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See detailSelf-Regulation of Fundamental Rights? The EU Code of Conduct on Hate Speech, Related Initiatives and Beyond
Quintel, Teresa Alegra UL; Ullrich, Carsten UL

in Ojanen, Tuomas; Petkova, Bilyana (Eds.) Fundamental Rights Protection Online: the Future Regulation of Intermediaries (2020)

This contribution will give a brief overview of EU legislation encouraging self-regulation, such as codes of conduct, communications and recommendations and propose an alternative approach towards ... [more ▼]

This contribution will give a brief overview of EU legislation encouraging self-regulation, such as codes of conduct, communications and recommendations and propose an alternative approach towards fighting illegal content on online platforms, which ventures squarely into co-regulation. There is no formal and straightforward definition on what constitutes illegal hate speech. However, hate speech might be classified as targeting minority groups in a way that promotes violence or social disorder and hatred. The use of social media and online platforms to spread illegal content and hate speech has increased progressively during recent years, as content may be disseminated anonymously and further shared by other users. Therefore, the timely removal or blocking of access to illegal content is essential to limit the wider dissemination and harm of individuals targeted by hate speech. The prominent role of online platforms in revolutionizing modern communication and as influencers of the public opinion has increasingly come to the attention of policy makers. Since online platforms provide an important stage for phenomena such as ‘fake news’, ‘hate speech’ or ‘disinformation’, the pressure to take more responsibility over content hosted by them has grown. The EU Commission took action via several attempts to set certain rules for online intermediaries, mostly relying on non-binding agreements, often in the form of self-regulatory measures, such as codes of conduct, guidelines and recommendations. These measures have raised concerns regarding possible limitations of Freedom of Expression, because they require online platforms to adjudicate on the legality of content, often by relying on automated systems. Meanwhile decisions over the unlawfulness of hate speech and “disinformation” are often notoriously difficult. The deployment of algorithms to analyse the content generated on platforms, such as recognition and filtering technologies, bear risks and pitfalls of automated compliance solutions. Although the use of algorithms to monitor content online still happens based on the “human-in-the-loop principle”, the diligence and efficiency with which illegal content can be reviewed is also dependent on the financial capacity and resources of each company. In addition, these privatized removal procedures maybe influenced by commercial interests and lack effective appeals mechanisms. All these issues throw up serious questions about the democratic legitimacy of self-regulatory removal procedures An alternative solution, proposed in this article, would require platforms to apply a risk-based approach to preventing and removing illegal content. The norms and standards of such an approach would be based on duty of care and be subject to regulatory oversight. It is suggested that the current self-regulatory proposals be replaced by co-regulatory solutions. [less ▲]

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See detailTrafficSliver: Fighting Website Fingerprinting Attacks with Traffic Splitting
de La Cadena Ramos, Augusto Wladimir UL; Mitseva, Asya; Hiller, Jens et al

in 27th ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security (CCS '20) (2020, November 13)

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See detailTackling educational inequalities using school effectiveness measures
Levy, Jessica UL; Mussack, Dominic UL; Brunner, Martin et al

Scientific Conference (2020, November 11)

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See detailSpecifying key-properties to improve the recognition skills of neural networks
Jahic, Benjamin UL; Guelfi, Nicolas UL; Ries, Benoit UL

Scientific Conference (2020, November 06)

Software engineers are increasingly asked to build datasets for engineering neural network-based software systems. These datasets are used to train neural networks to recognise data. Traditionally, data ... [more ▼]

