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See detailData Centric Engineering and Data-Driven Modelling - Computational Engineering Lab Report 2019
Bordas, Stéphane UL; Peters, Bernhard UL; Viti, Francesco UL et al

Report (2019)

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/data-centric-engineering

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See detailThe Integration Between National and International Regulation of Space Resources Activities Under Public International Law
Salmeri, Antonino UL

in Journal of Space Law (2019), 43(1), 60-85

In light of the current tendency of regulating space resources activities through national legislation, this article addresses the validity of such emerging practice under Public International Law (PIL ... [more ▼]

In light of the current tendency of regulating space resources activities through national legislation, this article addresses the validity of such emerging practice under Public International Law (PIL). To this end, the article first recalls the traditional debate between Monism and Dualism about the relationship between municipal and international law. This analysis is further completed by focusing also on the counter-position between two cornerstones of PIL, the principles of State sovereignty and Pacta Sunt Servanda. Next, the article assesses the exposure of national law “integrating” international law, focusing on ex post conflicts between the two sources as regulated by Article 27 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties. Accordingly, the article will show that States not willing to adapt their national laws will have to face international responsibility under the Draft Articles on State Responsibility for Internationally Wrongful Acts. Based on the above, the article then presents the related legal consequences, both at the international and national levels. Finally, the article closes by assessing the role of interpretative declarations and the defense of persistent objector as possible legal tools for dissenting States. [less ▲]

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See detailRéconcilier les citoyens avec leurs parlements
Poirier, Philippe UL

Article for general public (2019)

La démocratie représentative, qui est le régime politique de l’Union européenne et de tous ses États membres, est menacée. Les éléments qui la définissent – élection, délégation, autonomie dans la ... [more ▼]

La démocratie représentative, qui est le régime politique de l’Union européenne et de tous ses États membres, est menacée. Les éléments qui la définissent – élection, délégation, autonomie dans la conception de la Loi et contrôle de la responsabilité gouvernementale – sont altérés par des logiques qui fragilisent cette démocratie. [less ▲]

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See detailAn experimental scrutiny of visual design modelling: VCL up against UML+OCL
Amalio, Nuno UL; Briand, Lionel UL; Kelsen, Pierre UL

in Empirical Software Engineering (2019)

The graphical nature of prominent modelling notations, such as the standards UML and SysML, enables them to tap into the cognitive benefits of diagrams. However, these notations hardly exploit the ... [more ▼]

The graphical nature of prominent modelling notations, such as the standards UML and SysML, enables them to tap into the cognitive benefits of diagrams. However, these notations hardly exploit the cognitive potential of diagrams and are only partially graphical with invariants and operations being expressed textually. The Visual Contract Language (VCL) aims at improving visual modelling; it tries to (a) maximise diagrammatic cognitive effectiveness, (b) increase visual expressivity, and (c) level of rigour and formality. It is an alternative to UML that does largely pictorially what is traditionally done textually. The paper presents the results of a controlled experiment carried out four times in different academic settings and involving 43 participants, which compares VCL against UML and OCL and whose goal is to provide insight on benefits and limitations of visual modelling. The paper’s hypotheses are evaluated using a crossover design with the following tasks: (i) modelling of state space, invariants and operations, (ii) comprehension of modelled problem, (iii) detection of model defects and (iv) comprehension of a given model. Although visual approaches have been used and advocated for decades, this is the first empirical investigation looking into the effects of graphical expression of invariants and operations on modelling and model usage tasks. Results suggest VCL benefits in defect detection, model comprehension, and modelling of operations, providing some empirical evidence on the benefits of graphical software design. [less ▲]

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See detailEditorial: teachers’ attitudes and self‐efficacy beliefs with regard to inclusive education
Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL; Schwab, Susanne; Hecht, Petra et al

in Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs (2019), 19(S1), 3-7

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See detailHow Acceptable Is This? How User Experience Factors Can Broaden our Understanding of the Acceptance of Privacy Trade-Offs
Distler, Verena UL; Lallemand, Carine UL; Koenig, Vincent UL

in Computers in Human Behavior (2019)

Privacy is a timely topic that is increasingly scrutinized in the public eye. In spite of privacy and security breaches, people still frequently compromise their privacy in exchange for certain benefits ... [more ▼]

