References of "2021"
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See detailHistorical Exposomics and High Resolution Mass Spectrometry
Aurich, Dagny UL; Miles, Owen; Schymanski, Emma UL

in Exposome (2021), 00(0),

Awareness of the exposome and its influence on health has increased in the last decade. As past exposures can cause changes in human health many years later, delving into the past is relevant for both ... [more ▼]

Awareness of the exposome and its influence on health has increased in the last decade. As past exposures can cause changes in human health many years later, delving into the past is relevant for both diagnostic and prevention purposes, but remains a challenging task. Lifestyle, diet, and socioeconomic information of the past should be well documented and compatible with modern data science methods. While chemical analysis nowadays makes use of high resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS) for highly sensitive and comprehensive coverage of samples plus retrospective analysis, these data archives are in the very early stages. Since past measurements are often only available for a limited set of chemicals, adding to this knowledge requires careful selection of sample types and sampling sites, which may not always be available. The choice of analytes and analytical methods should be suitable for the study question —which is not always clear in advance in exposomics. Data interpretation and the use of appropriate databases are indispensable for a proper exposure assessment, and as databases and knowledge grow, re-analysis of physically or digitally archived samples could enable “continuous monitoring” efforts. This review focuses on the chemical analytical approaches necessary to capture the complexity of the historical exposome. Various sample types, analytes as well as analyses and data interpretation methods are discussed in relation to chemical exposures, while the connection to health remains in focus. It ends with perspectives and challenges in assessing the historical exposome, discussing how we can “learn from the past” to build a better future. [less ▲]

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See detailUne informalité bien ordonnée ? La conversation académique sur Twitter
Clavert, Frédéric UL; Muller, Caroline

in Tracés. Revue de sciences humaines. (2021), (#21), 65-84

Twitter and social media do not have a good reputation. However, this reputation does not correspond, or only partly corresponds, to the experience of many researchers. Based on a corpus of tweets, we ... [more ▼]

Twitter and social media do not have a good reputation. However, this reputation does not correspond, or only partly corresponds, to the experience of many researchers. Based on a corpus of tweets, we argue in this article that academic Twitter reflects the material conditions of research in France, allows for greater visibility of researchers and consequently for the formation of atypical networks that does not occur in the more traditional places of academic socialization, all in a form of a “well-ordered” informality, partly constrained by the hierarchies of higher education and research. [less ▲]

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See detailEarly Diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis Using Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography and Convolutional Neural Networks Trained with Data Augmentation
Lopez-Dorado, Almudena; Ortiz Del Castillo, Miguel UL; Saute, Maria et al

in Sensors (2021)

Background: The aim of this paper is to implement a system to facilitate the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) in its initial stages. It does so using a convolutional neural network (CNN) to classify ... [more ▼]

Background: The aim of this paper is to implement a system to facilitate the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) in its initial stages. It does so using a convolutional neural network (CNN) to classify images captured with swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). Methods: SS-OCT images from 48 control subjects and 48 recently diagnosed MS patients have been used. These images show the thicknesses (45 × 60 points) of the following structures: complete retina, retinal nerve fiber layer, two ganglion cell layers (GCL+, GCL++) and choroid. The Cohen distance is used to identify the structures and the regions within them with greatest discriminant capacity. The original database of OCT images is augmented by a deep convolutional generative adversarial network to expand the CNN’s training set. Results: The retinal structures with greatest discriminant capacity are the GCL++ (44.99% of image points), complete retina (26.71%) and GCL+ (22.93%). Thresholding these images and using them as inputs to a CNN comprising two convolution modules and one classification module obtains sensitivity = specificity = 1.0. Conclusions: Feature pre-selection and the use of a convolutional neural network may be a promising, nonharmful, low-cost, easy-to-perform and effective means of assisting the early diagnosis of MS based on SS-OCT thickness data [less ▲]

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See detailINVESTIGATION OF POINTNET FOR SEMANTIC SEGMENTATION OF LARGE-SCALE OUTDOOR POINT CLOUDS
Nurunnabi, Abdul Awal Md UL; Teferle, Felix Norman UL; Li, J. et al

Scientific journal (2021)