Software engineers are increasingly asked to build datasets for engineering neural network-based software systems. These datasets are used to train neural networks to recognise data. Traditionally, data scientists build datasets consisting of random collected or generated data. Their approaches are often costly, inefficient and time-consuming. Software engineers rely on these traditional approaches that do not support precise data selection criteria based on customer’s requirements. In this paper, we introduce an extended software engineering method for dataset augmentation to improve neural networks by satisfying the customer’s requirements. We introduce the notion of key-properties to describe the neural network’s recognition skills. Key-properties are used all along the engineering process for developing the neural network in cooperation with the customer. We propose a rigorous process for augmenting datasets based on the analysis and specification of the key-properties. We conducted an experimentation on a case study on the recognition of the state of a digital meter counter. We demonstrate an informal specification of the neural network’s key-properties and a successful improvement of a neural network’s recognition of the meter counter state. [less ▲]

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See detailBeam-inside-beam contact: Mechanical simulations of slender medical instruments inside the human body
Magliulo, Marco UL; Lengiewicz, Jakub UL; Zilian, Andreas UL et al

in Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine (2020), 196

Background and Objective This contribution presents a rapid computational framework to mechanically simulate the insertion of a slender medical instrument in a tubular structure such as an artery, the ... [more ▼]

Background and Objective This contribution presents a rapid computational framework to mechanically simulate the insertion of a slender medical instrument in a tubular structure such as an artery, the cochlea or another slender instrument. Methods Beams are employed to rapidly simulate the mechanical behaviour of the medical instrument and the tubular structure. However, the framework’s novelty is its capability to handle the mechanical contact between an inner beam (representing the medical instrument) embedded in a hollow outer beam (representing the tubular structure). This “beam-inside-beam” contact framework, which forces two beams to remain embedded, is the first of its kind since existing contact frameworks for beams are “beam-to-beam” approaches, i.e. they repel beams from each other. Furthermore, we propose contact kinematics such that not only instruments and tubes with circular cross-sections can be considered, but also those with elliptical cross-sections. This provides flexibility for the optimization of patient-specific instruments. Results The results demonstrate that the framework’s robustness is substantial, because only a few increments per simulation and a few iterations per increment are required, even though large deformations, large rotations and large curvature changes of both the instrument and tubular structure occur. The stability of the framework remains high even if the modulus of the inner tube is thousand times larger than that of the outer tube. A mesh convergence study furthermore exposes that a relatively small number of elements is required to accurately approach the reference solution. Conclusions The framework’s high simulation speed originates from the exploitation of the rigidity of the beams’ cross-sections to quantify the exclusion between the inner and the hollow outer beam. This rigidity limits the accuracy of the framework at the same time, but this is unavoidable since simulation accuracy and simulation speed are two competing interests. Hence, the framework is particularly attractive if simulation speed is preferred over accuracy. [less ▲]

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See detailPerformance of lime-metakaolin pastes using gravel wash mud (GWM)
Thapa, Vishojit Bahadur UL; Waldmann, Daniele UL

in Cement and Concrete Composites (2020), 114(103772),

The performance of ternary binders using lime, metakaolin (MK) and gravel wash mud (GWM) powders is studied for the development of novel lime-pozzolan pastes. This study examines the influence of varying ... [more ▼]

The performance of ternary binders using lime, metakaolin (MK) and gravel wash mud (GWM) powders is studied for the development of novel lime-pozzolan pastes. This study examines the influence of varying mixture proportions using different types and compositions of lime powders and GWM at different treatment levels on the mechanical properties of lime-MK-GWM pastes. Various characterisation techniques including particle size distribution (PSD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), compressive strength tests, simultaneous thermal analysis (STA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), were applied on the different raw materials, respectively, on the hardened pastes to determine the reaction kinetics, the resulting microstructure and the mechanical performances of the lime-MK-GWM binder systems. Higher strength-enhancing contributions of thermally treated GWM powders (calcined at 850°C) leading to compressive strengths up to 18 MPa were confirmed and the strength-based evaluations revealed that hydrated lime-based pastes achieved higher mechanical performances than hydraulic lime-based binder systems. [less ▲]

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See detailLoad approximation for uncertain topologies in the low-voltage grid
Mouline, Ludovic UL; Cordy, Maxime UL; Le Traon, Yves UL

in 2020 IEEE International Conference on Communications, Control, and Computing Technologies for Smart Grids (SmartGridComm) (2020)

