References of "2023"
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See detailChallenges in completing EMU: asymmetric competition vs fiscal harmonisation. A case study of the Benelux countries
Danescu, Elena UL

in Journal of Contemporary European Research (2023)

This paper aims to investigate the concept, context and socio-economic consequences of fiscal competition in the integrated economic space of EMU in completion, to pinpoint the positive and negative ... [more ▼]

This paper aims to investigate the concept, context and socio-economic consequences of fiscal competition in the integrated economic space of EMU in completion, to pinpoint the positive and negative factors at work via a case study of the Benelux countries – both founder members of the EU and pioneers of EMU – and to examine the impact on European and international regulations in the field. In particular, it will endeavour to provide a comprehensive interpretation of fiscal policy in the Benelux countries via a comparative approach and from a historical perspective. It will look at the development of respective domestic fiscal policies, driven by national interests and by membership of a Community that is subject to requirements in terms of harmonisation and taxation, but also by constant contact (and frequent clashes) with the multilateral international environment. [less ▲]

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See detailI-GWAS: Privacy-Preserving Interdependent Genome-Wide Association Studies
Pascoal, Túlio UL; Decouchant, Jérémie; Boutet, Antoine et al

in Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies (2023)

Genome-wide Association Studies (GWASes) identify genomic variations that are statistically associated with a trait, such as a disease, in a group of individuals. Unfortunately, careless sharing of GWAS ... [more ▼]

Genome-wide Association Studies (GWASes) identify genomic variations that are statistically associated with a trait, such as a disease, in a group of individuals. Unfortunately, careless sharing of GWAS statistics might give rise to privacy attacks. Several works attempted to reconcile secure processing with privacy-preserving releases of GWASes. However, we highlight that these approaches remain vulnerable if GWASes utilize overlapping sets of individuals and genomic variations. In such conditions, we show that even when relying on state-of-the-art techniques for protecting releases, an adversary could reconstruct the genomic variations of up to 28.6% of participants, and that the released statistics of up to 92.3% of the genomic variations would enable membership inference attacks. We introduce I-GWAS, a novel framework that securely computes and releases the results of multiple possibly interdependent GWASes. I-GWAS continuously releases privacy-preserving and noise-free GWAS results as new genomes become available. [less ▲]

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See detailSpatial adaptive settlement systems in archaeology. Modelling long-term settlement formation from spatial micro interactions
Sikk, Kaarel UL

Doctoral thesis (2023)

Despite research history spanning more than a century, settlement patterns still hold a promise to contribute to the theories of large-scale processes in human history. Mostly they have been presented as ... [more ▼]

Despite research history spanning more than a century, settlement patterns still hold a promise to contribute to the theories of large-scale processes in human history. Mostly they have been presented as passive imprints of past human activities and spatial interactions they shape have not been studied as the driving force of historical processes. While archaeological knowledge has been used to construct geographical theories of evolution of settlement there still exist gaps in this knowledge. Currently no theoretical framework has been adopted to explore them as spatial systems emerging from micro-choices of small population units. The goal of this thesis is to propose a conceptual model of adaptive settlement systems based on complex adaptive systems framework. The model frames settlement system formation processes as an adaptive system containing spatial features, information flows, decision making population units (agents) and forming cross scale feedback loops between location choices of individuals and space modified by their aggregated choices. The goal of the model is to find new ways of interpretation of archaeological locational data as well as closer theoretical integration of micro-level choices and meso-level settlement structures. The thesis is divided into five chapters, the first chapter is dedicated to conceptualisation of the general model based on existing literature and shows that settlement systems are inherently complex adaptive systems and therefore require tools of complexity science for causal explanations. The following chapters explore both empirical and theoretical simulated settlement patterns based dedicated to studying selected information flows and feedbacks in the context of the whole system. Second and third chapters explore the case study of the Stone Age settlement in Estonia comparing residential location choice principles of different periods. In chapter 2 the relation between environmental conditions and residential choice is explored statistically. The results confirm that the relation is significant but varies between different archaeological phenomena. In the third chapter hunter-fisher-gatherer and early agrarian Corded Ware settlement systems were compared spatially using inductive models. The results indicated a large difference in their perception of landscape regarding suitability for habitation. It led to conclusions that early agrarian land use significantly extended land use potential and provided a competitive spatial benefit. In addition to spatial differences, model performance was compared and the difference was discussed in the context of proposed adaptive settlement system model. Last two chapters present theoretical agent-based simulation experiments intended to study effects discussed in relation to environmental model performance and environmental determinism in general. In the fourth chapter the central place foragingmodel was embedded in the proposed model and resource depletion, as an environmental modification mechanism, was explored. The study excluded the possibility that mobility itself would lead to modelling effects discussed in the previous chapter. The purpose of the last chapter is the disentanglement of the complex relations between social versus human-environment interactions. The study exposed non-linear spatial effects expected population density can have on the system and the general robustness of environmental inductive models in archaeology to randomness and social effect. The model indicates that social interactions between individuals lead to formation of a group agency which is determined by the environment even if individual cognitions consider the environment insignificant. It also indicates that spatial configuration of the environment has a certain influence towards population clustering therefore providing a potential pathway to population aggregation. Those empirical and theoretical results showed the new insights provided by the complex adaptive systems framework. Some of the results, including the explanation of empirical results, required the conceptual model to provide a framework of interpretation. [less ▲]

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See detailLe rapport Werner en suspens. Les débats autour de l'Union économique et monétaire en 1973
Danescu, Elena UL

in Wilkens, Andreas (Ed.) Une année particulière: 1973 et les tourments de l'Europe (2023)

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See detailUncovering the Forgotten Roots of Digital History: the Association for History and Computing
Zaagsma, Gerben UL

