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See detailSpanish validation of the Sexual Addiction Screening Test.
Castro-Calvo, Jesus; Ballester-Arnal, Rafael; Billieux, Joël UL et al

in Journal of behavioral addictions (2018), 7(3), 584-600

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Sexual addiction is a pathological behavior characterized by a combination of excessive sexual desire and impaired ability to control it. Its incidence ranges between 1.2% and 32.2 ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Sexual addiction is a pathological behavior characterized by a combination of excessive sexual desire and impaired ability to control it. Its incidence ranges between 1.2% and 32.2%, although this number may vary depending on the screening tool used. This wide variability is largely due to the use of non-validated instruments (e.g., structural validity relying on exploratory analyses, instruments translated without an additional validation process, or instruments validated in another format). To deal with these limitations, this study tested the psychometric properties of the Spanish paper-and-pencil and online versions of the Sexual Addiction Screening Test (SAST). METHODS: A total of 2,528 participants (1,163 males) completed the Spanish version of the SAST, along with other instruments assessing sexual compulsivity (1,585 = paper-and-pencil, 943 = online). RESULTS: The exploratory factor analysis yielded a four-factor structure explaining 57.39% of the variance for the SAST paper-and-pencil version. This factor structure was then verified for the online version through the use of confirmatory factor analysis [chi(2)(264) = 441.59; chi(2)/df = 1.66; RMSEA = 0.02; CFI = 0.94; IFI = 0.94]. This methodology was also used to support measurement invariance (configural, metric, and scalar invariance) according to gender. The reliability of the total score ranged from .82 to .85. Similarly, correlations with related scales were positive and significant (r between .22 and .71). Temporal stability 1 year after the first application was 0.65 (paper-and-pencil format) and 0.60 (online version). CONCLUSION: These results, together with the absence of questionnaires translated into Spanish to assess this construct, justify the use of the SAST in the evaluation of sexual addiction in Spanish-speaking countries. [less ▲]

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See detailIncluding gaming disorder in the ICD-11: The need to do so from a clinical and public health perspective.
Rumpf, Hans-Jurgen; Achab, Sophia; Billieux, Joël UL et al

in Journal of behavioral addictions (2018), 7(3), 556-561

The proposed introduction of gaming disorder (GD) in the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) has led to a lively debate ... [more ▼]

The proposed introduction of gaming disorder (GD) in the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) has led to a lively debate over the past year. Besides the broad support for the decision in the academic press, a recent publication by van Rooij et al. (2018) repeated the criticism raised against the inclusion of GD in ICD-11 by Aarseth et al. (2017). We argue that this group of researchers fails to recognize the clinical and public health considerations, which support the WHO perspective. It is important to recognize a range of biases that may influence this debate; in particular, the gaming industry may wish to diminish its responsibility by claiming that GD is not a public health problem, a position which maybe supported by arguments from scholars based in media psychology, computer games research, communication science, and related disciplines. However, just as with any other disease or disorder in the ICD-11, the decision whether or not to include GD is based on clinical evidence and public health needs. Therefore, we reiterate our conclusion that including GD reflects the essence of the ICD and will facilitate treatment and prevention for those who need it. [less ▲]

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See detailAutomatic social comparison: Cognitive load facilitates an increase in negative thought accessibility after thin ideal exposure among women
Bocage-Barthélémy, Yvana; Chatard, Armand; Jaafari, Nematollah et al

in PLoS ONE (2018), 13(3), 0193200

Women are routinely exposed to images of extremely slim female bodies (the thin ideal) in advertisements, even if they do not necessarily pay much attention to these images. We hypothesized that ... [more ▼]

Women are routinely exposed to images of extremely slim female bodies (the thin ideal) in advertisements, even if they do not necessarily pay much attention to these images. We hypothesized that paradoxically, it is precisely in such conditions of low attention that the impact of the social comparison with the thin ideal might be the most pronounced. To test this prediction, one hundred and seventy-three young female participants were exposed to images of the thin ideal or of women’s fashion accessories. They were allocated to either a condition of high (memorizing 10 digits) or low cognitive load (memorizing 4 digits). The main dependent measure was implicit: mean recognition latency of negative words, relative to neutral words, as assessed by a lexical decision task. The results showed that thin-ideal exposure did not affect negative word accessibility under low cognitive load but that it increased it under high cognitive load. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that social comparison with the thin ideal is an automatic process, and contribute to explain why some strategies to prevent negative effects of thin-ideal exposure are inefficient. [less ▲]

