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See detailThe COVID 19 pandemic as a fortuitous disruptor in physical education: the case of active homework
Bailey, Richard; Scheuer, Claude UL

in AIMS Public Health (2022), 9(2), 423-439

Measures devised to contain the COVID 19, including isolation, social distancing, and quarantine, have profoundly affected people’s lives around the world. One of the consequences of these actions has ... [more ▼]

Measures devised to contain the COVID 19, including isolation, social distancing, and quarantine, have profoundly affected people’s lives around the world. One of the consequences of these actions has been a general reduction in the habitual daily physical activity among children and young people for whom schools represent the major setting for the promotion of sports, physically active play, movement skills learning, and other activity supportive of healthy, active lifestyles. Whilst acknowledging the seriousness of these changes, and their concomitant health risks, we suggest that COVID 19 offers an opportunity to think again about important features of school based activity promotion in light of new lessons learnt during lockdown, emerging technologies, and adapted pedagogies. In these specific cases, COVID 19 could be judged a fortuitous disruptor to the extent that it has opened a window of opportunity to schools and teachers to reflect on their assumptions about the scope, content, and delivery of the curricula, and on the new professional knowledge that has emerged. Active Homework, or physical activity related tasks assigned to students by teachers that are meant to be carried out before, after and away from school, that students can do on their ow n or with family members, is not a new idea, but the enforced changes to school provision have made it considerably more common since the pandemic. Perhaps Active Homework is a concept worth retaining as schools start to return to normal ””? We offer a typo logy of Active Homework, and examine opportunities to expand, extend, and enhance physical education and physical activity opportunities by breaking down the presumed boundary between school and home. In conclusion, we suggest that Active Homework is worth exploring as a potentially valuable approach to enhancing the quantity and quality of students’ school based health related physical activity. If so, considerably more research and curriculum development is needed. [less ▲]

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See detailActive Homework: an underresearched element of the active schools concept
Bailey, Richard; Heck, Sandra UL; Scheuer, Claude UL

in German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research (2022)

Background Most physical activity (PA) interventions targeting children focus on the school setting. However, children and young people are often less active at home. The purpose of this article is to ... [more ▼]

Background Most physical activity (PA) interventions targeting children focus on the school setting. However, children and young people are often less active at home. The purpose of this article is to review evidence from the last ten years of the contribution of physically Active Homework (AH) to the promotion of PA. Methods Using a rapid review methodology, the article reports on evidence contribution of AH and considers conditions for its effective implementation. Results Although research literature on the effects of AH is limited and missing a theoretical base, studies reporting small positive associations between AH and PA levels were identified. Increases in PA were, however, of low intensity; moderate and vigorous intensities remained relatively unchanged. Conclusions Strategies to increase PA extending beyond the school gym are needed. Further and better research is needed to understand the conditions of effective implementation of AH. Nevertheless, there is a plausibility in providing students regular opportunities to further promote PA in students’ lives by practicing movement and sports skills, and offering a flexible way of finding and pursuing meaningful activities. The fact that AH may encourage the engagement of families and communities, multiplies its potential benefits. [less ▲]

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See detailEffective Elements of School-based Provision for the Promotion of Healthy Lifestyles: A European Delphi Study
Bailey, Richard; Glibo, Iva; Scheuer, Claude UL

in Health Behavior and Policy Review (2021), 8(6), 546-557

Objective: Schools can serve as settings for promoting their student health, although it is necessary to identify the key elements of provision to leverage change. This study’s objective was to develop a ... [more ▼]

Objective: Schools can serve as settings for promoting their student health, although it is necessary to identify the key elements of provision to leverage change. This study’s objective was to develop a Europe-based list of the elements of learning and health support systems judged by a group of experts to be most effective in influencing school student healthy lifestyles education. Methods: A 3-stage Delphi study involving a group of 18 Europe-based subject specialists was used to articulate shared expert opinions on the main research question: what are the most effective elements of learning and health support systems influencing school students’ healthy lifestyles education? Over 3 rounds of data-gathering, experts were asked to assess the effectiveness of 25 specific elements. Results: The 3 rounds resulted in the following ranked list: Physical Education (PE), Staff Professional Development, Healthy School Policies, Active Recess, Family & Community Engagement, Healthy Eating, Physical Activity in Classroom Lessons, and Active Transport. Conclusions: Cautious of overly generalizing from the results, we suggest the findings offer useful information for evidence-based programs, as well as future research that explores the necessary components of health promotion in schools. [less ▲]

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See detailInclusion in Physical Education in primary schools in Europe through the lens of an Erasmus+ partnership
Marron, Susan; Murphy, Frances; Pitsia, Vasiliki et al

in Education 3-13 (2021)

