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See detailHistorical Exposomics and High Resolution Mass Spectrometry
Aurich, Dagny UL; Miles, Owen; Schymanski, Emma UL

in Exposome (2021), 00(0),

Awareness of the exposome and its influence on health has increased in the last decade. As past exposures can cause changes in human health many years later, delving into the past is relevant for both ... [more ▼]

Awareness of the exposome and its influence on health has increased in the last decade. As past exposures can cause changes in human health many years later, delving into the past is relevant for both diagnostic and prevention purposes, but remains a challenging task. Lifestyle, diet, and socioeconomic information of the past should be well documented and compatible with modern data science methods. While chemical analysis nowadays makes use of high resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS) for highly sensitive and comprehensive coverage of samples plus retrospective analysis, these data archives are in the very early stages. Since past measurements are often only available for a limited set of chemicals, adding to this knowledge requires careful selection of sample types and sampling sites, which may not always be available. The choice of analytes and analytical methods should be suitable for the study question —which is not always clear in advance in exposomics. Data interpretation and the use of appropriate databases are indispensable for a proper exposure assessment, and as databases and knowledge grow, re-analysis of physically or digitally archived samples could enable “continuous monitoring” efforts. This review focuses on the chemical analytical approaches necessary to capture the complexity of the historical exposome. Various sample types, analytes as well as analyses and data interpretation methods are discussed in relation to chemical exposures, while the connection to health remains in focus. It ends with perspectives and challenges in assessing the historical exposome, discussing how we can “learn from the past” to build a better future. [less ▲]

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See detailEarly Diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis Using Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography and Convolutional Neural Networks Trained with Data Augmentation
Lopez-Dorado, Almudena; Ortiz Del Castillo, Miguel UL; Saute, Maria et al

in Sensors (2021)

Background: The aim of this paper is to implement a system to facilitate the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) in its initial stages. It does so using a convolutional neural network (CNN) to classify ... [more ▼]

Background: The aim of this paper is to implement a system to facilitate the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) in its initial stages. It does so using a convolutional neural network (CNN) to classify images captured with swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). Methods: SS-OCT images from 48 control subjects and 48 recently diagnosed MS patients have been used. These images show the thicknesses (45 × 60 points) of the following structures: complete retina, retinal nerve fiber layer, two ganglion cell layers (GCL+, GCL++) and choroid. The Cohen distance is used to identify the structures and the regions within them with greatest discriminant capacity. The original database of OCT images is augmented by a deep convolutional generative adversarial network to expand the CNN’s training set. Results: The retinal structures with greatest discriminant capacity are the GCL++ (44.99% of image points), complete retina (26.71%) and GCL+ (22.93%). Thresholding these images and using them as inputs to a CNN comprising two convolution modules and one classification module obtains sensitivity = specificity = 1.0. Conclusions: Feature pre-selection and the use of a convolutional neural network may be a promising, nonharmful, low-cost, easy-to-perform and effective means of assisting the early diagnosis of MS based on SS-OCT thickness data [less ▲]

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See detailINVESTIGATION OF POINTNET FOR SEMANTIC SEGMENTATION OF LARGE-SCALE OUTDOOR POINT CLOUDS
Nurunnabi, Abdul Awal Md UL; Teferle, Felix Norman UL; Li, J. et al

Scientific journal (2021)

Semantic segmentation of point clouds is indispensable for 3D scene understanding. Point clouds have credibility for capturing geometry of objects including shape, size, and orientation. Deep learning (DL ... [more ▼]

Semantic segmentation of point clouds is indispensable for 3D scene understanding. Point clouds have credibility for capturing geometry of objects including shape, size, and orientation. Deep learning (DL) has been recognized as the most successful approach for image semantic segmentation. Applied to point clouds, performance of the many DL algorithms degrades, because point clouds are often sparse and have irregular data format. As a result, point clouds are regularly first transformed into voxel grids or image collections. PointNet was the first promising algorithm that feeds point clouds directly into the DL architecture. Although PointNet achieved remarkable performance on indoor point clouds, its performance has not been extensively studied in large-scale outdoor point clouds. So far, we know, no study on large-scale aerial point clouds investigates the sensitivity of the hyper-parameters used in the PointNet. This paper evaluates PointNet’s performance for semantic segmentation through three large-scale Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) point clouds of urban environments. Reported results show that PointNet has potential in large-scale outdoor scene semantic segmentation. A remarkable limitation of PointNet is that it does not consider local structure induced by the metric space made by its local neighbors. Experiments exhibit PointNet is expressively sensitive to the hyper-parameters like batch-size, block partition and the number of points in a block. For an ALS dataset, we get significant difference between overall accuracies of 67.5% and 72.8%, for the block sizes of 5m×5m and 10m×10m, respectively. Results also discover that the performance of PointNet depends on the selection of input vectors. [less ▲]

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See detailConversation: Katrin Becker on Lex Cryptographia
Becker, Katrin UL