Semantic segmentation of point clouds is indispensable for 3D scene understanding. Point clouds have credibility for capturing geometry of objects including shape, size, and orientation. Deep learning (DL ... [more ▼]

Semantic segmentation of point clouds is indispensable for 3D scene understanding. Point clouds have credibility for capturing geometry of objects including shape, size, and orientation. Deep learning (DL) has been recognized as the most successful approach for image semantic segmentation. Applied to point clouds, performance of the many DL algorithms degrades, because point clouds are often sparse and have irregular data format. As a result, point clouds are regularly first transformed into voxel grids or image collections. PointNet was the first promising algorithm that feeds point clouds directly into the DL architecture. Although PointNet achieved remarkable performance on indoor point clouds, its performance has not been extensively studied in large-scale outdoor point clouds. So far, we know, no study on large-scale aerial point clouds investigates the sensitivity of the hyper-parameters used in the PointNet. This paper evaluates PointNet’s performance for semantic segmentation through three large-scale Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) point clouds of urban environments. Reported results show that PointNet has potential in large-scale outdoor scene semantic segmentation. A remarkable limitation of PointNet is that it does not consider local structure induced by the metric space made by its local neighbors. Experiments exhibit PointNet is expressively sensitive to the hyper-parameters like batch-size, block partition and the number of points in a block. For an ALS dataset, we get significant difference between overall accuracies of 67.5% and 72.8%, for the block sizes of 5m×5m and 10m×10m, respectively. Results also discover that the performance of PointNet depends on the selection of input vectors. [less ▲]

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See detailbinny: an automated binning algorithm to recover high-quality genomes from complex metagenomic datasets 2021.12.22.473795
Hickl, Oskar UL; Teixeira Queiros, Pedro UL; Wilmes, Paul UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

The reconstruction of genomes is a critical step in genome-resolved metagenomics as well as for multi-omic data integration from microbial communities. Here, we present binny, a binning tool that produces ... [more ▼]

The reconstruction of genomes is a critical step in genome-resolved metagenomics as well as for multi-omic data integration from microbial communities. Here, we present binny, a binning tool that produces high-quality metagenome-assembled genomes from both contiguous and highly fragmented genomes. Based on established metrics, binny outperforms existing state-of-the-art binning methods and finds unique genomes that could not be detected by other methods.binny uses k-mer-composition and coverage by metagenomic reads for iterative, non-linear dimension reduction of genomic signatures as well as subsequent automated contig clustering with cluster assessment using lineage-specific marker gene sets.When compared to five widely used binning algorithms, binny recovers the most near-complete (\>95 pure, \>90 complete) and high-quality (\>90 pure, \>70 complete) genomes from simulated data sets from the Critical Assessment of Metagenome Interpretation (CAMI) initiative, as well as from a real-world benchmark comprised of metagenomes from various environments. binny is implemented as Snakemake workflow and available from https://github.com/a-h-b/binny.Competing Interest StatementThe authors have declared no competing interest. [less ▲]

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See detailQuantitative volatile organic compound sensing with liquid crystal core fibers
Schelski, Katrin UL; Reyes, Catherine UL; Pschyklenk, Lukas et al

in Cell Reports Physical Science (2021), 2(12), 100661

Polymer fibers with liquid crystals (LCs) in the core have potential as autonomous sensors of airborne volatile organic compounds (VOCs), with a high surface-to-volume ratio enabling fast and sensi- tive ... [more ▼]

Polymer fibers with liquid crystals (LCs) in the core have potential as autonomous sensors of airborne volatile organic compounds (VOCs), with a high surface-to-volume ratio enabling fast and sensi- tive response and an attractive non-woven textile form factor. We demonstrate their ability to continuously and quantitatively mea- sure the concentration of toluene, cyclohexane, and isopropanol as representative VOCs, via the impact of each VOC on the LC bire- fringence. The response is fully reversible and repeatable over several cycles, the response time can be as low as seconds, and high sensitivity is achieved when the operating temperature is near the LC-isotropic transition temperature. We propose that a broad operating temperature range can be realized by combining fi- bers with different LC mixtures, yielding autonomous VOC sensors suitable for integration in apparel or in furniture that can compete with existing consumer-grade electronic VOC sensors in terms of sensitivity and response speed. [less ▲]