Using data from the Disentangling Inclusion in Primary Physical Education (DIPPE) Erasmus+ project, this study aimed at investigating teachers’ practices related to inclusion of children with additional ... [more ▼]

Using data from the Disentangling Inclusion in Primary Physical Education (DIPPE) Erasmus+ project, this study aimed at investigating teachers’ practices related to inclusion of children with additional needs (AN) in primary physical education (PE) and identifying supports that could enhance these practices. Responses from 1170 primary teachers across nine European countries to an online questionnaire were analysed. Although inclusion was regarded as important, only 30% of children with AN were reported as being always included and engaged in PE. Teachers considered guidance on children’s motor needs and video-based resources particularly useful in promoting inclusion. Implications of the findings within the DIPPE project and more broadly are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailPhysically Active and Healthy School, Role of Primary Physical Education Teacher
Scheuer, Claude UL; Heck, Sandra UL

in Peters, Michael A. (Ed.) Encyclopedia of Teacher Education (2021)

In times when sedentary lifestyles become more prevalent due to societal changes, establishing physically active and healthy lifestyles is gaining increasing importance. By creating early positive ... [more ▼]

In times when sedentary lifestyles become more prevalent due to societal changes, establishing physically active and healthy lifestyles is gaining increasing importance. By creating early positive experiences for children, especially prior to the age of ten, special attention should be paid to primary schools in order to have a strong influence on the integration of physical activity into the everyday life of every student. Thus, an active school, in which physical activity is placed at its heart, can help establish active and healthy lifestyles and behavior, based on the idea that the best way to increase children’s physical activity is to give them more opportunities to be physically active. This is shown in conceptual frameworks for an Active School, including components such as active breaks and recess; active classroom learning; schoolhouse, schoolyard, and classroom design; active and dynamic sitting; active transport to school; active homework; physical activity-related school events; preschool and after-school clubs and activities; physical education as a learning subject (Scheuer and Bailey 2021). While teacher engagement in general – along with other relevant stakeholders, such as school headteachers, students and their parents – is critical to the successful promotion of physical activity and healthy lifestyle in school settings, teachers teaching physical education should take greater responsibility in this regard for supporting the development of the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and values associated with physically active and healthy lifestyles. As a result, these important aspects should also be considered in physical education teacher education. [less ▲]

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See detailA review of selected physical education teacher education texts in German (2019–2020)
Scheuer, Claude UL

in International Journal of Physical Education (2021), 58(1), 1-12

This review article analyses research articles on the topic of physical education teacher education published in German-speaking scientific journals in the period between January 2019 and December 2020 ... [more ▼]

This review article analyses research articles on the topic of physical education teacher education published in German-speaking scientific journals in the period between January 2019 and December 2020. In total, more than 60 journal issues of the journals Bewegung & Sport, German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research, Sportpädagogik, Sportunterricht, Zeitschrift für Sportpädagogische Forschung, and Zeitschrift für Sportpsychologie were reviewed. The reviewed articles are divided into two categories: physical education teachers’ professionalization, and articles focusing on instructional aspects in physical education. In the first category, 23 articles focusing on topics connected with physical education teacher education were analysed in two sections: (1) initial education of physical education teachers and (2) professionalization of physical education teachers. In the second category, 14 articles providing an overview of some current trends and orientations in physical education didactics relevant for physical education teacher education were analysed: (1) teaching and learning in physical education, (2) inclusive physical education and (3) diagnostic competence of physical education teachers. With 23 articles focusing directly on physical education teacher education, a considerable increase of publications on this topic in comparison to previous periods was identified. Most publications address issues related to initial physical education teacher education. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of basic motor competencies in primary school in Luxembourg
Scheuer, Claude UL; Bund, Andreas UL; Heck, Sandra UL et al

in Popups Université de Liège (2021)

An objective of physical education (PE) is supporting students’ positive motor development. Therefore, it is indispensable for them to be in command of the necessary basic motor competencies (in German ... [more ▼]

An objective of physical education (PE) is supporting students’ positive motor development. Therefore, it is indispensable for them to be in command of the necessary basic motor competencies (in German: Motorische Basiskompetenzen; MOBAK) as the prerequisites to be able to participate in the culture of human movement. For the implementation of the MOBAK approach in Luxembourg (MOBAK-LUX), we developed the test instruments MOBAK-LUX-PS for preschoolers, MOBAK-LUX-1 for first graders, MOBAK-LUX-3 for third graders and MOBAK-LUX-5 for fifth graders. These motor tests are conducted on a voluntary basis by interested schools and teachers at the beginning of each school year. In general, about one third of students in the different class levels have support needs in at least one area of basic motor competence. The support needs are prevalent mostly in the area object control and girls generally have lower results than boys, especially in object control. [less ▲]

