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See detailIsotropic-isotropic phase separation in mixtures of rods and spheres: Some aspects of Monte Carlo simulation in the grand canonical ensemble
Jungblut, S.; Binder, K.; Schilling, Tanja UL

in Computer Physics Communications (2008), 179(1-3), 13-16

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See detailWerden Raucher von Warnhinweisen auf Zigarettenschachteln beeinflusst? Eine sozialpsychologische Perspektive
Kneer, Julia; Glock, Sabine UL

in Zeitschrift für Sozialmanagement = Journal of Social Management (2008), 6

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See detailResolving Environmental Disputes: From Conflict to Consensus
Affolderbach, Julia UL

in Environmental Politics (2008), 17(1), 169-170

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See detailCa2+-dependent regulation of NOX2 activity via MRP proteins in HL-60 granulocytes
Schenten, Véronique UL; Bréchard, Sabrina UL; Melchior, Chantal UL et al

in Calcium Binding Proteins (2008), 3(1), 25-30

Recently, two proteins of the S100 protein family, the myeloid-related calcium-binding proteins MRP-8 and MRP-14 have been implicated in the Ca2+-induced activation of the neutrophil NADPH oxidase (NOX2 ... [more ▼]

Recently, two proteins of the S100 protein family, the myeloid-related calcium-binding proteins MRP-8 and MRP-14 have been implicated in the Ca2+-induced activation of the neutrophil NADPH oxidase (NOX2) but the mechanism underlying this process remains unclear. In this study, the role of MRP-8/14 in the Ca2+-dependent regulation of NOX2 activity was characterized in neutrophil-like HL-60 cells using small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to knock-down endogenous MRP-8 and/or MRP-14 expression. Real-time PCR and Western blot revealed that MRP-8 and MRP-14 expression was 20 times higher in dimethylsulfoxide-differentiated neutrophil-like HL-60 cells compared to quiescent HL-60 cells. Knock-down of MRP-8 and MRP-14 in differentiated HL-60 cells decreased protein levels by 30 and 45% respectively. The impact of the reduced MRP-8/14 protein expression on NOX2 activity was investigated by measuring fMLF-induced H2O2 production. In cells simultaneously transfected with MRP-8 and MRP14 siRNAs, H2O2 production was reduced by 50%, suggesting that both MRP-8 and MRP-14 are required for NOX2 activity; single knock-downs were inefficient. To elucidate the role of Ca2+ in MRP8/14, and consequently in NOX2 activation, siRNA-transfected cells were treated with the Ca2+ ionophore ionomycin prior to stimulation with PMA, a Ca2+-independent protein kinase C activator. PMA-induced H2O2 production was enhanced by ionomycin. This amplification of NOX2 activity was abolished by MRP8/14 knock-down, indicating that both MRP-8 and MRP-14 are necessary to regulate Ca2+-induced NOX2 activation. Taken together, our results suggest that the mechanism of MRPs activation is highly dependent on the increase of intracellular Ca2+ level for a full activation of NOX2. [less ▲]

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See detailWhat makes a problem complex? Factors determining difficulty in dynamic situations and implications for diagnosing complex problem solving competence
Greiff, Samuel UL; Funke, Joachim

in Zumbach, Joerg; Schwartz, Neil; Seufert, Tina (Eds.) et al Beyond knowledge: the legacy of competence (2008)

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See detailCadres de participation en transition: une perspective multimodale sur l'organisation de la parole en classe
Steinbach Kohler, Fee; Fasel Lauzon, Virginie; Berger, Evelyne UL

in Congrès Mondial de Linguistique Française, Paris, France, 2008 (2008)

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See detailSinorhizobium meliloti regulator MucR couples exopolysaccharide synthesis and motility.
Bahlawane, Christelle UL; McIntosh, Matthew; Krol, Elizaveta et al

in Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions (2008), 21(11), 1498-509

In order to enter symbiosis with its legume partner, Sinorhizobium meliloti requires regulatory systems for the appropriate responses to its environment. For example, motility is required for the ... [more ▼]

In order to enter symbiosis with its legume partner, Sinorhizobium meliloti requires regulatory systems for the appropriate responses to its environment. For example, motility is required for the chemotactic movement of bacteria toward the compounds released by its host, and exopolysaccharides (EPS) are required for bacterial attachment to the root or for invasion of the infection thread. Previous research has shown that ExoR/ExoS/ChvI as well as the ExpR/Sin quorum-sensing system inversely regulate both motility and EPS production, although the regulation mechanisms were unknown. We were able to attribute the ExpR-mediated regulation of motility to the ability of ExpR to bind a DNA sequence upstream of visN when activated by N-acyl-homoserine lactone. Furthermore, MucR, previously characterized as a regulator of EPS production, also affected motility. MucR inhibited expression of rem encoding an activator of motility gene expression and, consequently, the expression of Rem-regulated genes such as flaF and flgG. Binding of MucR to the rem promoter region was demonstrated and a sequence motif similar to the previously identified MucR binding consensus was identified within this region. The swarming ability of S. meliloti Rm2011 was shown to depend on a functional ExpR/Sin quorum-sensing system and the production of both flagella and EPS. Finally, we propose a model for the coordination of motility and EPS synthesis in S. meliloti. [less ▲]