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See detailConversation: Katrin Becker on Lex Cryptographia
Becker, Katrin UL

Article for general public (2021)

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See detailWhen a Kippah Represents All Jews: Navigating Shifting Signs from Talmud Torah to School in Luxembourg
Badder, Anastasia UL

Scientific Conference (2021, December 20)

Across the contexts of the lives of Luxembourg's Liberal Talmud Torah students, secularism and mobility are highly valued and understood to be key characteristics of modern living. Talmud Torah students ... [more ▼]

Across the contexts of the lives of Luxembourg's Liberal Talmud Torah students, secularism and mobility are highly valued and understood to be key characteristics of modern living. Talmud Torah students feel they easily meet these criteria – they are multilingual, they currently lead and anticipate highly mobile lives, they see themselves as cosmopolitan and their approach to Jewish life as flexible, and, equally importantly, they look, dress, and comport themselves "like everyone else", all of which are understood to facilitate movement (in the sense of movement across geographic, economic, social, and religious/secular spheres) and belonging in the modern world. The students directly contrast their ways of being with those of more observant Jews. Identifiable by their rootedness, linguistic stringency, and, especially, their ways of dressing (e.g. wearing a kippah in public), the embodied practices and visibility of observant Jews are perceived to be impediments to participation and success in the secular realm. For Talmud Torah students, the public kippah in particular indexes a religious individual and a "backwards" and undesirable life. However, when Jewishness appears in their school classrooms, it is usually visually represented by orthodox-presenting men – often a man in a white shirt and black kippah. In the school classroom, these men and their kippot are framed as representing all Jews, understood as a homogenous group of adherents to the religion Judaism. For many Talmud Torah students, their first encounter with this new meaning of the kippah, visualization and associated conceptualization of Jewishness is jarring – they suddenly find themselves on the 'wrong' side of the religious/secular divide and grouped together with those from whom they could not feel more distant. Based on 31 months of ethnographic fieldwork with Luxembourg's Liberal Jewish community, this paper will explore how the kippah is remediated from the Talmud Torah to the school classroom, how students grapple with this uncomfortable process, and some of its implications. [less ▲]

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See detailLa construction de la politique d’immigration de l’union européenne entre 2009 et 2019 : vers un modèle commun ? Etude de cas : l’Espagne, la Grèce et l’ Italie
Tellier, Emilie Audrey Jacqueline UL

Doctoral thesis (2021)

The communautarisation of migration policies is a slow process. EU member states have often shown reluctance to share their sovereignty in this sensitive field throughout European integration. The entry ... [more ▼]

The communautarisation of migration policies is a slow process. EU member states have often shown reluctance to share their sovereignty in this sensitive field throughout European integration. The entry into force of the Lisbon treaty - supposed to enhance migration policies integration - occurred simultaneously with the euro-zone financial crisis and was followed by a so-called ‘migration crisis. Which political developments finally occurred at the supranational level? Which decision-making methods were used? Did they comply with the previous EU member states’ commitments of building a common migration policy? Greece, Spain, and Italy handled most of the migrants’ flows reception which demonstrated a lack of solidarity among EU member states. Considering this lack of solidarity, have these three states’ decisions converged towards EU norms and requests? First, we assumed that a slowdown in the integration process would have taken place following the migration crisis. Then, we affirmed that the three States would pursue national interests by developing strategies within the institutional framework of the European Union. Finally, we have stated that these strategies could lead to the emergence of national models with elements of convergence. In order to verify these hypotheses, we focused on the EU and national legislative developments, the degree of states' compliance with EU standards as well as the position of the states held during the negotiation taking place at the supranational level. We have therefore used primary sources (institutional reports, legislations, statistics, interviews contents, etc.) and secondary academic sources (results of research projects, articles, etc.) Ten years after the entry into force of the Lisbon treaty, our findings confirmed that building a common European migration policy is a difficult goal to achieve at a supranational level and hindered - in combination with other factors - the Europeanization process. Thus the intergovernmentalist theory has proven to be valid for analyzing European integration as well as the Europeanization in Spain, Greece and Italy of immigration policies between 2009 and 2019. Thus, the neo-functionalist logic which until then dominated the development of the economic and monetary policies of the European Union has been partially challenged when it comes to migration policies. As for the neo-institutional historical and rational choice approaches, they have proved relevant for the study of the construction of European immigration policy whose result consists of both existing common commitments (path dependency) and national interests. [less ▲]

