References of "2008"
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See detailLa place de l'école dans la société luxembourgeoise de demain. Synthèse des résultats de recherche obtenus
Meyers, Christian UL; Noesen, Mélanie; Poncelet, Débora UL et al

Scientific Conference (2008, January)

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See detailThe discourse of lending aid on small-scale development project websites: Dutch depreciatory diminutives
Juffermans, Kasper UL

in Language Matters: Studies in the Languages of Africa (2008), 39(1), 125-144

This article offers an analysis of the use of language on the websites of Dutch and Flemish small-scale development organisations active in The Gambia. The scope of this research is the websites of 66 ... [more ▼]

This article offers an analysis of the use of language on the websites of Dutch and Flemish small-scale development organisations active in The Gambia. The scope of this research is the websites of 66 organisations found through the hyperlink page http://gambia-hulporganisaties.startpagina.nl. The texts on the websites form a small corpus of around 375 000 words. Methodologically, a discourse-analytical perspective is assumed, heuristically assisted by corpus linguistic software. Thus, the texts are analysed simultaneously from a macro and micro-level: large-scale lexical patterns are combined with smaller-scale, contextualised, individual chunks of text. After a brief outline of the projects’ roots in tourism through self-reported histories of involvement and a cursory review of the literature on meanings and functions of diminutives in Dutch and other languages, the role of diminutives in the representation of the Third-World Other is explored. It is argued that diminutives in this context are used in an ambivalent way: diminutives express a sense of sympathy and at the same time reveal a derogative tone in descriptions of the Gambian side of the projects. [less ▲]

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See detailRheological and physico-chemical study of cement mortars with superplasticizers of polycarboxylate-type
Nicolas, Edwige UL; Waldmann, Danièle UL; Lecomte, André et al

Scientific Conference (2008, January)

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See detailAre working memory measures free of socio-economic and cultural influence?
Engel de Abreu, Pascale UL; Gathercole; Santos, F et al

Scientific Conference (2008, January)

This research investigated the hypothesis that working memory skills are independent of environmental factors such as socio-economic status (SES) or cultural background. Twenty Brazilian children aged 6 ... [more ▼]

This research investigated the hypothesis that working memory skills are independent of environmental factors such as socio-economic status (SES) or cultural background. Twenty Brazilian children aged 6 and 7 years from low SES families were evaluated on measures of working memory (verbal short-term memory and verbal complex span, taken form the AWMA: Automated Working Memory Assessment) and of vocabulary (expressive and receptive). They were compared with typically developing Brazilian children from the same region but from families of higher SES and to a population of Portuguese- speaking, immigrant children growing up in Luxembourg/EU. Children were matched on age, sex, and nonverbal ability. The three groups differed significantly on the vocabulary measures but not on the verbal short-term memory tests. Further the groups differed on one of the two complex span measures – counting recall - but performed equally well on backwards digit recall. The results indicate that tests of verbal short-term memory and also backwards digit recall provide measures of cognitive abilities that are not biased by the quality of the child’s socio-economical or cultural background. As these measures are also highly sensitive to language ability, they may provide useful methods for diagnosing language disorder that are independent of environmental opportunity. [less ▲]

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See detailZwei IT-Sicherheitsmethoden im Vergleich: Mehari versus BSI IT-Grundschutz
Dagorn, Nathalie; Schiltz, Jang UL

E-print/Working paper (2008)

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See detailDe l'Austrasie à Sarre-Lor-Lux: la «Grande Région», une entité historique?
Pauly, Michel UL

in Annales de l'Est (2008), n° spécial

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See detailSuperTarget and Matador: resources for exploring drug-target relationships
Guenther, Stefan; Kuhn, Michael; Dunkel, Mathias et al

in Nucleic Acids Research (2008), 36(SI), 919-922

The molecular basis of drug action is often not well understood. This is partly because the very abundant and diverse information generated in the past decades on drugs is hidden in millions of medical ... [more ▼]