Smart grids allow operators to monitor the grid continuously, detect occurring incidents, and trigger corrective actions. To perform that, they require a deep understanding of the effective situation ... [more ▼]

Smart grids allow operators to monitor the grid continuously, detect occurring incidents, and trigger corrective actions. To perform that, they require a deep understanding of the effective situation within the grid. However, some parameters of the grid may not be known with absolute confidence. Reasoning over the grid despite uncertainty needs the consideration of all possible states. In this paper, we propose an approach to enumerate only valid potential grid states. Thereby, we allow discarding invalid assumptions that poison the results of a given computation procedure. We validate our approach based on a real-world topology from the power grid in Luxembourg. We show that the estimation of cable load is negatively affected by invalid fuse state combinations, in terms of computation time and accuracy. [less ▲]

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See detailDer Wert digitaler Güter - Steuerrechtliche Einordnung
Sinnig, Julia UL

in Kommunikation und Recht (2020)

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See detailBarriers and Borders: Human Mobility and Building Inclusive Societies
Graham, Suzanne; Koff, Harlan UL

in Politikon: South African Journal of Political Studies (2020), 47(4), 2-5

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See detailOversampled DFT-Modulated Biorthogonal Filter Banks: Perfect Reconstruction Designs and Multiplierless Approximations
Alves Martins, Wallace UL; Shankar, Bhavani UL; Ottersten, Björn UL

in IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems. II, Express Briefs (2020), 67(11), 2777-2781

We propose a novel methodology for designing oversampled discrete Fourier transform-modulated uniform filter banks. The analysis prototype is designed as a Nyquist filter, whereas the synthesis prototype ... [more ▼]

We propose a novel methodology for designing oversampled discrete Fourier transform-modulated uniform filter banks. The analysis prototype is designed as a Nyquist filter, whereas the synthesis prototype is designed to guarantee perfect reconstruction (PR) considering oversampling. The resulting optimization problem fits into the disciplined convex programming framework, as long as some convex objective function is employed, as the minimization of either the stop-band energy or the maximum deviation from a desired response. The methodology also accounts for near-PR multiplierless approximations of the prototype analysis and synthesis filters, whose coefficients are obtained in the sum-of-power-of-two (SOPOT) space. The quantized coefficients are computed using successive approximation of vectors, which is able to yield filters with a reduced number of SOPOT coefficients in a computationally efficient manner. The proposed methodology is especially appealing for supporting actual hardware deployments, such as modern digital transparent processors to be used in next-generation satellite payloads. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Framework of Security-Enhancing Friction: How UX Can Help Users Behave More Securely
Distler, Verena UL; Lenzini, Gabriele UL; Lallemand, Carine UL et al

in New Security Paradigms Workshop (2020)

A growing body of research in the usable privacy and security community addresses the question of how to best influence user behavior to reduce risk-taking.We propose to address this challenge by ... [more ▼]

A growing body of research in the usable privacy and security community addresses the question of how to best influence user behavior to reduce risk-taking.We propose to address this challenge by integrating the concept of User Experience (UX) into empirical usable privacy and security studies that attempt to change risk-taking behavior. UX enables us to study the complex interplay between user-related, system-related and contextual factors and provides insights into the experiential aspects underlying behavior change, including negative experiences. We first compare and contrast existing security-enhancing interventions (e.g., nudges, warnings, fear appeals) through the lens of friction. We then build on these insights to argue that it can be desirable to design for moments of negative UX in security-critical situations. For this purpose, we introduce the novel concept of security-enhancing friction, friction that effectively reduces the occurrence of risk-taking behavior and ensures that the overall UX (after use) is not compromised. We illustrate how security-enhancing friction provides an actionable way to systematically integrate the concept of UX into empirical usable privacy and security studies for meeting both the objectives of secure behavior and of overall acceptable experience. [less ▲]

