References of "2019"
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See detailThe Integration Between National and International Regulation of Space Resources Activities Under Public International Law
Salmeri, Antonino UL

in Journal of Space Law (2019), 43(1), 60-85

In light of the current tendency of regulating space resources activities through national legislation, this article addresses the validity of such emerging practice under Public International Law (PIL ... [more ▼]

In light of the current tendency of regulating space resources activities through national legislation, this article addresses the validity of such emerging practice under Public International Law (PIL). To this end, the article first recalls the traditional debate between Monism and Dualism about the relationship between municipal and international law. This analysis is further completed by focusing also on the counter-position between two cornerstones of PIL, the principles of State sovereignty and Pacta Sunt Servanda. Next, the article assesses the exposure of national law “integrating” international law, focusing on ex post conflicts between the two sources as regulated by Article 27 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties. Accordingly, the article will show that States not willing to adapt their national laws will have to face international responsibility under the Draft Articles on State Responsibility for Internationally Wrongful Acts. Based on the above, the article then presents the related legal consequences, both at the international and national levels. Finally, the article closes by assessing the role of interpretative declarations and the defense of persistent objector as possible legal tools for dissenting States. [less ▲]

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See detailAn experimental scrutiny of visual design modelling: VCL up against UML+OCL
Amalio, Nuno UL; Briand, Lionel UL; Kelsen, Pierre UL

in Empirical Software Engineering (2019)

The graphical nature of prominent modelling notations, such as the standards UML and SysML, enables them to tap into the cognitive benefits of diagrams. However, these notations hardly exploit the ... [more ▼]

The graphical nature of prominent modelling notations, such as the standards UML and SysML, enables them to tap into the cognitive benefits of diagrams. However, these notations hardly exploit the cognitive potential of diagrams and are only partially graphical with invariants and operations being expressed textually. The Visual Contract Language (VCL) aims at improving visual modelling; it tries to (a) maximise diagrammatic cognitive effectiveness, (b) increase visual expressivity, and (c) level of rigour and formality. It is an alternative to UML that does largely pictorially what is traditionally done textually. The paper presents the results of a controlled experiment carried out four times in different academic settings and involving 43 participants, which compares VCL against UML and OCL and whose goal is to provide insight on benefits and limitations of visual modelling. The paper’s hypotheses are evaluated using a crossover design with the following tasks: (i) modelling of state space, invariants and operations, (ii) comprehension of modelled problem, (iii) detection of model defects and (iv) comprehension of a given model. Although visual approaches have been used and advocated for decades, this is the first empirical investigation looking into the effects of graphical expression of invariants and operations on modelling and model usage tasks. Results suggest VCL benefits in defect detection, model comprehension, and modelling of operations, providing some empirical evidence on the benefits of graphical software design. [less ▲]

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See detailEditorial: teachers’ attitudes and self‐efficacy beliefs with regard to inclusive education
Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL; Schwab, Susanne; Hecht, Petra et al

in Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs (2019), 19(S1), 3-7

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See detailHow Acceptable Is This? How User Experience Factors Can Broaden our Understanding of the Acceptance of Privacy Trade-Offs
Distler, Verena UL; Lallemand, Carine UL; Koenig, Vincent UL

in Computers in Human Behavior (2019)

Privacy is a timely topic that is increasingly scrutinized in the public eye. In spite of privacy and security breaches, people still frequently compromise their privacy in exchange for certain benefits ... [more ▼]

Privacy is a timely topic that is increasingly scrutinized in the public eye. In spite of privacy and security breaches, people still frequently compromise their privacy in exchange for certain benefits of a technology or a service. This study builds on both technology acceptance (TA) and user experience (UX) research in order to explore and build hypotheses regarding additional dimensions that might play a role in the acceptability of privacy tradeoffs that are not currently accounted for in TA models. Using four scenarios describing situations with potential privacy trade-offs, we conducted a focus group study with 8 groups of participants (N = 32). Our results suggest that factors influencing privacy trade-offs go beyond existing TA factors alone. A technology's perceived usefulness plays an important role, as well as dimensions related to context, previous experiences, perceived autonomy and the feeling of control over the data being shared. [less ▲]

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See detailDiagnostic Competence of Physical Education Teachers
Heck, Sandra UL; Scheuer, Claude UL

in Peters, Michael A. (Ed.) Encyclopedia of Teacher Education (2019)