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See detailPrecise estimates of gaming-related harm should guide regulation of gaming
Starcevic, Vladan; Billieux, Joël UL

in Journal of Behavioral Addictions (2018), 7(3), 522-525

Regulation of gaming is largely based on the perception of gaming-related harm. This perception varies from one country to another and does not necessarily correspond to the real gaming-related harm. It ... [more ▼]

Regulation of gaming is largely based on the perception of gaming-related harm. This perception varies from one country to another and does not necessarily correspond to the real gaming-related harm. It is argued that there is a crucial need to define and assess domains of this harm in order to introduce policies that regulate gaming. Such policies would ideally be targeted at individuals at risk for problematic gaming and would be based more on educational efforts than on restrictive measures. The role of gaming industry in the regulation of gaming would depend on the more precise estimates of gaming-related harm. [less ▲]

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See detailBinge-watching engagement as determined by motivations, impulsivity and emotional reactivity: A cluster analytic approach.
Flayelle, Maèva UL; Maurage, Pierre; Vögele, Claus UL et al

in Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research (2018), 42 (Suppl. 2)

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See detailExecutive Impairments in Binge Drinking: Evidence for a Specific Performance-Monitoring Difficulty during Alcohol-Related Processing.
Lannoy, Severine; Maurage, Pierre; D'Hondt, Fabien et al

in European addiction research (2018), 24(3), 118-127

This study evaluated inhibition and performance-monitoring abilities through the explicit processing of alcohol cues. Twenty-two binge drinkers (BD) and 22 control participants performed a speeded Go/No ... [more ▼]

This study evaluated inhibition and performance-monitoring abilities through the explicit processing of alcohol cues. Twenty-two binge drinkers (BD) and 22 control participants performed a speeded Go/No-Go task using pictures of alcohol and soft cans as Go and No-Go targets. This task measures inhibitory control and performance monitoring (i.e., task adjustment through errors and feedback processing) during the explicit processing of alcohol cues. Groups did not significantly differ regarding inhibition abilities. However, BD had poorer performance-monitoring abilities, reflected by a difficulty to adjust after errors, especially when these errors were related to alcohol cues. These findings suggest that the explicit processing of alcohol cues negatively impacts cognitive abilities among BD. [less ▲]

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See detailBehavioural Addiction Open Definition 2.0 – Using the open science framework for collaborative and transparent theoretical development
Billieux, Joël UL; Van Rooij, Antonius J; Heeren, Alexandre et al

in Addiction (2017), 112(10), 1723-1724

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See detailTraumatic experiences, alexithymia, and Internet addiction symptoms among late adolescents: A moderated mediation analysis.
Schimmenti, Adriano; Passanisi, Alessia; Caretti, Vincenzo et al

in Addictive behaviors (2017), 64

The association between traumatic experiences, alexithymia, and substance abuse is well established. Less is known about the role of traumatic experiences and alexithymia in the onset and maintenance of ... [more ▼]

The association between traumatic experiences, alexithymia, and substance abuse is well established. Less is known about the role of traumatic experiences and alexithymia in the onset and maintenance of Internet-related disorders. In the present study, self-report measures on traumatic experiences, alexithymia, and problematic Internet use were administered to 358 high school students (57% females) aged 18-19years old, to test whether alexithymic traits mediated the relationship between traumatic experiences and Internet addiction symptoms, and whether gender moderated the proposed mediation in the sample. While partial mediation occurred in the entire sample, gender directly affected the relationship between the investigated constructs: Internet addiction symptoms were independently related to traumatic experiences among males, and to alexithymic traits among females. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that trauma memories among males, and problems with affect regulation among females, may increase the risk of problematic Internet use during late adolescence. Such findings might have relevant implications to inform any treatment plan for late adolescent students who are overinvolved with online activities, pointing out that tailored approaches to their problems and difficulties are particularly needed in clinical practice. [less ▲]