Article for general public (2021)

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See detailModel-Based Systems Engineering to Design An Onboard Surround Vision System for Cooperative Automated Vehicles
Kemsaram, Narsimlu UL; Das, Anweshan; Dubbelman, Gijs

Scientific Conference (2021, December 17)

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See detailFür andere sprechen. Die Politik der Übersetzung in The Interpreter (2005) und Arrival (2016)
Pause, Johannes UL

in Gradinari, Irina; Ritzer, Ivo (Eds.) Genre und Race. Mediale Interdependenzen von Ästhetik und Politik (2021)

In politischen Fiktionen des gegenwärtigen Hollywood-Kinos geraten ‚symbolische‘ und ‚deskriptive‘ Repräsentation zunehmend miteinander in Konflikt. Der Anspruch auf deskriptive Repräsentation, demzufolge ... [more ▼]

In politischen Fiktionen des gegenwärtigen Hollywood-Kinos geraten ‚symbolische‘ und ‚deskriptive‘ Repräsentation zunehmend miteinander in Konflikt. Der Anspruch auf deskriptive Repräsentation, demzufolge z.B. ethnisch markierte Minoritäten durch Personen vertreten werden sollen, die diesen Minoritäten selbst angehören, führt insbesondere in solchen Genres und Filmen zu Komplikationen, in denen die Problematik politischer Repräsentation zentrales Thema ist. Der Aufsatz konzentriert sich auf die Figur der weißen Übersetzerin, die in Sydney Pollacks The Interpreter und Denis Villeneuves Arrival als Vermittlerin in diesem Konflikt Einsatz findet. Unter Verwendung unterschiedlicher Genre-Elemente – des Politthrillers und des alien invasion movies – arbeiten diese Werke an einer Ethik der Übersetzung, die repräsentative Gewalt zu überwinden sucht, indem sie die für jede Repräsentation konstitutive Distanz zwischen Repräsentant*innen und Repräsentierten gerade betont, anstatt sie zu bekämpfen. [less ▲]

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See detailLaw, Order and Postwar Purge in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (1944 - 1955): Transitional Justice and Redistribution through the example of Justice, Gendarmerie and Police
Wingerter, Elisabeth UL

Doctoral thesis (2021)

The present doctoral thesis examines the strategies and redistributive effects of political purge in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg after World War II. It examines in detail the judicial and administrative ... [more ▼]

The present doctoral thesis examines the strategies and redistributive effects of political purge in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg after World War II. It examines in detail the judicial and administrative purge of justice personnel, magistrates, police officers and gendarmerie corps members, and the development of law and order in the 20th century. This study treats regulated purge measures as phenomena of transitional justice. In Luxembourg’s case, the transition in question is one of restorative and redistributive kind: The prewar sociopolitical order is largely restored, however, in the ranks of the state administrations, redistributive practices of purge have changed the internal order. The imperfect, yet initially quite severe judicial and administrative sanctions have laid the foundations for national myths and narratives that have for many years clouded the historical analysis of both the occupation and the postwar period. This happened through the redistribution of symbolic capital during the purge proceedings by classifying persons into “patriots” and “antipatriots”. The struggle of the “antipatriots” to regain their symbolic, financial and political capital after the war and their antagonism with the heterogeneous group of “patriots” often focused on perceived or real financial and professional disadvantages. While the redistribution of financial capital was gradually reversed in the postwar and efforts for reconciliation set in almost immediately after 1945, the redistribution of symbolic capital led to a social divide that was successively forgotten through the emergence of the master narrative of collective resistance. [less ▲]

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See detailFinding Small Molecules and their Metabolites in Big Data
Schymanski, Emma UL

Presentation (2021, December 15)

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See detailCombining responsiveness and durability in liquid crystal-functionalised electrospun fibres with crosslinked sheath
Vats, Shameek UL; Lagerwall, Jan UL

in Liquid Crystals (2021)

Responsive functional composite fibre mats that are mechanically stable and impervious to water exposure are produced by coaxial electrospinning of thermotropic liquid crystal (LC) core inside a water ... [more ▼]

Responsive functional composite fibre mats that are mechanically stable and impervious to water exposure are produced by coaxial electrospinning of thermotropic liquid crystal (LC) core inside a water-based solution of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) forming the sheath. Because thermotropic LCs usually cannot be spun inside water-based solutions due to excessive interfacial tension γ, a n enabling step is the addition of ethanol or dioxane to the LC as a co-solvent compatible with both core and sheath fluids. This reduces γ sufficiently that coaxial jet spinning is possible. After spinning, thermal cross-linking of the PVA+PAA sheath yields LC-functionalised fibres that can be manipulated by hand and remain intact even upon full immersion in water. The LC core retains its behaviour, nematics showing well-aligned birefringence and transitioning to isotropic upon heating above the clearing point, and cholesterics showing selective reflection which is even enhanced upon water immersion due to the removal of sheath scattering. Our results pave the way to producing LC-functionalised responsive fibre mats using durable polymer sheaths, thereby enabling numerous innovative applications in wearable technology, and they also open new opportunities to study LCs in confinement, without visible impact of the container walls. [less ▲]

