in OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development (2011), 2(10), 77-84

The current study examined to what extent attitude, social norm, and perceived behavioral control explain students’ intentions to buy fair-trade products. Moreover, it was explored whether the addition of ... [more ▼]

The current study examined to what extent attitude, social norm, and perceived behavioral control explain students’ intentions to buy fair-trade products. Moreover, it was explored whether the addition of moral norm to these three factors permitted the better prediction of the intentions in question. Questionnaire data was collected from 192 students of the University of Luxemburg. The results of structural equation analyses revealed that attitude and perceived behavioral control explained 61% of the variance in intention. The addition of the moral norm construct increased the explained variance of intention from 61% to 73%. These results suggest that to encourage students to buy fair-trade products, applied social psychologists or educational institutions should create programs that develop their perceived control over the behavior, for instance, by offering the products in their canteens as well as in their food and drink dispensers. In addition, they should insist on the advantages of fair-trade consumerism to favor the development of a positive attitude. Finally, they should emphasize the moral correctness of the behavior. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimality Properties,Distributed Strategies, and Measurement-Based Evaluation of Coordinated Multicell OFDMA Transmission
Björnson, Emil; Jaldén, Niklas; Bengtsson, Mats et al

in IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing (2011), 59(12), 6086-6101

The throughput of multicell systems is inherently limited by interference and the available communication resources. Coordinated resource allocation is the key to efficient performance, but the demand on ... [more ▼]

The throughput of multicell systems is inherently limited by interference and the available communication resources. Coordinated resource allocation is the key to efficient performance, but the demand on backhaul signaling and computational resources grows rapidly with number of cells, terminals, and subcarriers. To handle this, we propose a novel multicell framework with dynamic cooperation clusters where each terminal is jointly served by a small set of base stations. Each base station coordinates interference to neighboring terminals only, thus limiting backhaul signalling and making the framework scalable. This framework can describe anything from interference channels to ideal joint multicell transmission. The resource allocation (i.e., precoding and scheduling) is formulated as an optimization problem (P1) with performance described by arbitrary monotonic functions of the signal-to-interference-and-noise ratios (SINRs) and arbitrary linear power constraints. Although (P1) is nonconvex and difficult to solve optimally, we are able to prove: 1) optimality of single-stream beamforming; 2) conditions for full power usage; and 3) a precoding parametrization based on a few parameters between zero and one. These optimality properties are used to propose low-complexity strategies: both a centralized scheme and a distributed version that only requires local channel knowledge and processing. We evaluate the performance on measured multicell channels and observe that the proposed strategies achieve close-to-optimal performance among centralized and distributed solutions, respectively. In addition, we show that multicell interference coordination can give substantial improvements in sum performance, but that joint transmission is very sensitive to synchronization errors and that some terminals can experience performance degradations. [less ▲]

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See detailIn the Vanguard of Globalisation: the OECD and Capital Liberalisation
Howarth, David UL; Sadeh, Tal

in Review of International Political Economy (2011), 18(5), 622-645

A survey of the literature on the political economy of global financial liberalisation shows how little has been written on the role of the OECD, and how the Principal-Agent (PA) theory, complemented by ... [more ▼]

A survey of the literature on the political economy of global financial liberalisation shows how little has been written on the role of the OECD, and how the Principal-Agent (PA) theory, complemented by Constructivist tools, can be applied helpfully to analyse this process.We show that the OECD’s Committee on Capital Movements and Invisible Transactions (CMIT) played an entrepreneurial role in encouraging the liberalization of capital flows. In particular, we argue that the CMIT slipped by acting beyond its core delegation roles and against the preferences of the OECD member states’ governments. This was done by discussing and seeking to expand the list of issue areas on which controls should be lifted to include short-term capital movements and the right of establishment, to adopt an extended understanding of reciprocity, and to eliminate a range of additional discriminatory measures on capital flows. Acting as institutional entrepreneurs, the CMIT members took advantage of the overlap among the networks in which they were engaged to spread their ideas to the member states. The CMIT’s work affected the member states’ willingness to make irrevocable, multilateral commitments through a combination of peer pressure and vertical institutional interconnectedness. Through the work of the CMIT, the OECD was an important actor in capital liberalization, in addition to the role played by other international organizations. [less ▲]