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See detailPreserved crossmodal integration of emotional signals in binge drinking
Lannoy, Séverine; Dormal, Valérie; Brion, Mélanie et al

in Frontiers in Psychology (2017), 8

Binge drinking is an alcohol consumption pattern with various psychological and cognitive consequences. As binge drinking showed qualitatively comparable cognitive impairments to those reported in alcohol ... [more ▼]

Binge drinking is an alcohol consumption pattern with various psychological and cognitive consequences. As binge drinking showed qualitatively comparable cognitive impairments to those reported in alcohol-dependence, a continuum hypothesis suggests that this habit would be a first step toward alcohol-related disorders. Besides these cognitive impairments, alcohol-dependence is also characterized by large-scale deficits in emotional processing, particularly in crossmodal contexts, and these abilities have scarcely been explored in binge drinking. Emotional decoding, most often based on multiple modalities (e.g., facial expression, prosody or gesture), yet represents a crucial ability for efficient interpersonal communication and social integration. The present study is the first exploration of crossmodal emotional processing in binge drinking, in order to test whether binge drinkers already present the emotional impairments described among alcohol-dependent patients, in line with the continuum hypothesis. Twenty binge drinkers and 20 matched controls performed an experimental task requiring the identification of two emotions (happiness or anger) presented in two modalities (visual or auditory) within three conditions (unimodal, crossmodal congruent or crossmodal incongruent). In accordance with previous research in binge drinking and alcohol-dependence, this study was based on two main hypotheses. First, binge drinkers would present a reduced facilitation effect (i.e., classically indexed in healthy populations by faster reaction times when two congruent modalities are presented simultaneously). Second, binge drinkers would have higher difficulties to inhibit interference in incongruent modalities. Results showed no significant difference between groups in emotional decoding ability, whatever the modality or condition. Control participants, however, appeared slower than binge drinkers in recognizing facial expressions, also leading to a stronger facilitation effect when the two modalities were presented simultaneously. However, findings did not show a disrupted facilitation effect in binge drinkers, whom also presented preserved performance to inhibit incongruence during emotional decoding. The current results thus suggest that binge drinkers do not demonstrate a deficit for emotional processing, both in unimodal and crossmodal contexts. These results imply that binge drinking might not be characterized by impairments for the identification of primary emotions, which could also indicate that these emotional processing abilities are well-preserved at early stages of excessive alcohol consumption [less ▲]

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See detailHow can we conceptualize behavioural addiction without pathologizing common behaviours?
Kardefelt-Winther, Daniel; Heeren, Alexandre; Schimmenti, Adriano et al

in Addiction (2017), 112(10), 1709-1715

Following the recent changes to the diagnostic category for addictive disorders in DSM-5, it is urgent to clarify what constitutes behavioural addiction to have a clear direction for future research and ... [more ▼]

Following the recent changes to the diagnostic category for addictive disorders in DSM-5, it is urgent to clarify what constitutes behavioural addiction to have a clear direction for future research and classification. However, in the years following the release of DSM-5, an expanding body of research has increasingly classified engagement in a wide range of common behaviours and leisure activities as possible behavioural addiction. If this expansion does not end, both the relevance and the credibility of the field of addictive disorders might be questioned, which may prompt a dismissive appraisal of the new DSM-5 subcategory for behavioural addiction. We propose an operational definition of behavioural addiction together with a number of exclusion criteria, to avoid pathologizing common behaviours and provide a common ground for further research. The definition and its exclusion criteria are clarified and justified by illustrating how these address a number of theoretical and methodological shortcomings that result from existing conceptualizations. We invite other researchers to extend our definition under an Open Science Foundation framework. [less ▲]

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See detailAlcohol-cue exposure decreases response inhibition towards alcohol-related stimuli in detoxified alcohol-dependent patients.
Kreusch, Fanny; Billieux, Joël UL; Quertemont, Etienne

in Psychiatry research (2017), 249

The induction of alcohol craving and the cognitive processing of alcohol-related stimuli in alcohol-dependent patients have been reported to compete with inhibitory control and contribute to alcohol ... [more ▼]