The molecular basis of drug action is often not well understood. This is partly because the very abundant and diverse information generated in the past decades on drugs is hidden in millions of medical articles or textbooks. Therefore, we developed a one-stop data warehouse, SuperTarget that integrates drug-related information about medical indication areas, adverse drug effects, drug metabolization, pathways and Gene Ontology terms of the target proteins. An easy-to-use query interface enables the user to pose complex queries, for example to find drugs that target a certain pathway, interacting drugs that are metabolized by the same cytochrome P450 or drugs that target the same protein but are metabolized by different enzymes. Furthermore, we provide tools for 2D drug screening and sequence comparison of the targets. The database contains more than 2500 target proteins, which are annotated with about 7300 relations to 1500 drugs; the vast majority of entries have pointers to the respective literature source. A subset of these drugs has been annotated with additional binding information and indirect interactions and is available as a separate resource called Matador. SuperTarget and Matador are available at http://insilico.charite.de/supertarget and http://matador.embl.de. [less ▲]

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See detailMultiple integral representation for functionals of Dirichlet processes
Peccati, Giovanni UL

in Bernoulli (2008), 14(1), 91--124

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See detailMagnetic-field-dependent small-angle neutron scattering on random anisotropy ferromagnets
Michels, Andreas UL; Weissmüller, J.

in Reports on Progress in Physics (2008), 71(6), 0665011-06650137

We report on the recently developed technique of magnetic-field-dependent small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), with attention to bulk ferromagnets exhibiting random magnetic anisotropy. In these ... [more ▼]

We report on the recently developed technique of magnetic-field-dependent small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), with attention to bulk ferromagnets exhibiting random magnetic anisotropy. In these materials, the various magnetic anisotropy fields (magnetocrystalline, magnetoelastic, and/or magnetostatic in origin) perturb the perfectly parallel spin alignment of the idealized ferromagnetic state. By varying the applied magnetic field, one can control one of the ordering terms which competes with the above-mentioned perturbing fields. Experiments which explore the ensuing reaction of the magnetization will therefore provide information not only on the field-dependent spin structure but, importantly, on the underlying magnetic interaction terms. This strategy, which underlies conventional studies of hysteresis loops in magnetometry, is here combined with magnetic SANS. While magnetometry generally records only a single scalar quantity, the integral magnetization, SANS provides access to a vastly richer data set, the Fourier spectrum of the response of the spin system as a function of the magnitude and orientation of the wave vector. The required data-analysis procedures have recently been established, and experiments on a number of magnetic materials, mostly nanocrystalline or nanocomposite metals, have been reported. Here, we summarize the theory of magnetic-field-dependent SANS along with the underlying description of random anisotropy magnets by micromagnetic theory. We review experiments which have explored the magnetic interaction parameters, the value of the exchange-stiffness constant as well as the Fourier components of the magnetic anisotropy field and of the magnetostatic stray field. A model-independent approach, based on the experimental autocorrelation function of the spin misalignment, provides access to the characteristic length of the spin misalignment. The field dependence of this quantity is in quantitative agreement with the predictions of micromagnetic theory. Experiments on nanocomposite ferromagnets reveal that the jump of the magnetization at internal phase boundaries leads to a significant magnetostatic perturbing field, with an unusual 'clover-leaf' SANS pattern as the experimental signature. Furthermore, SANS experiments have been used to monitor the orientation of magnetic domains as well as the length scale of intradomain spin misalignment. [less ▲]

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See detailMagnetic Nanorods: Genesis, Self-Organization and Applications
Birringer, R.; Wolf, H.; Lang, C. et al

in Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie (2008), 222(2-3), 229-255

Magnetic-field-assisted self-assembly of magnetic dipole moment carrying iron nanoparticles is shown to result in the formation of magnetic and mechanically stiff nanoscale rods. The cooperative behavior ... [more ▼]

Magnetic-field-assisted self-assembly of magnetic dipole moment carrying iron nanoparticles is shown to result in the formation of magnetic and mechanically stiff nanoscale rods. The cooperative behavior of an ensemble of such rods and bundles thereof exhibits self-organized pattern formation on different length scales. Pattern formation on large length scales reveals great similarity with physical systems undergoing spinodal decomposition. Possible applications for dipolar magnetic nanorods in the field of perpendicular storage media are highlighted. We discuss an aerosol-synthesis-route allowing to prepare ferrofluids (FF) with shape-anisotropic particles constituting the magnetic phase immersed in the nonmagnetic carrier fluid. These so-called nanorod FF unveil a two orders of magnitude increase of viscosity enforced by an applied field of 10mT even at shear rates larger than 10-2s. This raises prospects for applications in microfluidics and MEMS. [less ▲]