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See detailHealth risk behaviours and life satisfaction among victims of physical aggression
Recchia, Sophie UL; Hoffmann, Martine UL; Steffgen, Georges UL et al

in Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health (2008)

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See detailUnraveling the nature of room temperature grain growth in nanocrystalline materials
Ames, M.; Markmann, J.; Karos, R. et al

in Acta Materialia (2008), 56

We report on the observation of real-time-resolved room temperature grain growth in nanocrystalline metals. We find that neither the time evolution of size can be modeled by standard growth theories nor ... [more ▼]

We report on the observation of real-time-resolved room temperature grain growth in nanocrystalline metals. We find that neither the time evolution of size can be modeled by standard growth theories nor are there any other systems aware to us that manifest a similar growth behaviour. We detect a transition from an initially self-similar slow growth to abnormal grain growth. Its onset seems to be associated with the simultaneous decrease of microstrain with increasing grain size. Abnormal grain growth is considered as a generic feature of nanocrystallinity but is a transient state since we observed in the late stage of coarsening, using orientational imaging microscopy, a monomodal grain size distribution. We empirically find a nonlinear-response-type of growth law which is in agreement with the observed coarsening kinetics. [less ▲]

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See detailImplementation of efficient proactive computing using lazy evaluation in a learning management system (extended version)
Zampunieris, Denis UL

in International Journal of Web-Based Learning and Teaching Technologies (2008), 3(1), 103-109

In Zampunieris (2006) we proposed a new kind of learning management system, proactive LMS, designed to help users to better interact online by providing programmable, automatic, and continuous analyses of ... [more ▼]

In Zampunieris (2006) we proposed a new kind of learning management system, proactive LMS, designed to help users to better interact online by providing programmable, automatic, and continuous analyses of the users’ actions, augmented with appropriate actions initiated by the LMS itself. The proactive part of our LMS is based on a dynamic rules-based system. However, the main algorithm we proposed in order to implement the rules-running system suffers some efficiency problems. In this article, we propose a new version of the main rules-running algorithm that is based on lazy evaluation in order to avoid unnecessary and time-costly requests to the LMS database when a rule is not activated, that is, when its actions part will not be performed because preliminary check(s) failed. [less ▲]

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See detailEvidence for individual face discrimination in non-face selective areas of the visual cortex in acquired prosopagnosia
Dricot, Laurence; Sorger, Bettina; Schiltz, Christine UL et al

in Behavioral Neurology (2008), 19(1-2), 75-79

Two areas in the human occipito-temporal cortex respond preferentially to faces: 'the fusiform face area' ('FFA') and the 'occipital face area' ('OFA'). However, it is unclear whether these areas have an ... [more ▼]

Two areas in the human occipito-temporal cortex respond preferentially to faces: 'the fusiform face area' ('FFA') and the 'occipital face area' ('OFA'). However, it is unclear whether these areas have an exclusive role in processing faces, or if sub-maximal responses in other visual areas such as the lateral occipital complex (LOC) are also involved. To clarify this issue, we tested a brain-damaged patient (PS) presenting a face-selective impairment with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The right hemisphere lesion of the prosopagnosic patient encompasses the 'OFA' but preserves the 'FFA' and LOC. Using fMRI-adaptation, we found a larger response to different faces than repeated faces in the ventral part of the LOC both for normals and the patient, next to her right hemisphere lesion. This observation indicates that following prosopagnosia, areas that do not respond preferentially to faces such as the ventral part of the LOC (vLOC) may still be recruited to subtend residual perception of individual faces. [less ▲]

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See detailComment on "Huge Excitonic Effects in Layered Hexagonal Boron Nitride"
Wirtz, Ludger UL; Marini, Andrea; Gruning, Myrta et al

in Physical Review Letters (2008), 100(18),

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See detailLogarithmic Window Increase for TCP Westwood+ for Improvement in High Speed, Long Distance Networks
Kliazovich, Dzmitry UL; Granelli, Fabrizio; Miorandi, Daniele

in Computer Networks (2008), 52(12), 2395-2410

The majority of current Internet applications uses Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) for ensuring reliable end-to-end delivery of data over IP networks. The resulting path is, generally speaking ... [more ▼]