The induction of alcohol craving and the cognitive processing of alcohol-related stimuli in alcohol-dependent patients have been reported to compete with inhibitory control and contribute to alcohol relapse. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether the induction of a craving state, using an alcohol cue exposure paradigm, influences response inhibition towards both neutral stimuli and alcohol-related stimuli in alcohol-dependent patients. Thirty-one detoxified alcohol-dependent patients were exposed to either their preferred alcoholic beverage or to a glass of water. They then performed a modified stop signal task, which used alcohol-related words, neutral words and non-words, and a lexical decision as the Go response. The alcohol-cue exposure group reported significantly higher alcohol craving and showed higher percentages of commission errors towards alcohol-related words than the control group. All participants, but especially those of the alcohol-cue exposure group, showed also shorter reaction times when alcohol words were used as targets in go trials. The induction of alcohol craving in detoxified alcohol-dependent patients increases the motivational salience value of alcohol stimuli, leading them to automatically approach alcohol-related cues and therefore impairing response inhibition towards those stimuli. [less ▲]

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See detailEstablished risk factors for addiction failto discriminate between healthy gamers and gamers endorsing DSM-5 Internet gaming disorder
Deleuze, Jory; Nuyens, Filip; Rochat, Lucien et al

in Journal of Behavioral Addictions (2017), 6(4), 516-524

Background and aims: The DSM-5 includes criteria for diagnosing Internet gaming disorder (IGD) that are adapted from substance abuse and widely used in research and clinical contexts, although evidence ... [more ▼]

Background and aims: The DSM-5 includes criteria for diagnosing Internet gaming disorder (IGD) that are adapted from substance abuse and widely used in research and clinical contexts, although evidence supporting their validity remains scarce. The present study compared online gamers who do or do not endorse IGD criteria regarding self-control-related abilities (impulsivity, inhibitory control, and decision making), considered the hallmarks of addictive behaviors. Method: A double approach was adopted to distinguish pathological from recreational gamers in a sample of gamers: The first is the classic DSM-5 approach (≥5 criteria required to endorse the IGD diagnosis), and the second consists in using latent class analysis (LCA) for IGD criteria to distinguish gamers’ subgroups. We computed comparisons separately for each approach. Ninety-seven volunteer gamers from the community were recruited. Self-reported questionnaires were used to measure demographic and game-related characteristics, problematic online gaming (with the Problematic Online Gaming Questionnaire), impulsivity (with the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale), and depression (with the Beck Depression Inventory-II). Experimental tasks were used to measure inhibitory control (Hybrid-Stop Task) and decision-making abilities (Game of Dice Task). Results: Thirty-two participants met IGD criteria (33% of the sample), whereas LCA identified two groups of gamers (pathological [35%] and recreational). Comparisons that used both approaches (DSM-5 and LCA) failed to identify significant differences regarding all constructs except for variables related to actual or problematic gaming behaviors. Discussion: The validity of IGD criteria is questioned, mostly with respect to their relevance in distinguishing high engagement from pathological involvement in video games. [less ▲]

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See detailAttentional Impairments in Huntington’s Disease: A Specific Deficit for the Executive Conflict
Maurage, Pierre; Heeren, Alexandre; Lahaye, Magali et al

in Neuropsychology (2017), 31(4), 424-436

Objective: Huntington’s disease (HD) is characterized by motor and cognitive impairments including memory, executive, and attentional functions. However, because earlier studies relied on multidetermined ... [more ▼]

Objective: Huntington’s disease (HD) is characterized by motor and cognitive impairments including memory, executive, and attentional functions. However, because earlier studies relied on multidetermined attentional tasks, uncertainty still abounds regarding the differential deficit across attentional subcomponents. Likewise, the evolution of these deficits during the successive stages of HD remains unclear. The present study simultaneously explored 3 distinct networks of attention (alerting, orienting, executive conflict) in preclinical and clinical HD. Method: Thirty-eight HD patients (18 preclinical) and 38 matched healthy controls completed the attention network test, an integrated and theoretically grounded task assessing the integrity of 3 attentional networks. Results: Preclinical HD was not characterized by any attentional deficit compared to controls. Conversely, clinical HD was associated with a differential deficit across the 3 attentional networks under investigation, showing preserved performance for alerting and orienting networks but massive and specific impairment for the executive conflict network. This indexes an impaired use of executive control to resolve the conflict between task-relevant stimuli and interfering task-irrelevant ones. Conclusion: Clinical HD does not lead to a global attentional deficit but rather to a specific impairment for the executive control of attention. Moreover, the absence of attentional deficits in preclinical HD suggests that these deficits are absent at the initial stages of the disease. In view of their impact on everyday life, attentional deficits should be considered in clinical contexts. Therapeutic programs improving the executive control of attention by neuropsychology and neuromodulation should be promoted. [less ▲]