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See detailA fiatalkorú elítéltek áldozati minőségének vizsgálata
Ligeti, Katalin UL; Végvári, Réka; Schmidt, Andrea et al

Book published by OBMB Budapest (2008)

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See detailRegulation of superoxide production in neutrophils: role of calcium influx
Bréchard, Sabrina UL; Tschirhart, Eric UL

in Journal of Leukocyte Biology (2008), 84(5), 1223-1237

Upon stimulation, activation of NADPH oxidase complexes in neutrophils produces a burst of superoxide anions contributing to oxidative stress and the development of inflammatory process. Store-operated ... [more ▼]

Upon stimulation, activation of NADPH oxidase complexes in neutrophils produces a burst of superoxide anions contributing to oxidative stress and the development of inflammatory process. Store-operated calcium entry (SOCE), whereby the depletion of intracellular stores induces extracellular calcium influx, is known to be a crucial element of NADPH oxidase regulation. However, the mechanistic basis mediating SOCE is still only partially understood, as is the signal-coupling pathway leading to modulation of store-operated channels. This review emphasizes the role of calcium influx in the control of the NADPH oxidase and summarizes the current knowledge of pathways mediating this extracellular calcium entry in neutrophils. Such investigations into the cross-talk between NADPH oxidase and calcium might allow the identification of novel pharmacological targets with clinical use, particularly in inflammatory diseases. [less ▲]

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See detailMagnetic domains and annealing-induced magnetic anisotropy in nanocrystalline soft magnetic materials
Suzuki, K.; Ito, N.; Saranu, S. et al

in Journal of Applied Physics (2008), 103(7), 7301-7303

The magnetic domains of nanocrystalline Fe84Nb6B10 annealed under static and rotating magnetic fields have been investigated by means of magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) microscopy in order to clarify ... [more ▼]

The magnetic domains of nanocrystalline Fe84Nb6B10 annealed under static and rotating magnetic fields have been investigated by means of magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) microscopy in order to clarify the origin of the dramatic magnetic softening brought about by rotating field annealing. The coercivity (Hc) values after static- and rotating-magnetic field annealings are 5.9 and 3.0  A/m, respectively. The MOKE image after static field annealing implies a highly coherent uniaxial anisotropy (Ku) in the sample whereas no sign of such a strong Ku is evident in the domain configuration after rotating field annealing. Our analytical solution of the random anisotropy model with additional Ku predicts that the fluctuating amplitude of the effective anisotropy (δK) in nanocrystalline Fe84Nb6B10 decreases from 20 to 11 J/m3 by removing Ku. The observed reduction of Hc may be attributed to this decrease in δK induced by rotating field annealing. [less ▲]

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See detailCo-cultures of Human Coronary Smooth Muscle Cells and Dimethyl Sulfoxide-differentiated HL60 Cells Upregulate ProMMP9 Activity and Promote Mobility"”Modulation By Reactive Oxygen Species
Bernard, Yohann UL; Melchior, Chantal UL; Tschirhart, Eric UL et al

in Inflammation (2008)

Vascular cells and leukocytes, involved in the development of atherosclerosis, produce cytokines and/or reactive oxygen species (ROS) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) implicated in cell mobility. We ... [more ▼]

Vascular cells and leukocytes, involved in the development of atherosclerosis, produce cytokines and/or reactive oxygen species (ROS) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) implicated in cell mobility. We investigated by co-culture experiments the effects of human coronary smooth muscle cells (HCSMC) on MMPs characteristics and mobility of neutrophil-like dimethyl sulfoxide-differentiated HL60 cells (≠HL60). The effects of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase were also analyzed. All the studied MMP2 characteristics remained unchanged. HCSMC stimulated MMP9 protein level, activity and mobility of ≠HL60 cells and expressed and secreted a variety of cytokines implicated in atherosclerosis. SOD and catalase increased MMP9 expression, protein level and activity of ≠HL60, but migration of ≠HL60 cells was only decreased by catalase, demonstrating that ROS are more efficient in modulating MMP9 activity of ≠HL60 than their mobility. Finally, HCSMC being able to stimulate ≠HL60, their co-cultures may represent an in vitro approach to study cellular interactions occurring in vivo during atherosclerosis. [less ▲]