Diagnostic competence is considered as a central aspect of teacher competence. It generally aims at specifying the needs for support and linking them with pedagogical didactical measures (Niederkofler et ... [more ▼]

Diagnostic competence is considered as a central aspect of teacher competence. It generally aims at specifying the needs for support and linking them with pedagogical didactical measures (Niederkofler et al. 2018; Schrader 2013). Facing the heterogeneity of learning groups, teachers’ diagnostic competences in assessing students’ characteristics and potential are becoming increasingly relevant. The ability to judge students’ prerequisites adequately is generally seen as a vital basis for an instruction adapted to students’ abilities. Up to now, diagnostic competences are considered as a core aspect of teachers’ expertise. While diagnostic competence includes measures of diagnostic accuracy, related to level, rank, and differentiation, it is not determined by a single ability. It, for instance, also embraces the judgment of requirements of learning materials as an essential element for initiating successful learning processes. The better the diagnostic competence is, the better the difficulty of tasks and materials are estimated. This is not only relevant for lesson preparation but also during a lesson while judging scenarios adequately and consequently adapting teaching and learning processes (Ohle and McElvany 2015; Schrader 2013). [less ▲]

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See detailScaffolding support through integration of learning material
Grevisse, Christian UL; Rothkugel, Steffen UL; Reuter, Robert UL

in Smart Learning Environments (2019), 6(28),

The ever-growing amount of learning material poses a challenge to both learners and teachers. In order to perform a learning task, students often need to search for additional information. Inquiry might ... [more ▼]

The ever-growing amount of learning material poses a challenge to both learners and teachers. In order to perform a learning task, students often need to search for additional information. Inquiry might be hampered if they do not know what exactly to search for, especially if they lack prior knowledge in a domain. Furthermore, they might need to recall meta-information, e.g., the implicit links between learning resources or the location of an explanation within a document. In addition, their performance in a learning task might suffer from the constant need for further information. As the authoring of learning material is a time-intensive task, reusability of resources in different contexts should be enabled. In this paper, we present the ALMA-Yactul ecosystem, a holistic approach for student-centered integration of learning material. Based on semantic annotations, learners are provided with scaffolding support for retrieving material related to their current study task. This integration of resources is showcased in a variety of applications and domains, such as a plugin for an IDE or an enhanced sketchnoting app. Moreover, we show how Yactul, a gamified student response platform, can benefit from semantic annotations and integration of learning material. Additionally, teachers are provided with semi-automatic annotation support in the popular Office 365 suite to foster the reusability of their content. Apart from presenting the results of its usage in university classes, we also show how high school students without prior knowledge benefitted from this scaffolding support. A significantly better performance in resolving programming-related tasks could be observed compared to a traditional search process. Finally, the ecosystem is evaluated against a state-of-the-art technology integration model. [less ▲]

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See detailA performance evaluation of weight-constrained conditioned portfolio optimization
Schiltz, Jang UL; Boissaux, Marc UL

Scientific Conference (2019, December 20)

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See detailA deep neural network approach to predicting clinical outcomes of neuroblastoma patients
Tranchevent, Leon-Charles UL; Azuaje, Francisco; Rajapakse, Jagath

in BMC Medical Genomics (2019), 12(8), 178

Background The availability of high-throughput omics datasets from large patient cohorts has allowed the development of methods that aim at predicting patient clinical outcomes, such as survival and ... [more ▼]

Background The availability of high-throughput omics datasets from large patient cohorts has allowed the development of methods that aim at predicting patient clinical outcomes, such as survival and disease recurrence. Such methods are also important to better understand the biological mechanisms underlying disease etiology and development, as well as treatment responses. Recently, different predictive models, relying on distinct algorithms (including Support Vector Machines and Random Forests) have been investigated. In this context, deep learning strategies are of special interest due to their demonstrated superior performance over a wide range of problems and datasets. One of the main challenges of such strategies is the “small n large p” problem. Indeed, omics datasets typically consist of small numbers of samples and large numbers of features relative to typical deep learning datasets. Neural networks usually tackle this problem through feature selection or by including additional constraints during the learning process. Methods We propose to tackle this problem with a novel strategy that relies on a graph-based method for feature extraction, coupled with a deep neural network for clinical outcome prediction. The omics data are first represented as graphs whose nodes represent patients, and edges represent correlations between the patients’ omics profiles. Topological features, such as centralities, are then extracted from these graphs for every node. Lastly, these features are used as input to train and test various classifiers. Results We apply this strategy to four neuroblastoma datasets and observe that models based on neural networks are more accurate than state of the art models (DNN: 85%-87%, SVM/RF: 75%-82%). We explore how different parameters and configurations are selected in order to overcome the effects of the small data problem as well as the curse of dimensionality. Conclusions Our results indicate that the deep neural networks capture complex features in the data that help predicting patient clinical outcomes. [less ▲]