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See detailProblematic smartphone use and its relation with anxiety and depression: a survey in a large sample of undergraduates
Liu, Yueheng; Long, Jiang; Billieux, Joël UL et al

in Chinese Journal of Psychiatry (2017), 50(4), 270-275

[Objective] To investigate the differences of socio-demographics and smartphone use features among Chinese college students between problematic smartphone user (PSU) and non-PSU, and to clarify the link ... [more ▼]

[Objective] To investigate the differences of socio-demographics and smartphone use features among Chinese college students between problematic smartphone user (PSU) and non-PSU, and to clarify the link between PSU and psychopathological symptoms (anxiety and depression). [Methods] A total of 1 205 undergraduates from 35 classes of 8 universities or colleges, stratified with different school levels, were selected using the cluster random sampling strategy. The Problematic Cellular Phone Use Questionnaire (PCPUQ) was used to identify problematic use of smartphone use, and Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) and Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) were used to measure anxiety and depression symptoms. [Results] The prevalence of PSU among undergraduates was estimated to be 20.6% (207/1 006). There were significant differences between PSU and non-PSU on their major of either science category or humanities category (χ2=11.424 ,P<0.01), grade (χ2=5.868 ,P<0.05), monthly living expense supported by their family (χ2=12.713 ,P<0.01), daily time spent on their smartphones (χ2=20.052, P<0.01), frequency of changing the mobile phones (χ2=14.511 ,P<0.01) and monthly smartphone bill (χ2=13.107, P< 0.01). Furthermore, the self rated anxiety (34.8% (72/207) vs. 14.6% (117/799),χ2=43.704, P<0.01) and depression (36.2%(75/207) vs. 15.4%(123/799), χ2=45.159,P<0.01) were both found more elevated in PSU than non-PSU. [Conclusion] Some common sociodemographic variables and smartphone usage patterns were identified in undergraduates displaying PSU. Moreover, PSU is associated with more elevated anxiety and depression symptoms. Problematic smartphone use and its relation with anxiety and depression: a survey in a large sample of undergraduates (Article in Chinese). Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/318762637_Problematic_smartphone_use_and_its_relation_with_anxiety_and_depression_a_survey_in_a_large_sample_of_undergraduates_Article_in_Chinese [accessed Aug 2, 2017]. [less ▲]

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See detailUrgency
Billieux, Joël UL

in Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Shackelford, Todd K. (Eds.) Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences (2017)

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See detailSchizotypal personality traits and problematic use of massively-multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs)
Schimmenti, Adriano; Infanti, Alexandre; Badoud, Déborah et al

in Computers in Human Behavior (2017), 74

A link between maladaptive personality traits and an excessive use of massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) has been documented. However, the role of schizotypal personality traits in ... [more ▼]

A link between maladaptive personality traits and an excessive use of massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) has been documented. However, the role of schizotypal personality traits in MMORPG use is understudied. The aim of this study was to explore the potential links between schizotypal traits, motivations for playing MMORPGs, and symptoms of problematic MMORPG use. Eighty-three MMORPG gamers were enrolled in the study. They filled out questionnaires measuring schizotypal personality traits and an adapted version of the same scale designed to measure in-game schizotypal traits. All participants also filled out questionnaires assessing motivations for gaming and disordered use of MMORPGs. Results of the study showed that the disorganized and interpersonal traits of schizotypy decreased when participants were thinking about themselves in the virtual world. Schizotypal traits, together with achievement and immersion motives, predicted problematic use of MMORPGs. The findings of this study may suggest that schizotypal traits and motivations for playing can interact and play a relevant role in the onset and maintenance of problematic gaming [less ▲]

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See detailIs medicine use for nervousness associated with adolescent at-risk or problem gambling ?
Canale, Natale; Vieno, Alessio; Billieux, Joël UL et al

in European Addiction Research (2017), 23(4), 171-176

Objective: To examine the association between adolescent at-risk or problem gambling (ARPG) and medicine used to treat nervousness in a large-scale nationally representative sample of Italian adolescents ... [more ▼]