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See detailFoxO maintains a genuine muscle stem-cell quiescent state until geriatric age
Del Sol Mesa, Antonio UL

in Nature Cell Biology (2020)

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See detailComprehensive characterization of amino acidpositions in protein structures reveals moleculareffect of missense variants
iqbal, Sumaiya; Perez-Palma, Eduardo; Jespersen, Jakob B. et al

in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2020)

Interpretation of the colossal number of genetic variants identified from sequencing applications is one of the major bottlenecks in clinical genetics, with the inference of the effect of amino acid ... [more ▼]

Interpretation of the colossal number of genetic variants identified from sequencing applications is one of the major bottlenecks in clinical genetics, with the inference of the effect of amino acid-substituting missense variations on protein structure and function being especially challenging. Here we characterize the three-dimensional (3D) amino acid positions affected in pathogenic and population variants from 1,330 disease-associated genes using over 14,000 experimentally solved human protein structures. By measuring the statistical burden of variations (i.e., point mutations) from all genes on 40 3D protein features, accounting for the structural, chemical, and functional context of the variations’ positions, we identify features that are generally associated with pathogenic and population missense variants. We then perform the same amino acid-level analysis individually for 24 protein functional classes, which reveals unique characteristics of the positions of the altered amino acids: We observe up to 46% divergence of the class-specific features from the general characteristics obtained by the analysis on all genes, which is consistent with the structural diversity of essential regions across different protein classes. We demonstrate that the function-specific 3D features of the variants match the readouts of mutagenesis experiments for BRCA1 and PTEN, and positively correlate with an independent set of clinically interpreted pathogenic and benign missense variants. Finally, we make our results available through a web server to foster accessibility and downstream research. Our findings represent a crucial step toward translational genetics, from highlighting the impact of mutations on protein structure to rationalizing the variants’ pathogenicity in terms of the perturbed molecular mechanisms. [less ▲]

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See detailSARS-CoV-2 Transmission in Educational Settings During an Early Summer Epidemic Wave in Luxembourg
Mossong, Joël; Mombaerts, Laurent UL; Veiber, Lisa UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Background: The role of schools and children in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 remains to be determined. Following a first wave in spring and gradual easing of lockdown, Luxembourg experienced an early ... [more ▼]

Background: The role of schools and children in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 remains to be determined. Following a first wave in spring and gradual easing of lockdown, Luxembourg experienced an early second epidemic wave before the start of summer school holidays on 15th July. This provided the opportunity to study the role of school-age children and school settings in SARS-CoV-2 transmission. More specifically, we compared the incidence in school-age children, teachers and the general working population, and estimated the number of secondary transmissions occurring at schools using contact tracing data. Findings: While SARS-CoV-2 incidence was much higher in adults aged 20 and above than in children aged 0 to 19 during the first wave in spring, no significant difference was found during the second wave in early summer. The incidence during the second wave was similar for pupils, teachers and the general working population. Based on a total of 424 reported confirmed COVID-19 cases in school-age children and teachers, we estimate that 179 index cases caused 49 secondary transmissions in schools. While some small clusters of mainly student-to-student transmission within the same class were identified, we did not observe any large outbreaks with multiple generations of infection. Interpretation: Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 within Luxembourg schools was limited during the early summer epidemic wave in 2020. Precautionary measures including physical distancing as well as easy access to testing, systematic contact tracing appears to have been successful in mitigating transmission within educational settings. Funding Statement: LV is supported by the Luxembourg National Research Fund grant COVID-19/2020- 1/14701707/REBORN, LM is supported by Luxembourg National Research Fund grant COVID19/14863306/PREVID, PW is supported by the European Research Council (ERC-CoG 863664). Declaration of Interests: No competing interests. Ethics Approval Statement: The Health Directorate has the legal permission to process patient confidential information for national surveillance of communicable diseases in general and contact tracing for the COVID-19 pandemic and individual patient consent is not required. [less ▲]