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See detailThe European Investment Bank (EIB), an unknown player in the European integration process?
Danescu, Elena UL; Rossignol, Bruno

Presentation (2021, December 14)

The Winter Online Lecture Series on Europe will take place in December 2021 in connection with the courses “History of European integration (1919-1993)” (MAHEC-S1-M6i) and “Economic and social history of ... [more ▼]

The Winter Online Lecture Series on Europe will take place in December 2021 in connection with the courses “History of European integration (1919-1993)” (MAHEC-S1-M6i) and “Economic and social history of Europe after 1945” (MAHEC-S3-M5iii) from the Master in European Contemporary History, and the course “Democratic transitions in Central and Eastern Europe” (BCE-EU-301-04) from the Bachelor in European Cultures, with the aim of giving students on these programmes, as well as the wider academic community at the University of Luxembourg, the opportunity to find out about the history and workings of the European institutions in Luxembourg from new and unconventional angles and to discuss some of the milestones in contemporary European history with people who were involved in or witnessed these events. Each session (in French, with Q&A session in French and English) will be streamed via Webex and will include a presentation by a speaker, followed by a discussion with the audience and the opportunity to ask questions. [less ▲]

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See detailEastern Europe 30 years after the fall of the Soviet Union: Hopes and disappointments of the democratic transition
Danescu, Elena UL; Grachev, Andreï

Presentation (2021, December 14)

The Winter Online Lecture Series on Europe will take place in December 2021 in connection with the courses “History of European integration (1919-1993)” (MAHEC-S1-M6i) and “Economic and social history of ... [more ▼]

The Winter Online Lecture Series on Europe will take place in December 2021 in connection with the courses “History of European integration (1919-1993)” (MAHEC-S1-M6i) and “Economic and social history of Europe after 1945” (MAHEC-S3-M5iii) from the Master in European Contemporary History, and the course “Democratic transitions in Central and Eastern Europe” (BCE-EU-301-04) from the Bachelor in European Cultures, with the aim of giving students on these programmes, as well as the wider academic community at the University of Luxembourg, the opportunity to find out about the history and workings of the European institutions in Luxembourg from new and unconventional angles and to discuss some of the milestones in contemporary European history with people who were involved in or witnessed these events. Each session (in French, with Q&A session in French and English) will be streamed via Webex and will include a presentation by a speaker, followed by a discussion with the audience and the opportunity to ask questions. [less ▲]

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See detailArt in the construction of a European identity – a case study from the Court of Justice of the European Union
Danescu, Elena UL; Afonso Ferreira, Sara

Presentation (2021, December 13)

The Winter Online Lecture Series on Europe will take place in December 2021 in connection with the courses “History of European integration (1919-1993)” (MAHEC-S1-M6i) and “Economic and social history of ... [more ▼]

The Winter Online Lecture Series on Europe will take place in December 2021 in connection with the courses “History of European integration (1919-1993)” (MAHEC-S1-M6i) and “Economic and social history of Europe after 1945” (MAHEC-S3-M5iii) from the Master in European Contemporary History, and the course “Democratic transitions in Central and Eastern Europe” (BCE-EU-301-04) from the Bachelor in European Cultures, with the aim of giving students on these programmes, as well as the wider academic community at the University of Luxembourg, the opportunity to find out about the history and workings of the European institutions in Luxembourg from new and unconventional angles and to discuss some of the milestones in contemporary European history with people who were involved in or witnessed these events. Each session (in French, with Q&A session in French and English) will be streamed via Webex and will include a presentation by a speaker, followed by a discussion with the audience and the opportunity to ask questions. [less ▲]

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See detailMisleading Higher-Order Evidence, Conflicting Ideals, and Defeasible Logic
Knoks, Aleks UL

in Ergo, An Open Access Journal of Philosophy (2021), 8(6), 141-174

Thinking about misleading higher-order evidence naturally leads to a puzzle about epistemic rationality: If one's total evidence can be radically misleading regarding itself, then two widely-accepted ... [more ▼]

Thinking about misleading higher-order evidence naturally leads to a puzzle about epistemic rationality: If one's total evidence can be radically misleading regarding itself, then two widely-accepted requirements of rationality come into conflict, suggesting that there are rational dilemmas. This paper focuses on an often misunderstood and underexplored response to this (and similar) puzzles, the so-called conflicting-ideals view. Drawing on work from defeasible logic, I propose understanding this view as a move away from the default meta-epistemological position according to which rationality requirements are strict and governed by a strong, but never explicitly stated logic, toward the more unconventional view, according to which requirements are defeasible and governed by a comparatively weak logic. When understood this way, the response is not committed to dilemmas. [less ▲]

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