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See detailInter-regional innovation cooperation and structural heterogeneity:Does being a rural, or border region, or both, make a difference?
Hjaltadottir, Rannveig Edda UL; Makkonen, Teemu; Mitze, Timo Friedel

in Journal of Rural Studies (2019)

This paper analyses the determinants of inter-regional innovation cooperation in European knowledge networks. Our main goal is to assess whether structural heterogeneity in the context of the “urban ... [more ▼]

This paper analyses the determinants of inter-regional innovation cooperation in European knowledge networks. Our main goal is to assess whether structural heterogeneity in the context of the “urban-rural dichotomy†and international borders can explain differences in the regions’ engagement in inter-regional innovation coopera-tion. We estimate a gravity equation to model innovation cooperation, proxied by inter-regional co-patent ap-plications, as a function of region-specific context conditions as well as technological and geographical distance. Our data comprise dyadic information on 203 NUTS2 regions in 15 European countries (EU-15) for the year 2010. The empirical results show that the basic gravity mechanisms drive the direction and strength of in-novation cooperation between EU regions; i.e., geographical distance acts as an impediment to inter-regional co-patent applications. Regarding the importance of structural heterogeneity, we find that pairs of rural regions have lower levels of innovation cooperation compared to urban regions. Similarly, border regions are generally disadvantaged compared to non-border regions in terms of the intensity of innovation cooperation. However, while the latter result points to a negative border effect, our gravity model estimates also show that pairs of border regions are more active in terms of close geographical innovation cooperation (e.g., through international cross-border cooperation), which partly compensates for the negative border effect. This finding not only holds for urban but also rural border regions and may reflect policy attempts to support border regions, e.g., by strengthening the level of international cross-border cooperation within the EU. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimization of Rate Fairness in Multi-Pair Wireless-Powered Relaying System
Bui, Van-Phuc; Nguyen, van Dinh UL; Nguyen, Hieu et al

in IEEE Communications Letters (2019)

This letter considers a multi-pair decode-andforward relay network where a power-splitting (PS) protocol is adopted at the energy-constrained relay to provide simultaneous wireless information and energy ... [more ▼]

This letter considers a multi-pair decode-andforward relay network where a power-splitting (PS) protocol is adopted at the energy-constrained relay to provide simultaneous wireless information and energy harvesting (EH). To achieve higher efficiency of EH, we propose a new PS-based EH architecture at the relay by incorporating an alternating current (AC) computing logic, which is employed to directly use the wirelessly harvestedACenergyforcomputationalblocks.Underanonlinear EHcircuit,ourgoalistomaximizethefairnessofend-to-endrate amonguserpairssubjecttopowerconstraints,resultinginanonconvex problem. We propose an iterative algorithm to achieve a suboptimal and efficient solution to this challenging problem by leveraging the inner approximation framework. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm outperforms the traditional direct current computing and other baseline schemes. [less ▲]

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See detailInvestigation of the Sharkskin melt instability using optical Fourier analysis
Gansen, Alex UL; Rehor, Martin UL; Sill, Clemens et al

in Journal of Applied Polymer Science (2019)

An optical method allowing the characterization of melt flow instabilities typically occurring during an extrusion process of polymers and polymer compounds is presented. It is based on a camera‐acquired ... [more ▼]

An optical method allowing the characterization of melt flow instabilities typically occurring during an extrusion process of polymers and polymer compounds is presented. It is based on a camera‐acquired image of the extruded compound with a reference length scale. Application of image processing and transformation of the calibrated image to the frequency domain yields the magnitude spectrum of the instability. The effectiveness of the before mentioned approach is shown on Styrene‐butadiene rubber (SBR) compounds, covering a wide range of silica filler content, extruded through a Göttfert capillary rheometer. The results of the image‐based analysis are compared with the results from the sharkskin option, a series of highly sensitive pressure transducers installed inside the rheometer. A simplified version of the code used to produce the optical analysis results is included as supplementary material. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Zooniverse and the Historian
Tatarinov, Juliane UL