Privacy is a timely topic that is increasingly scrutinized in the public eye. In spite of privacy and security breaches, people still frequently compromise their privacy in exchange for certain benefits of a technology or a service. This study builds on both technology acceptance (TA) and user experience (UX) research in order to explore and build hypotheses regarding additional dimensions that might play a role in the acceptability of privacy tradeoffs that are not currently accounted for in TA models. Using four scenarios describing situations with potential privacy trade-offs, we conducted a focus group study with 8 groups of participants (N = 32). Our results suggest that factors influencing privacy trade-offs go beyond existing TA factors alone. A technology's perceived usefulness plays an important role, as well as dimensions related to context, previous experiences, perceived autonomy and the feeling of control over the data being shared. [less ▲]

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See detailDiagnostic Competence of Physical Education Teachers
Heck, Sandra UL; Scheuer, Claude UL

in Peters, Michael A. (Ed.) Encyclopedia of Teacher Education (2019)

Diagnostic competence is considered as a central aspect of teacher competence. It generally aims at specifying the needs for support and linking them with pedagogical didactical measures (Niederkofler et ... [more ▼]

Diagnostic competence is considered as a central aspect of teacher competence. It generally aims at specifying the needs for support and linking them with pedagogical didactical measures (Niederkofler et al. 2018; Schrader 2013). Facing the heterogeneity of learning groups, teachers’ diagnostic competences in assessing students’ characteristics and potential are becoming increasingly relevant. The ability to judge students’ prerequisites adequately is generally seen as a vital basis for an instruction adapted to students’ abilities. Up to now, diagnostic competences are considered as a core aspect of teachers’ expertise. While diagnostic competence includes measures of diagnostic accuracy, related to level, rank, and differentiation, it is not determined by a single ability. It, for instance, also embraces the judgment of requirements of learning materials as an essential element for initiating successful learning processes. The better the diagnostic competence is, the better the difficulty of tasks and materials are estimated. This is not only relevant for lesson preparation but also during a lesson while judging scenarios adequately and consequently adapting teaching and learning processes (Ohle and McElvany 2015; Schrader 2013). [less ▲]

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See detailScience notebooks as interactional spaces in amultilingual classroom: Not just ideas on paper
Wilmes, Sara UL; Siry, Christina UL

in Journal of Research in Science Teaching (2019)

Past studies have explored the role of student science notebooks in supporting students' developing science understandings. Yet scant research has investigated science notebook use with students who are ... [more ▼]

Past studies have explored the role of student science notebooks in supporting students' developing science understandings. Yet scant research has investigated science notebook use with students who are learning science in a language they are working to master. To explore how student science notebook use is co-constructed in interaction among students and teachers, this study examined plurilingual students' interactions with open-ended science notebooks during an inquiry science unit on condensation and evaporation. Grounded in theoretical views of the notebook as a semiotic social space, multimodal interaction analysis facilitated examination of the ways students drew upon the space afforded by the notebook as they constructed explanations of their under-standings. Cross-group comparison of three focal group sled to multiple assertions regarding the use of science notebooks with plurilingual students. First, the notebook supported student-determined paths of resemiotization as students employed multiple communicative resources to express science understandings. Second, notebooks provided spaces for students to draw upon diverse language resources and as a bridge in time across multiple inquiry sessions. Third, representations in notebooks were leveraged by both students and teachers to access and deepen conceptual conversations. Lastly, students' interactions over time revealed multiple epistemological orientations in students' use of the notebook space. These findings point to the benefits of open-ended science notebooks use with plurilingual students, and a consideration of the ways they are used in interaction in science instruction. [less ▲]

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See detailModelling of Passive Heat Removal Systems: A Review with Reference to the Framatome BWR Reactor KERENA: Part II
Manthey, René; Viereckl, Frances; Moonesi Shabestary, Amirhosein et al

in Energies (2019)

Passive safety systems are an important feature of currently designed and constructed nuclear power plants. They operate independent of external power supply and manual interventions and are solely driven ... [more ▼]

Passive safety systems are an important feature of currently designed and constructed nuclear power plants. They operate independent of external power supply and manual interventions and are solely driven by thermal gradients and gravitational force. This brings up new needs for performance and reliably assessment. This paper provides a review on fundamental approaches to model and analyze the performance of passive heat removal systems exemplified for the passive heat removal chain of the KERENA boiling water reactor concept developed by Framatome. We discuss modeling concepts for one-dimensional system codes such as ATHLET, RELAP and TRACE and furthermore for computational fluid dynamics codes. Part I dealt with numerical and experimental methods for modeling of condensation inside the emergency condenser and on the containment cooling condenser. This second part deals with boiling and two-phase flow instabilities. [less ▲]