The majority of current Internet applications uses Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) for ensuring reliable end-to-end delivery of data over IP networks. The resulting path is, generally speaking, characterized by fairly large propagation delays (of the order of tens to hundreds of milliseconds) and increasing available bandwidth. Current TCP performance is far from representing an optimal solution in such operating conditions. The main reason lies in the conservative congestion control strategy employed, which does not let TCP to exploit the always increasing available path capacity. As a consequence, TCP optimization has been an active research topic in the research community over the last 25 years, boosted in the last few years by the widespread adoption of high-speed optical fiber links in the backbone and the emergence of supercomputing networked applications from one side and tremendous growth of wireless bandwidth in network access from another. This has led to the introduction of several alternative proposals for performing congestion control. Most of them focus on the effectiveness of bandwidth utilization, introducing more ‘‘aggressive” congestion control strategies. However, such approaches result often in unfairness among flows with substantially different RTTs, or do not present the inter-protocol fairness features required for incremental network deployment. In this paper, we propose TCP LogWestwood+, a TCP Westwood+ enhancement based on a logarithmic increase function, targeting adaptation to the high-speed wireless environment. The algorithm shows low sensitivity with respect to RTT value, while maintaining high network utilization in a wide range of network settings. The performance, fairness and stability properties of the proposed TCP LogWestwood+ are studied analytically, and then validated by means of an extensive set of experiments including computer simulations and wide area Internet measurements. [less ▲]

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See detailKann man Wasser waschen? Kinder experimentieren mit Wasser
Sunnen, Patrick UL; Fautsch, Linda; Hoffmann, Isabelle et al

in www.Widerstreit-Sachunterricht.de (2008), 6(11),

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See detailMagnetic domains and annealing-induced magnetic anisotropy in nanocrystalline soft magnetic materials
Suzuki, K.; Ito, N.; Saranu, S. et al

in Journal of Applied Physics (2008), 103(7), 7301-7303

The magnetic domains of nanocrystalline Fe84Nb6B10 annealed under static and rotating magnetic fields have been investigated by means of magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) microscopy in order to clarify ... [more ▼]

The magnetic domains of nanocrystalline Fe84Nb6B10 annealed under static and rotating magnetic fields have been investigated by means of magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) microscopy in order to clarify the origin of the dramatic magnetic softening brought about by rotating field annealing. The coercivity (Hc) values after static- and rotating-magnetic field annealings are 5.9 and 3.0  A/m, respectively. The MOKE image after static field annealing implies a highly coherent uniaxial anisotropy (Ku) in the sample whereas no sign of such a strong Ku is evident in the domain configuration after rotating field annealing. Our analytical solution of the random anisotropy model with additional Ku predicts that the fluctuating amplitude of the effective anisotropy (δK) in nanocrystalline Fe84Nb6B10 decreases from 20 to 11 J/m3 by removing Ku. The observed reduction of Hc may be attributed to this decrease in δK induced by rotating field annealing. [less ▲]

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See detailRegulation of superoxide production in neutrophils: role of calcium influx
Bréchard, Sabrina UL; Tschirhart, Eric UL

in Journal of Leukocyte Biology (2008), 84(5), 1223-1237

Upon stimulation, activation of NADPH oxidase complexes in neutrophils produces a burst of superoxide anions contributing to oxidative stress and the development of inflammatory process. Store-operated ... [more ▼]

Upon stimulation, activation of NADPH oxidase complexes in neutrophils produces a burst of superoxide anions contributing to oxidative stress and the development of inflammatory process. Store-operated calcium entry (SOCE), whereby the depletion of intracellular stores induces extracellular calcium influx, is known to be a crucial element of NADPH oxidase regulation. However, the mechanistic basis mediating SOCE is still only partially understood, as is the signal-coupling pathway leading to modulation of store-operated channels. This review emphasizes the role of calcium influx in the control of the NADPH oxidase and summarizes the current knowledge of pathways mediating this extracellular calcium entry in neutrophils. Such investigations into the cross-talk between NADPH oxidase and calcium might allow the identification of novel pharmacological targets with clinical use, particularly in inflammatory diseases. [less ▲]

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See detailMagnetic Nanorods: Genesis, Self-Organization and Applications
Birringer, R.; Wolf, H.; Lang, C. et al

in Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie (2008), 222(2-3), 229-255

Magnetic-field-assisted self-assembly of magnetic dipole moment carrying iron nanoparticles is shown to result in the formation of magnetic and mechanically stiff nanoscale rods. The cooperative behavior ... [more ▼]