Diverse speeches and writings (2019)

https://dhh.uni.lu/2019/12/19/the-zooniverse-and-the-historian/

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See detailA Coordinated Europeanization of the Comics Industry through Distribution: The Politics of the Global Journey of Astérix and Tintin through the Strategic Distribution of their Magazines and Contents in the 1960s
Burton, Jessica UL

in On_Culture: The Open Journal for the Study of Culture (2019), 8(Winter),

Researchers have usually focused on the Tintin and Astérix series’ global book diffusion through translation. However, little has been discussed about the distribution policies of the comics magazine ... [more ▼]

Researchers have usually focused on the Tintin and Astérix series’ global book diffusion through translation. However, little has been discussed about the distribution policies of the comics magazine format, a key factor in the development of European comics. This paper will consider the continentalization of western European national comics industries via the intra-EEC networking of distribution channels during the 1960s. By facilitating the exchange of comics features in the Franco-Belgian area, publishers such as Casterman, Le Lombard, and Dargaud ensured the rise of the industry and of the products they wanted to disseminate. Contemplating the motivations of publishers this article will delve deeper into the emergence of cooperative and competitive distribution channels among national publishers and between countries. Through the archives of Casterman and primary sources this article intends to contribute to a greater understanding of how the carefully planned distribution network of comics influenced the development of the European industry as a whole. [less ▲]

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See detailModelling of Passive Heat Removal Systems: A Review with Reference to the Framatome KERENA BWR Reactor: Part I
Moonesi Shabestary, Amirhossein; Viereckl, Frances; Zhang, Yu et al

in Energies (2019)

Passive safety systems are an important feature of currently designed and constructed nuclear power plants. They operate independent of external power supply and manual interventionsand are solely driven ... [more ▼]

Passive safety systems are an important feature of currently designed and constructed nuclear power plants. They operate independent of external power supply and manual interventionsand are solely driven by thermal gradients and gravitational force. This brings up new needs forperformance and reliably assessment. This paper provides a review on fundamental approaches to model and analyze the performance of passive heat removal systems exemplified for the passive heat removal chain of the KERENA boiling water reactor concept developed by Framatome. We discuss modelling concepts for one-dimensional system codes such as ATHLET, RELAP and TRACE and furthermore for computational fluid dynamics codes. Part I deals with numerical and experimental methods for modelling of condensation inside the emergency condensers and on the containment cooling condenser while part II deals with boiling and two-phase flow instabilities. [less ▲]

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See detailHome literacy environment and family language policy of immigrant families in Luxembourg
Aleksic, Gabrijela UL; Bebic, Dzoen Dominique UL

Scientific Conference (2019, December 18)

Early literacy skills are critical for children’s later academic achievement. A wealth of research showed that children’s home languages should not be abandoned, as they are crucial for promoting dynamic ... [more ▼]

Early literacy skills are critical for children’s later academic achievement. A wealth of research showed that children’s home languages should not be abandoned, as they are crucial for promoting dynamic multilingualism, assuring cross-linguistic transfer and developing identities. To explore home literacy environment and family language policy of language minority preschool children in Luxembourg, we obtained 603 parent questionnaires, tested 226 children age 4 to 6 in their home languages and Luxembourgish, and interviewed 31 families. The results from the questionnaires showed that the home resources and parent involvement influenced children’s language awareness and their print knowledge irrespective of parent’s education and their wealth. Concerning children’s competences in Luxembourgish, children with positive attitudes towards their school did better than their peers in other schools. In the interviews, parents explained that maintaining home language is important for keeping connections with family, friends and their culture. This is the language parents feel emotionally connected to and the easiest to transmit to their children. Language maintenance is mostly achieved through conversations, movies, games and books in the home languages, children’s attendance of language schools on weekends, celebrations of traditions as well as holidays in the native country of the parents. The home language is, however, not something parents enforce too strictly, as they mostly correct the children’s linguistic mistakes by simple repetition. It is often with great pride that parents report their children having an excellent proficiency in their home language. Finally, through our professional development training in translanguaging we are helping teachers to integrate children’s different home languages and cultures into the classroom and strengthen the home-school collaboration in order to support children’s well-being, learning and identities. [less ▲]