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See detailScaffolding support through integration of learning material
Grevisse, Christian UL; Rothkugel, Steffen UL; Reuter, Robert UL

in Smart Learning Environments (2019), 6(28),

The ever-growing amount of learning material poses a challenge to both learners and teachers. In order to perform a learning task, students often need to search for additional information. Inquiry might ... [more ▼]

The ever-growing amount of learning material poses a challenge to both learners and teachers. In order to perform a learning task, students often need to search for additional information. Inquiry might be hampered if they do not know what exactly to search for, especially if they lack prior knowledge in a domain. Furthermore, they might need to recall meta-information, e.g., the implicit links between learning resources or the location of an explanation within a document. In addition, their performance in a learning task might suffer from the constant need for further information. As the authoring of learning material is a time-intensive task, reusability of resources in different contexts should be enabled. In this paper, we present the ALMA-Yactul ecosystem, a holistic approach for student-centered integration of learning material. Based on semantic annotations, learners are provided with scaffolding support for retrieving material related to their current study task. This integration of resources is showcased in a variety of applications and domains, such as a plugin for an IDE or an enhanced sketchnoting app. Moreover, we show how Yactul, a gamified student response platform, can benefit from semantic annotations and integration of learning material. Additionally, teachers are provided with semi-automatic annotation support in the popular Office 365 suite to foster the reusability of their content. Apart from presenting the results of its usage in university classes, we also show how high school students without prior knowledge benefitted from this scaffolding support. A significantly better performance in resolving programming-related tasks could be observed compared to a traditional search process. Finally, the ecosystem is evaluated against a state-of-the-art technology integration model. [less ▲]

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See detailA performance evaluation of weight-constrained conditioned portfolio optimization
Schiltz, Jang UL; Boissaux, Marc UL

Scientific Conference (2019, December 20)

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See detailA deep neural network approach to predicting clinical outcomes of neuroblastoma patients
Tranchevent, Leon-Charles UL; Azuaje, Francisco; Rajapakse, Jagath

in BMC Medical Genomics (2019), 12(8), 178

Background The availability of high-throughput omics datasets from large patient cohorts has allowed the development of methods that aim at predicting patient clinical outcomes, such as survival and ... [more ▼]

Background The availability of high-throughput omics datasets from large patient cohorts has allowed the development of methods that aim at predicting patient clinical outcomes, such as survival and disease recurrence. Such methods are also important to better understand the biological mechanisms underlying disease etiology and development, as well as treatment responses. Recently, different predictive models, relying on distinct algorithms (including Support Vector Machines and Random Forests) have been investigated. In this context, deep learning strategies are of special interest due to their demonstrated superior performance over a wide range of problems and datasets. One of the main challenges of such strategies is the “small n large p” problem. Indeed, omics datasets typically consist of small numbers of samples and large numbers of features relative to typical deep learning datasets. Neural networks usually tackle this problem through feature selection or by including additional constraints during the learning process. Methods We propose to tackle this problem with a novel strategy that relies on a graph-based method for feature extraction, coupled with a deep neural network for clinical outcome prediction. The omics data are first represented as graphs whose nodes represent patients, and edges represent correlations between the patients’ omics profiles. Topological features, such as centralities, are then extracted from these graphs for every node. Lastly, these features are used as input to train and test various classifiers. Results We apply this strategy to four neuroblastoma datasets and observe that models based on neural networks are more accurate than state of the art models (DNN: 85%-87%, SVM/RF: 75%-82%). We explore how different parameters and configurations are selected in order to overcome the effects of the small data problem as well as the curse of dimensionality. Conclusions Our results indicate that the deep neural networks capture complex features in the data that help predicting patient clinical outcomes. [less ▲]

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See detailAtlas of Migration - 2019
TARCHI, DARIO; SERMI, FRANCESCO; BELMONTE, MARTINA et al

Book published by Publications Office of the European Union (2019)

The Atlas of Migration is a reference book providing a snapshot of migration and a knowledge base for policymakers, stakeholders, businesses, researchers and the general public. It provides insights on ... [more ▼]

The Atlas of Migration is a reference book providing a snapshot of migration and a knowledge base for policymakers, stakeholders, businesses, researchers and the general public. It provides insights on migration up to 2018 for all EU Member States and 160 non-EU countries. [less ▲]

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See detailFacile Anisotropic Deswelling Method for Realizing Large‐Area Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Elastomers with Uniform Structural Color and Broad‐Range Mechanochromic Response
Kizhakidathazhath, Rijeesh UL; Geng, Yong UL; Jampani, Venkata UL et al

in Advanced Functional Materials (2019)