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See detailModel-Based Systems Engineering to Design An Onboard Surround Vision System for Cooperative Automated Vehicles
Kemsaram, Narsimlu UL; Das, Anweshan; Dubbelman, Gijs

Scientific Conference (2021, December 17)

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See detailFür andere sprechen. Die Politik der Übersetzung in The Interpreter (2005) und Arrival (2016)
Pause, Johannes UL

in Gradinari, Irina; Ritzer, Ivo (Eds.) Genre und Race. Mediale Interdependenzen von Ästhetik und Politik (2021)

In politischen Fiktionen des gegenwärtigen Hollywood-Kinos geraten ‚symbolische‘ und ‚deskriptive‘ Repräsentation zunehmend miteinander in Konflikt. Der Anspruch auf deskriptive Repräsentation, demzufolge ... [more ▼]

In politischen Fiktionen des gegenwärtigen Hollywood-Kinos geraten ‚symbolische‘ und ‚deskriptive‘ Repräsentation zunehmend miteinander in Konflikt. Der Anspruch auf deskriptive Repräsentation, demzufolge z.B. ethnisch markierte Minoritäten durch Personen vertreten werden sollen, die diesen Minoritäten selbst angehören, führt insbesondere in solchen Genres und Filmen zu Komplikationen, in denen die Problematik politischer Repräsentation zentrales Thema ist. Der Aufsatz konzentriert sich auf die Figur der weißen Übersetzerin, die in Sydney Pollacks The Interpreter und Denis Villeneuves Arrival als Vermittlerin in diesem Konflikt Einsatz findet. Unter Verwendung unterschiedlicher Genre-Elemente – des Politthrillers und des alien invasion movies – arbeiten diese Werke an einer Ethik der Übersetzung, die repräsentative Gewalt zu überwinden sucht, indem sie die für jede Repräsentation konstitutive Distanz zwischen Repräsentant*innen und Repräsentierten gerade betont, anstatt sie zu bekämpfen. [less ▲]

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See detailLaw, Order and Postwar Purge in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (1944 - 1955): Transitional Justice and Redistribution through the example of Justice, Gendarmerie and Police
Wingerter, Elisabeth UL

Doctoral thesis (2021)

The present doctoral thesis examines the strategies and redistributive effects of political purge in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg after World War II. It examines in detail the judicial and administrative ... [more ▼]

The present doctoral thesis examines the strategies and redistributive effects of political purge in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg after World War II. It examines in detail the judicial and administrative purge of justice personnel, magistrates, police officers and gendarmerie corps members, and the development of law and order in the 20th century. This study treats regulated purge measures as phenomena of transitional justice. In Luxembourg’s case, the transition in question is one of restorative and redistributive kind: The prewar sociopolitical order is largely restored, however, in the ranks of the state administrations, redistributive practices of purge have changed the internal order. The imperfect, yet initially quite severe judicial and administrative sanctions have laid the foundations for national myths and narratives that have for many years clouded the historical analysis of both the occupation and the postwar period. This happened through the redistribution of symbolic capital during the purge proceedings by classifying persons into “patriots” and “antipatriots”. The struggle of the “antipatriots” to regain their symbolic, financial and political capital after the war and their antagonism with the heterogeneous group of “patriots” often focused on perceived or real financial and professional disadvantages. While the redistribution of financial capital was gradually reversed in the postwar and efforts for reconciliation set in almost immediately after 1945, the redistribution of symbolic capital led to a social divide that was successively forgotten through the emergence of the master narrative of collective resistance. [less ▲]

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See detailGuest Lecture: Peryferia w Centrum: Szkolnictwo pogranicza w międzywojennej Europie
Venken, Machteld UL

Presentation (2021, December 16)

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