Magnetic-field-assisted self-assembly of magnetic dipole moment carrying iron nanoparticles is shown to result in the formation of magnetic and mechanically stiff nanoscale rods. The cooperative behavior of an ensemble of such rods and bundles thereof exhibits self-organized pattern formation on different length scales. Pattern formation on large length scales reveals great similarity with physical systems undergoing spinodal decomposition. Possible applications for dipolar magnetic nanorods in the field of perpendicular storage media are highlighted. We discuss an aerosol-synthesis-route allowing to prepare ferrofluids (FF) with shape-anisotropic particles constituting the magnetic phase immersed in the nonmagnetic carrier fluid. These so-called nanorod FF unveil a two orders of magnitude increase of viscosity enforced by an applied field of 10mT even at shear rates larger than 10-2s. This raises prospects for applications in microfluidics and MEMS. [less ▲]

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See detailMagnetic-field-dependent small-angle neutron scattering on random anisotropy ferromagnets
Michels, Andreas UL; Weissmüller, J.

in Reports on Progress in Physics (2008), 71(6), 0665011-06650137

We report on the recently developed technique of magnetic-field-dependent small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), with attention to bulk ferromagnets exhibiting random magnetic anisotropy. In these ... [more ▼]

We report on the recently developed technique of magnetic-field-dependent small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), with attention to bulk ferromagnets exhibiting random magnetic anisotropy. In these materials, the various magnetic anisotropy fields (magnetocrystalline, magnetoelastic, and/or magnetostatic in origin) perturb the perfectly parallel spin alignment of the idealized ferromagnetic state. By varying the applied magnetic field, one can control one of the ordering terms which competes with the above-mentioned perturbing fields. Experiments which explore the ensuing reaction of the magnetization will therefore provide information not only on the field-dependent spin structure but, importantly, on the underlying magnetic interaction terms. This strategy, which underlies conventional studies of hysteresis loops in magnetometry, is here combined with magnetic SANS. While magnetometry generally records only a single scalar quantity, the integral magnetization, SANS provides access to a vastly richer data set, the Fourier spectrum of the response of the spin system as a function of the magnitude and orientation of the wave vector. The required data-analysis procedures have recently been established, and experiments on a number of magnetic materials, mostly nanocrystalline or nanocomposite metals, have been reported. Here, we summarize the theory of magnetic-field-dependent SANS along with the underlying description of random anisotropy magnets by micromagnetic theory. We review experiments which have explored the magnetic interaction parameters, the value of the exchange-stiffness constant as well as the Fourier components of the magnetic anisotropy field and of the magnetostatic stray field. A model-independent approach, based on the experimental autocorrelation function of the spin misalignment, provides access to the characteristic length of the spin misalignment. The field dependence of this quantity is in quantitative agreement with the predictions of micromagnetic theory. Experiments on nanocomposite ferromagnets reveal that the jump of the magnetization at internal phase boundaries leads to a significant magnetostatic perturbing field, with an unusual 'clover-leaf' SANS pattern as the experimental signature. Furthermore, SANS experiments have been used to monitor the orientation of magnetic domains as well as the length scale of intradomain spin misalignment. [less ▲]

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See detailSuperTarget and Matador: resources for exploring drug-target relationships
Guenther, Stefan; Kuhn, Michael; Dunkel, Mathias et al

in Nucleic Acids Research (2008), 36(SI), 919-922

The molecular basis of drug action is often not well understood. This is partly because the very abundant and diverse information generated in the past decades on drugs is hidden in millions of medical ... [more ▼]

The molecular basis of drug action is often not well understood. This is partly because the very abundant and diverse information generated in the past decades on drugs is hidden in millions of medical articles or textbooks. Therefore, we developed a one-stop data warehouse, SuperTarget that integrates drug-related information about medical indication areas, adverse drug effects, drug metabolization, pathways and Gene Ontology terms of the target proteins. An easy-to-use query interface enables the user to pose complex queries, for example to find drugs that target a certain pathway, interacting drugs that are metabolized by the same cytochrome P450 or drugs that target the same protein but are metabolized by different enzymes. Furthermore, we provide tools for 2D drug screening and sequence comparison of the targets. The database contains more than 2500 target proteins, which are annotated with about 7300 relations to 1500 drugs; the vast majority of entries have pointers to the respective literature source. A subset of these drugs has been annotated with additional binding information and indirect interactions and is available as a separate resource called Matador. SuperTarget and Matador are available at http://insilico.charite.de/supertarget and http://matador.embl.de. [less ▲]

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See detailDe l'Austrasie à Sarre-Lor-Lux: la «Grande Région», une entité historique?
Pauly, Michel UL

in Annales de l'Est (2008), n° spécial

Detailed reference viewed: 64 (0 UL)