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See detailKann man Wasser waschen? Kinder experimentieren mit Wasser
Sunnen, Patrick UL; Fautsch, Linda; Hoffmann, Isabelle et al

in www.Widerstreit-Sachunterricht.de (2008), 6(11),

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See detailLogarithmic Window Increase for TCP Westwood+ for Improvement in High Speed, Long Distance Networks
Kliazovich, Dzmitry UL; Granelli, Fabrizio; Miorandi, Daniele

in Computer Networks (2008), 52(12), 2395-2410

The majority of current Internet applications uses Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) for ensuring reliable end-to-end delivery of data over IP networks. The resulting path is, generally speaking ... [more ▼]

The majority of current Internet applications uses Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) for ensuring reliable end-to-end delivery of data over IP networks. The resulting path is, generally speaking, characterized by fairly large propagation delays (of the order of tens to hundreds of milliseconds) and increasing available bandwidth. Current TCP performance is far from representing an optimal solution in such operating conditions. The main reason lies in the conservative congestion control strategy employed, which does not let TCP to exploit the always increasing available path capacity. As a consequence, TCP optimization has been an active research topic in the research community over the last 25 years, boosted in the last few years by the widespread adoption of high-speed optical fiber links in the backbone and the emergence of supercomputing networked applications from one side and tremendous growth of wireless bandwidth in network access from another. This has led to the introduction of several alternative proposals for performing congestion control. Most of them focus on the effectiveness of bandwidth utilization, introducing more ‘‘aggressive” congestion control strategies. However, such approaches result often in unfairness among flows with substantially different RTTs, or do not present the inter-protocol fairness features required for incremental network deployment. In this paper, we propose TCP LogWestwood+, a TCP Westwood+ enhancement based on a logarithmic increase function, targeting adaptation to the high-speed wireless environment. The algorithm shows low sensitivity with respect to RTT value, while maintaining high network utilization in a wide range of network settings. The performance, fairness and stability properties of the proposed TCP LogWestwood+ are studied analytically, and then validated by means of an extensive set of experiments including computer simulations and wide area Internet measurements. [less ▲]

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See detailAn architecture for e-learning system with computational intelligence (extended version)
El Alami, Marc UL; Casel, Nicolas UL; Zampunieris, Denis UL

in Electronic Library (2008), 26(3), 318-328

Purpose of this paper We introduce a new kind of Learning Management Systems: proactive LMS, designed to improve the users’ online (inter)actions by providing programmable, automatic and continuous ... [more ▼]

Purpose of this paper We introduce a new kind of Learning Management Systems: proactive LMS, designed to improve the users’ online (inter)actions by providing programmable, automatic and continuous intelligent analyses of the users’ behaviours, augmented with appropriate actions initiated by the LMS itself. Design/methodology/approach Proactive systems (see e.g. Tennenhouse D., “Proactive Computing”, Communications of the ACM, 43 (5), 2000, pp. 43-50.) adhere to two premises: working on behalf of, or pro, the user, and acting on their own initiative, without user’s explicit command. The proactive part of our LMS is implemented as a dynamic rules-based system, and is added next to the initial LMS. They both use the same database as their source of information on the users, their activities, the available resources and the current state of the whole system. Findings We show how we implemented the proactive part of our LMS on the basis of a dynamic expert system. We also sketch how it looks like from a user’s point of view. Finally, we give examples of intelligent analysis of users’ behaviours coded into proactive rules. Research limitations/implications (if applicable) Future work includes the design and the implementation of sets of rules (packages) dedicated to common users needs, enabling useful proactivity on the basis of elaborated intelligent analysis. Originality and value of paper Current Learning Management Systems (virtual educational and/or training online environments) are fundamentally limited tools. Indeed, they are only reactive software: these tools wait for an instruction and then react to the user request. Students using these online systems could imagine and hope for more help and assistance tools: LMS should tend to offer some personal, immediate and appropriate support like teachers do in classrooms. Our proactive LMS can, for example, automatically and continuously help and take care of e-learners with respect to previously defined procedures rules, and even flag other users, like e-tutors, if something wrong is detected in their behaviours. [less ▲]

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See detailFremdenfeindlichkeit in Deutschland – Stand der Forschung
Hadjar, Andreas UL; Boehnke, Klaus; Schmode, Udo

in Krüger, Heinz-Hermann; Schmude, Udo (Eds.) Fremd im eigenen Land? Erkundungen in den Zonen der Verwundbarkeit. Xenos – Berichte aus der Praxis (2008)

Detailed reference viewed: 125 (2 UL)