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See detailOne
Scuto, Denis UL

Article for general public (2020)

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See detailLes héritages des débuts d’Internet et du Web
Schafer, Valerie UL

Presentation (2020, October 23)

Alors que l’an dernier étaient célébrés les 50 ans du réseau ARPANET et les 30 ans du World Wide Web, ces anniversaires étaient l’occasion de revenir largement sur les fondements du « réseau des réseaux » ... [more ▼]

Alors que l’an dernier étaient célébrés les 50 ans du réseau ARPANET et les 30 ans du World Wide Web, ces anniversaires étaient l’occasion de revenir largement sur les fondements du « réseau des réseaux ». Ce retour aux sources permettait de prendre la mesure des changements intervenus, mais aussi de continuités certaines, ainsi que de valeurs séminales qui sont régulièrement convoquées dans les débats contemporains. Cette intervention se propose de revisiter les héritages des débuts d’Internet et du Web en trois temps : celui de la mémoire, de la nostalgie et de la reconstruction d’un âge d’or d’abord. Ensuite nous aborderons les héritages et patrimoines matériels et immatériels de ces premières communications en réseaux, notamment le patrimoine nativement numérique (Born-Digital Heritage) que sont les archives du Web et les newsgroups de la communauté Usenet. Enfin nous nous intéresserons à la réactualisation récurrente de controverses nées dès les premiers âges du Web, voire en amont (en termes d’anonymisation, régulation, rôle des intermédiaires, neutralité, etc.). [less ▲]

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See detailOn the Random Access Procedure of NB-IoT Non-Terrestrial Networks
Kodheli, Oltjon UL; Maturo, Nicola UL; Chatzinotas, Symeon UL et al

Scientific Conference (2020, October 20)

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See detailLocal Forms of Morphisms of Colored Supermanifolds
Covolo, Tiffany; Kwok, Stephen; Poncin, Norbert UL

E-print/Working paper (2020)

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See detailSummertime Overheating Risk Assessment of a Flexible Plug-in Modular Unit in Luxembourg
Rakotonjanahary, Tahiana Roland Michaël UL; Scholzen, Frank UL; Waldmann, Daniele UL

in Sustainability (2020)

Modular buildings offer faster construction process, provide better construction quality, allow reducing construction waste and are potentially flexible. Frames of modular units can be made of metal ... [more ▼]

Modular buildings offer faster construction process, provide better construction quality, allow reducing construction waste and are potentially flexible. Frames of modular units can be made of metal, timber, concrete or mixed materials but lightweight structures do not always allow erecting high-rise buildings and generally present a higher risk of overheating and/or overcooling. To reconcile these pros and cons, a typology of modular building called Slab was designed by a group of architects. The building is composed on the one hand of a permanent concrete structure named shelf-structure and on the other hand of several flexible removable timber modular units, also known as modules. The shelf-structure will host the common utility rooms and will serve as docking infrastructure for the housing modules. To provide high flexibility, the Slab building was designed to adapt to any orientation and location in Luxembourg. An energy concept and a HVAC systems design has been developed for the Slab building. Furthermore, a two-fold sustainability analysis was carried out. The first part of the analysis regards the determination of the minimum required wall thicknesses of the modules in accordance with Luxembourgish regulatory requirements, although the current regulation does not yet consider the Slab building typology. The second part, which is the subject of this paper, is thermal comfort assessment, more precisely, summertime overheating risk assessment of these modules, in compliance with Luxembourgish standard. In this regard, dynamic thermal simulations have been realized on two module variants; the first fulfills the passive house requirements, and the second—the current requirements for building permit application, which in principle corresponds to low energy house requirements. Simulations showed that with adequate solar shading and reinforced natural ventilation by window opening, overheating risk could be avoided for the normal residential use scenario for both module variants. [less ▲]

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