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See detailAxiomatizations of quasi-Lovász extensions of pseudo-Boolean functions
Couceiro, Miguel UL; Marichal, Jean-Luc UL

in Aequationes Mathematicae (2011), 82(3), 213-231

We introduce the concept of quasi-Lov\'asz extension as being a mapping $f\colon I^n\to\R$ defined on a nonempty real interval $I$ containing the origin and which can be factorized as $f(x_1,\ldots,x_n)=L ... [more ▼]

We introduce the concept of quasi-Lov\'asz extension as being a mapping $f\colon I^n\to\R$ defined on a nonempty real interval $I$ containing the origin and which can be factorized as $f(x_1,\ldots,x_n)=L(\varphi(x_1),\ldots,\varphi(x_n))$, where $L$ is the Lov\'asz extension of a pseudo-Boolean function $\psi\colon\{0,1\}^n\to\R$ (i.e., the function $L\colon\R^n\to\R$ whose restriction to each simplex of the standard triangulation of $[0,1]^n$ is the unique affine function which agrees with $\psi$ at the vertices of this simplex) and $\varphi\colon I\to\R$ is a nondecreasing function vanishing at the origin. These functions appear naturally within the scope of decision making under uncertainty since they subsume overall preference functionals associated with discrete Choquet integrals whose variables are transformed by a given utility function. To axiomatize the class of quasi-Lov\'asz extensions, we propose generalizations of properties used to characterize the Lov\'asz extensions, including a comonotonic version of modularity and a natural relaxation of homogeneity. A variant of the latter property enables us to axiomatize also the class of symmetric quasi-Lov\'asz extensions, which are compositions of symmetric Lov\'asz extensions with $1$-place nondecreasing odd functions. [less ▲]

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See detailLectures on Modular Galois Representations Modulo Prime Powers
Wiese, Gabor UL

Presentation (2011, December)

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See detailThe reading and mathematics performance of language-minority children in Luxembourg, Serbia and Europe: Is school instruction in their mother tongue important?
Aleksic, Gabrijela UL

Doctoral thesis (2011)

In order to explore the complex reality of the importance of mother tongue for the reading and mathematics performance of language-minority children, I conducted three studies. The aims of the studies ... [more ▼]

In order to explore the complex reality of the importance of mother tongue for the reading and mathematics performance of language-minority children, I conducted three studies. The aims of the studies were threefold: a) to investigate the reading and mathematics performance of language-minority preschool children in Luxembourg and Serbia (Study I). b) to identify predictors for early reading performance in the majority language (Study II). c) to conduct a meta-analysis on the effectiveness of bilingual as opposed to submersion programs in promoting the academic achievement of language-minority children (Study III). All three studies were theoretically anchored in the psycholinguistic constructs of Jim Cummins, as in OECD (2006, 2010) results reporting the underachievement of minority students in Europe. On the strength of this theory and drawing from empirical evidence, I propose three hypotheses: a) Hypothesis 1: language-minority children will score significantly lower in both reading and mathematics than language-majority children (Study I). b) Hypothesis 2: the significant predictors for early reading will be whether the test was conducted in the child’s mother tongue or not, the child’s gender, the level of education of the child’s parents, the child’s range of vocabulary, the child’s phonological awareness, competence in mathematics and the child’s behaviour (Study II). c) Hypothesis 3: bilingual education programs that include language-minority children’s mother tongue in school instruction are superior to submersion programs that exclude the children’s mother tongue in school instruction in promoting their academic achievement (Study III). International data show that those language-minority students who do not speak the school language of instruction at home are, on average, one year behind their native peers (Stanat & Christensen, 2007). This gap hampers student’s academic achievement, which in turn restrict the student’s opportunities in the labour market. The purpose of Study I was, therefore, to investigate the performance in reading and mathematics of language-minority preschool children in Luxembourg (N=174) and Serbia (N=159). MANOVA results showed that in Luxembourg, Portuguese children performed significantly lower than both native Luxembourgish children and other minority children. However, with regard to the testing of vocabulary and rhyming words - sections of the test which are evidently loaded with Luxembourgish-specific words - Portuguese and other minority children scored significantly lower than Luxembourgish children. I speculate that language of instruction can be one of the reasons for their possible low performance. In Serbia, Roma performed significantly lower than Hungarians, Serbs and other minority children. This finding may suggest that there are other variables, such as the socio-economic backgrounds of the children that may contribute to the low performance of both the Portuguese and Roma as language-minority groups at school. Thus, Hypothesis 1 is partly confirmed. Reading skills provide a crucial foundation for children’s success at school (Lonigan, Burgess, & Anthony, 2000) and beyond (Miles & Stipek, 2006). Good progress in reading and mathematics in the earliest years constitute the most important factors which continue to play a role at the age of 11 (Tymms, Jones, Albone, & Henderson, 2007). Study II, involving preschool children from Serbia (N=159) and Luxembourg (N=174), examines the predictive value of the child’s gender, the child’s mother tongue, the level of education of the child’s parents, the child’s range of vocabulary, the child’s phonological awareness, competence in mathematics and the child’s behaviour for early reading skills. For the Serbian sample, multilevel models showed that whether the test was administered in the child’s mother tongue at the age of 5 or not and competence in mathematics were the most significant predictors for early reading at the age of 7 after controlling for age, gender, vocabulary, phonics and behaviour. For the Luxembourgish sample, gender, vocabulary, phonological awareness and competence in mathematics at the age of 5 were significant predictors for reading at the same age, after controlling for age and the mother tongue. The level of parental education in the Serbian sample and the children’s behaviour in both samples proved not to be significant. Thus, Hypothesis 2 is partly confirmed. The education of language-minority children becomes increasingly important in today’s society. Five previous meta-analyses investigated the effectiveness of bilingual programs in promoting academic achievement of language-minority children in the United States. The present meta-analysis (Study III) investigates seven European studies on the topic. Results indicate a small positive effect (g=0.23) for bilingual over submersion programs on the academic achievement of language-minority children (also see Rolstad, Mahoney & Glass, 2005, 2008). This meta-analysis, therefore, appears to support bilingual education in Europe, the education that includes the mother tongue of language-minority children in the school instruction. Thus, Hypothesis 3 is confirmed. However, the results are restricted due to the small number of studies. More published studies in bilingual education in Europe are needed. [less ▲]