Presentation (2023, April 14)

In recent years, scholars have started to investigate the diverse genealogies of the digital humanities, as part of efforts to consolidate the field by excavating its historical and intellectual ... [more ▼]

In recent years, scholars have started to investigate the diverse genealogies of the digital humanities, as part of efforts to consolidate the field by excavating its historical and intellectual underpinnings. This paper discusses the history of what we now call digital history, by focusing on its direct predecessor: the history and computing movement. It argues that understanding the current era of digital history is impossible without knowledge of the transnational history & computing movement out of which it emerged. The paper will first offer a conceptual framework for the nexus between technology and historical research practices and provide a brief outline of the uptake of computing in historical research in the post-WWII period, which was rooted in a broader context of engagement with reproduction and data processing technology that began in the late 19th century. From the 1940s onwards, historians begin to use analog and later digital computing, efforts that truly gained momentum from the early 1960s onwards in the United States, Western Europe and the Eastern bloc led by the Soviet Union, against the backdrop of the Cold War and a general surge in the use of computing in various humanities disciplines. By the late 1960s we begin to see the establishment of networks and structures to support what could be called an emerging transnational field of computing historians. A transition to a new phase began when first micro- and then personal computing were introduced at universities in the early 1980s and a new user generation of computing historians emerged. As had happened almost two decades earlier, a transnational network would develop, but this time formalised in the Association for History and Computing (AHC) which existed until the early 2000s. The AHC’s history, activities, and many publications highlight the transnational outlook and intellectual breadth of the history and computing period and can served to probe the transition to and (dis)continuities with our current era of digital history. As I will argue, the history and computing movement did not simply give rise to digital history around the turn of the millennium. Despite the continued involvement of some older practitioners, many of the new digital historians were, as before, of a different user generation and the transition to digital history was thus much more than discursive. [less ▲]

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See detailRegional heterogeneity and individual characteristics in the development of a European tax policy: historical insights from Luxembourg
Danescu, Elena UL

in Danescu, Elena; Dima, Alina Mihaela (Eds.) Fostering recovery through metaverse business modelling - An interdisciplinary analysis of the new paradigm shift (2023, March)

Luxembourg is currently one of the most politically stable, consensus-oriented, and prosperous countries in the world, characterised by am advanced social market economy, and a level of material wellbeing ... [more ▼]

Luxembourg is currently one of the most politically stable, consensus-oriented, and prosperous countries in the world, characterised by am advanced social market economy, and a level of material wellbeing above the EU average. Its strong fiscal position is well illustrated by a longstanding AAA credit rating, a significant accumulation of government financial assets, and a distinct fiscal approach. In this light, this paper aims to investigate the specific features of the tax system in Luxembourg from a multidisciplinary perspective by analysing historical sources and exploring the development of these particularities over time, their impact on the socioeconomic context and their repercussions for the European integration process, especially in the design and completion of Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). [less ▲]

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See detailExperiencing Culture in Intimate Intercultural Relationships
Aleksic, Gabrijela UL

Book published by Information Age Publications (2023)

I introduce the book starting by my own personal experience of growing up in a mixed family and being myself in a mixed marriage. I describe the structure of the book by building up my own method: how I ... [more ▼]

I introduce the book starting by my own personal experience of growing up in a mixed family and being myself in a mixed marriage. I describe the structure of the book by building up my own method: how I chose this topic, who were the people I interviewed, how (interviews, stories, and objects) and why was the single-but-critical instances analysis important. I focus on the richness of the interaction I had with the interviewees. I underlie the phenomenological stories of struggles, trust and vulnerability. The chapters resolve around power relations, expressing affection, in-depth communication, child rearing, conflict resolution strategies, empathy, female identity, future planning, the role of humor, the biggest cultural and linguistic challenges and opportunities. The focus is on the phenomenon captured in single-but-critical instances in participants' stories. I conclude by describing what significance culture has in intimate intercultural relationships. [less ▲]

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See detailGlobal Mega-Science: Universities Scientize the World
Baker, David UL; Powell, Justin J W UL

Book published by Stanford University Press (2023)

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See detailSoK: Secure E-Voting with Everlasting Privacy
Haines, Thomas; Mueller, Johannes UL; Mosaheb, Rafieh UL et al

in Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PoPETs) (2023)

Vote privacy is a fundamental right, which needs to be protected not only during an election, or for a limited time afterwards, but for the foreseeable future. Numerous electronic voting (e-voting ... [more ▼]

Vote privacy is a fundamental right, which needs to be protected not only during an election, or for a limited time afterwards, but for the foreseeable future. Numerous electronic voting (e-voting) protocols have been proposed to address this challenge, striving for everlasting privacy. This property guarantees that even computationally unbounded adversaries cannot break privacy of past elections. The broad interest in secure e-voting with everlasting privacy has spawned a large variety of protocols over the last three decades. These protocols differ in many aspects, in particular the precise security properties they aim for, the threat scenarios they consider, and the privacy-preserving techniques they employ. Unfortunately, these differences are often opaque, making analysis and comparison cumbersome. In order to overcome this non-transparent state of affairs, we systematically analyze all e-voting protocols designed to provide everlasting privacy. First, we illustrate the relations and dependencies between all these different protocols. Next, we analyze in depth which protocols do provide secure and efficient approaches to e-voting with everlasting privacy under realistic assumptions, and which ones do not. Eventually, based on our extensive and detailed treatment, we identify which research problems in this field have already been solved, and which ones are still open. Altogether, our work offers a well-founded reference point for conducting research on secure e-voting with everlasting privacy as well as for future-proofing privacy in real-world electronic elections. [less ▲]

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