Objective: To examine the association between adolescent at-risk or problem gambling (ARPG) and medicine used to treat nervousness in a large-scale nationally representative sample of Italian adolescents. Study design: Data from the 2013 to 2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Survey was used for cross-sectional analyses (a sample of 20,791 15-year-old students). Self-administered questionnaires were completed by a representative sample of high-school students. Respondents’ ARPG, use of medicine for nervousness and potential confounding factors were assessed. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were used to test the association between medicine use to treat nervousness and ARPG. Results: The overall prevalence of adolescents reporting medicine use for nervousness in the last month was 6.3%. The odds of ARPG were 3 times higher among adolescents who used medicine for nervousness compared to that among adolescents who did not take such medicine (OR 2.96, 95% CI 2.07–4.25). Importantly, the association between medicine used to treat nervousness and ARPG did not vary significantly when viewed in light of psychological symptoms. Conclusions: Medicine use to treat nervousness is associated with increased risk of gambling-related harm. [less ▲]

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See detailProblematic Gaming Behaviour in Finnish Adolescents and Young Adults: Relation to Game Genres, Gaming Motives and Self-Awareness of Problematic Use
Männikkö, N.; Billieux, Joël UL; Nordström, T. et al

in International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction (2017), 15

The aim of this study was to explore the relation between Problematic Gaming Behaviour (PGB) and specific psychological factors (gaming motives, self-awareness of problematic gaming behaviour) and ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to explore the relation between Problematic Gaming Behaviour (PGB) and specific psychological factors (gaming motives, self-awareness of problematic gaming behaviour) and structural factors (game genres) among Finnish adolescents and young adults. A national survey of 271 respondents, aged 13 to 24, participated in the study. The study sample was randomly selected from the Population Register Center. Multiple regression analysis was used as a means of examining links between game genres, gaming motives and PGB. In addition, pairwise comparisons of a non-problematic gaming behavior group and a problematic gaming behavior group were used as a means of examining differences across game genre use and self-awareness of PGB. PGB was particularly associated with the use of a group of games encompassing role-playing, progression (e.g., character development), action and strategy features. The findings indicated that entertainment-achievement, social and escapism motives were associated with PGB. On the whole, this study emphasized that specific game genres and playing motives are involved in problematic use of digital game playing. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York [less ▲]

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See detailToward a Qualitative Understanding of Binge-Watching Behaviors: A Focus Group Approach
Flayelle, Maèva UL; Maurage, Pierre; Billieux, Joël UL

in Journal of Behavioral Addictions (2017), 6(4), 457-471

Background and aims: Binge-watching (i.e., seeing multiple episodes of the same TV series in a row) now constitutes a widespread phenomenon. However, little is known about the psychological factors ... [more ▼]

Background and aims: Binge-watching (i.e., seeing multiple episodes of the same TV series in a row) now constitutes a widespread phenomenon. However, little is known about the psychological factors underlying this behavior, as reflected by the paucity of available studies, most merely focusing on its potential harmfulness by applying the classic criteria used for other addictive disorders without exploring the uniqueness of binge-watching. The present study thus aimed to take the opposite approach as a first step toward a genuine understanding of binge-watching behaviors through a qualitative analysis of the phenomenological characteristics of TV series watching. Methods: A focus group of regular TV series viewers (N=7) was established to explore a wide range of aspects related to TV series watching (e.g., motives, viewing practices, related behaviors). Results: A content analysis identified bingewatching features across three dimensions: TV series watching motivations, TV series watching engagement, and structural characteristics of TV shows. Most participants acknowledged that TV series watching can become addictive, but they all agreed having trouble recognizing themselves as truly being an “addict.” Although obvious connections could be established with substance addiction criteria and symptoms, such parallelism appeared to be insufficient, as several distinctive facets emerged (e.g., positive view, transient overinvolvement, context dependency, low everyday life impact). Discussion and conclusions: Research should go beyond the classic biomedical and psychological models of addictive behaviors to account for binge-watching in order to explore its specificities and generate first steps toward an adequate theoretical rationale for these emerging problematic behaviors. [less ▲]

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