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See detailMezinárodní arbitráž v novém
Lickova, Magdalena UL

Article for general public (2011)

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See detailAnalysis of resynchronization mechanisms of stream ciphers
Priemuth-Schmid, Deike UL

Doctoral thesis (2011)

Stream ciphers are cryptographic primitives belonging to symmetric key cryptography to ensure data confidentiality of messages sent through an insecure communication channel. This thesis presents attacks ... [more ▼]

Stream ciphers are cryptographic primitives belonging to symmetric key cryptography to ensure data confidentiality of messages sent through an insecure communication channel. This thesis presents attacks on several stream ciphers, especially against their initialization methods. The first targets are the stream ciphers Salsa20 and Trivium. For both ciphers slid pairs are described. Salsa20 can be distinguished from a random function using only the slid pair relation. When a slid pair is given for Salsa20 both secret keys can be recovered immediately if the nonces and counters are known. Also an efficient search for a hidden slid pair in a large list of ciphertexts is shown. The efficiency of the birthday attack can be increased twice using slid pairs. For the cipher Trivium a large related-key class which produces identical keystreams up to a shift is presented. Then the resynchronization mechanism of the stream ciphers SNOW 3G and SNOW 2.0 is analyzed. Both ciphers are simplified by replacing all additions modulo 32 with XORs. A known IV key-recovery attack is presented for SNOW 3G and SNOW 2.0 where both ciphers have no feedback from the FSM. This attack works for any amount of initialization clocks. Then in both ciphers the feedback from the FSM is restored and the number of 33 initialization clocks is reduced. Chosen IV key-recovery attacks on SNOW 3G with 12 to 16 initialization clocks and SNOW 2.0 with 12 to 18 initialization clocks are shown. In a similar way versions of the stream cipher K2 are attacked. This cipher is simplified by replacing all additions modulo 32 with XORs as well. Chosen IV key-recovery attacks on versions with reduced initialization clocks from five to seven out of 24 are presented. For the version with seven initialization clocks also a chosen IV distinguishing attack is shown. The last part deals with a linear key-IV setup and known feedback polynomials of the shrinking generator. It is shown that this linear initialization results in a very weak cipher as only a few known IVs are required to recover the secret key. The original design of the shrinking generator does not include any initialization method so the initial state was assumed to be the secret key. [less ▲]

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See detailDe Bonn à Berlin : territoires, mémoires et échelles du politique
Laporte, Antoine UL

Doctoral thesis (2011)

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See detailAn Alternative approach to extreme-risk management
Laube, Falk UL

Doctoral thesis (2011)

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See detailAls die Moderne noch unmodern war - Kleist zwischen Risiko und Konsequenz
Heimböckel, Dieter UL

Article for general public (2011)

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