Cholesteric liquid crystal elastomers (CLCEs) are soft and dynamic photonic elements that couple the circularly polarized structural color from the cho- lesteric helix to the viscoelasticity of rubbers ... [more ▼]

Cholesteric liquid crystal elastomers (CLCEs) are soft and dynamic photonic elements that couple the circularly polarized structural color from the cho- lesteric helix to the viscoelasticity of rubbers: the reflection color is mechani- cally tunable (mechanochromic response) over a broad range. This requires uniform helix orientation, previously realized by long-term centrifugation to ensure anisotropic deswelling, or using sacrificial substrates or external fields. The present paper presents a simple, reproducible, and scalable method to fab- ricate highly elastic, large-area, millimeters thick CLCE sheets with intense uni- form reflection color that is repeatably, rapidly, and continuously tunable across the full visible spectrum by stretching or compressing. A precursor solution is poured onto a substrate and allowed to polymerize into a 3D network during solvent evaporation. Pinning to the substrate prevents in-plane shrinkage, thereby realizing anisotropic deswelling in an unprecedentedly simple manner. Quantitative stress–strain–reflection wavelength characterization reveals behavior in line with theoretical predictions: two linear regimes are identified for strains below and above the helix unwinding threshold, respectively. Up to a doubling of the sample length, the continuous color variation across the full visible spectrum repeatedly follows a volume conserving function of the strain, allowing the CLCE to be used as optical high-resolution strain sensor. [less ▲]

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See detailInter-regional innovation cooperation and structural heterogeneity:Does being a rural, or border region, or both, make a difference?
Hjaltadottir, Rannveig Edda UL; Makkonen, Teemu; Mitze, Timo Friedel

in Journal of Rural Studies (2019)

This paper analyses the determinants of inter-regional innovation cooperation in European knowledge networks. Our main goal is to assess whether structural heterogeneity in the context of the “urban ... [more ▼]

This paper analyses the determinants of inter-regional innovation cooperation in European knowledge networks. Our main goal is to assess whether structural heterogeneity in the context of the “urban-rural dichotomy†and international borders can explain differences in the regions’ engagement in inter-regional innovation coopera-tion. We estimate a gravity equation to model innovation cooperation, proxied by inter-regional co-patent ap-plications, as a function of region-specific context conditions as well as technological and geographical distance. Our data comprise dyadic information on 203 NUTS2 regions in 15 European countries (EU-15) for the year 2010. The empirical results show that the basic gravity mechanisms drive the direction and strength of in-novation cooperation between EU regions; i.e., geographical distance acts as an impediment to inter-regional co-patent applications. Regarding the importance of structural heterogeneity, we find that pairs of rural regions have lower levels of innovation cooperation compared to urban regions. Similarly, border regions are generally disadvantaged compared to non-border regions in terms of the intensity of innovation cooperation. However, while the latter result points to a negative border effect, our gravity model estimates also show that pairs of border regions are more active in terms of close geographical innovation cooperation (e.g., through international cross-border cooperation), which partly compensates for the negative border effect. This finding not only holds for urban but also rural border regions and may reflect policy attempts to support border regions, e.g., by strengthening the level of international cross-border cooperation within the EU. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Zooniverse and the Historian
Tatarinov, Juliane UL

Diverse speeches and writings (2019)

https://dhh.uni.lu/2019/12/19/the-zooniverse-and-the-historian/

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See detailA Coordinated Europeanization of the Comics Industry through Distribution: The Politics of the Global Journey of Astérix and Tintin through the Strategic Distribution of their Magazines and Contents in the 1960s
Burton, Jessica UL

in On_Culture: The Open Journal for the Study of Culture (2019), 8(Winter),

Researchers have usually focused on the Tintin and Astérix series’ global book diffusion through translation. However, little has been discussed about the distribution policies of the comics magazine ... [more ▼]

Researchers have usually focused on the Tintin and Astérix series’ global book diffusion through translation. However, little has been discussed about the distribution policies of the comics magazine format, a key factor in the development of European comics. This paper will consider the continentalization of western European national comics industries via the intra-EEC networking of distribution channels during the 1960s. By facilitating the exchange of comics features in the Franco-Belgian area, publishers such as Casterman, Le Lombard, and Dargaud ensured the rise of the industry and of the products they wanted to disseminate. Contemplating the motivations of publishers this article will delve deeper into the emergence of cooperative and competitive distribution channels among national publishers and between countries. Through the archives of Casterman and primary sources this article intends to contribute to a greater understanding of how the carefully planned distribution network of comics influenced the development of the European industry as a whole. [less ▲]

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