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See detailDeep Pattern Mining for Program Repair
Liu, Kui UL

Doctoral thesis (2019)

Error-free software is a myth. Debugging thus accounts for a significant portion of software maintenance and absorbs a large part of software cost. In particular, the manual task of fixing bugs is tedious ... [more ▼]

Error-free software is a myth. Debugging thus accounts for a significant portion of software maintenance and absorbs a large part of software cost. In particular, the manual task of fixing bugs is tedious, error- prone and time-consuming. In the last decade, automatic bug-fixing, also referred to as automated program repair (APR) has boomed as a promising endeavor of software engineering towards alleviating developers’ burden. Several potentially promising techniques have been proposed making APR an increasingly prominent topic in both the research and practice communities. In production, APR will drastically reduce time-to-fix delays and limit downtime. In a development cycle, APR can help suggest changes to accelerate debugging. As an emergent domain, however, program repair has many open problems that the community is still exploring. Our work contributes to this momentum on two angles: the repair of programs for functionality bugs, and the repair of programs for method naming issues. The thesis starts with highlighting findings on key empirical studies that we have performed to inform future repair approaches. Then, we focus on template-based program repair scenarios and explore deep learning models for inferring accurate and relevant patterns. Finally, we integrate these patterns into APR pipelines, which yield the state of the art repair tools. The dissertation includes the following contributions: • Real-world Patch Study: Existing APR studies have shown that the state-of-the-art techniques in automated repair tend to generate patches only for a small number of bugs even with quality issues (e.g., incorrect behavior and nonsensical changes). To improve APR techniques, the community should deepen its knowledge on repair actions from real-world patches since most of the techniques rely on patches written by human developers. However, previous investigations on real-world patches are limited to statement level that is not sufficiently fine-grained to build this knowledge. This dissertation starts with deepening this knowledge via a systematic and fine-grained study of real-world Java program bug fixes. • Fault Localization Impact: Existing test-suite-based APR systems are highly dependent on the performance of the fault localization (FL) technique that is the process of the widely studied APR pipeline. However, APR systems generally focus on the patch generation, but tend to use similar but different strategies for fault localization. To assess the impact of FL on APR, we identify and investigate a practical bias caused by the FL step in a repair pipeline. We propose to highlight the different FL configurations used in the literature, and their impact on APR systems when applied to the real bugs. Then, we explore the performance variations that can be achieved by “tweaking” the FL step. • Fix Pattern Mining: Fix patterns (a.k.a. fix templates) have been studied in various APR scenarios. Particularly, fix patterns have been widely used in different APR systems. To date, fix pattern mining is mainly studied in three ways: manually summarization, transformation inferring and code change action statistics. In this dissertation, we explore mining fix patterns for static bugs leveraging deep learning and clustering algorithms. • Avatar: Fix pattern based patch generation is a promising direction in the APR community. Notably, it has been demonstrated to produce more acceptable and correct patches than the patches obtained with mutation operators through genetic programming. The performance of fix pattern based APR systems, however, depends on the fix ingredients mined from commit changes in development histories. Unfortunately, collecting a reliable set of bug fixes in repositories can be challenging. We propose to investigate the possibility in an APR scenario of leveraging code changes that address violations by static bug detection tools. To that end, we build the Avatar APR system, which exploits fix patterns of static analysis violations as ingredients for patch generation. • TBar: Fix patterns are widely used in patch generation of APR, however, the repair performance of a single fix pattern is not studied. We revisit the performance of template-based APR to build comprehensive knowledge about the effectiveness of fix patterns, and to highlight the importance of complementary steps such as fault localization or donor code retrieval. To that end, we first investigate the literature to collect, summarize and label recurrently-used fix patterns. Based on the investigation, we build TBar, a straightforward APR tool that systematically attempts to apply these fix patterns to program bugs. We thoroughly evaluate TBar on the Defects4J benchmark. In particular, we assess the actual qualitative and quantitative diversity of fix patterns, as well as their effectiveness in yielding plausible or correct patches. • Debugging Method Names: Except the issues about semantic/static bugs in programs, we note that how to debug inconsistent method names automatically is important to improve program quality. In this dissertation, we propose a deep learning based approach to spotting and refactoring inconsistent method names in programs. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom home to early childhood education: beliefs, language ideologies and OPOL
Kirsch, Claudine UL

Scientific Conference (2019, December 18)

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