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See detailA Narrative Literature Review on Inclusive Primary Physical Education
Gallagher, Jackie; Clardy, Aisling; O'Malley, Sarah et al

in Balint, Gheorghe; Antala, Branislav; Carty, Catherine (Eds.) et al Physical Education and Sport for Children and Youth with Special Needs Researches – Best Practices – Situation (2021)

The purpose of this narrative literature review is to map the current situation regarding the inclusion of children with additional needs in primary school physical education. By an analysis of relevant ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this narrative literature review is to map the current situation regarding the inclusion of children with additional needs in primary school physical education. By an analysis of relevant articles, reports and grey literature on inclusion, inclusion as a human right, inclusion in physical education, primary school physical education specifically, and strategies that enable inclusion, the article reports on the topic of inclusion in primary physical education. The review provides an overview of inclusion, its varying definitions and the understanding of inclusion as a human right. It also explores the key principles and strategies that inform inclusive education in practice. Although a clear impetus of including students with additional needs into general education classrooms is evidenced in legislative and policy trends, research indicates inconsistency in the amount of time spent in supporting pre-service teachers in the areas of inclusion. A specific focus if the review was on how to include and support children with varying educational needs in physical education. The review thereby underlines the need for inclusivizing primary school physical education by providing concrete practical support. The Disentangling Inclusion in Primary Physical Education project in the frame of which this review has been conducted is responding to this demand. [less ▲]

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See detailDisentangling Inclusive Primary Physical Education from the Teachers’ Perspective
Scheuer, Claude UL; Heck, Sandra UL; Marron, Susan et al

in Balint, Gheorghe; Antala, Branislav; Carty, Catherine (Eds.) et al Physical Education and Sport for Children and Youth with Special Needs Researches – Best Practices – Situation (2021)

Teachers have themselves the best insight into the requirements related to including children, especially those with additional needs, in primary physical education. Therefore, a quantitative survey using ... [more ▼]

Teachers have themselves the best insight into the requirements related to including children, especially those with additional needs, in primary physical education. Therefore, a quantitative survey using an online questionnaire was administered to teachers concerned with the implementation of physical education at primary schools in Europe. The overall response rate (N=1206) was relatively high but shows clear differences between the countries. It reports that 58.3% of the children are taught physical education by specialist teachers (against 36.7% by generalist teachers) and that 36.6% of the children are always included in physical education lessons. Generally, over 80.0% of the teachers ranked inclusion in primary physical education as important in their countries and 65.4% rated their competence to include children with additional needs in their physical education lessons as good or very good. Nevertheless, the results also suggest that teachers are not able to include all children in the lesson without further support and a particular emphasis on motor, physical and emotional needs of children is required. Finally, teachers would welcome in particular video case scenarios, templates of visual resources, video and audio recordings of support personnel and guidance on adapting activities. [less ▲]

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See detailDisentangling Inclusion in Physical Education Lessons: Developing a Resource Toolkit for Teachers
Scheuer, Claude UL; Boot, Erik; Carse, Nicola et al

in Balint, Gheorghe; Antala, Branislav; Carty, Catherine (Eds.) et al Physical Education and Sport for Children and Youth with Special Needs Researches – Best Practices – Situation (2021)

The practices adopted by physical education teachers are critical to the success of true inclusion policies. The Disentangling inclusion in primary physical education project aims to fill the existing gap ... [more ▼]

The practices adopted by physical education teachers are critical to the success of true inclusion policies. The Disentangling inclusion in primary physical education project aims to fill the existing gap of information and resources related to inclusion in primary physical education in one specific platform. As a starting point, a literature review and an online survey were undertaken to map the current situation regarding inclusive primary physical education. Based on their results and the recommendations derived from there, a free open educational resource in the form of a web application, focused on highlighting inclusive physical education strategies, has been developed. It is composed of different thematic modules (e.g. chronic conditions or sensory) highlighting the skills learners possess and challenges they may experience as they access the physical education curriculum. By using the resource, it is expected that a large number of teachers and student teachers will be enabled to diversify their pedagogies in issues related to inclusion in primary physical education. As a further consequence, their pedagogical skills and competences shall be enhanced. [less ▲]

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See detailBewegungserziehung inklusiv. Luxemburger Grundschullehrkräfte im Fokus
Heck, Sandra UL; Scheuer, Claude UL

in Luxembourg Centre for Educational Testing (LUCET); Universität Luxemburg (Uni.lu); Service de Coordination de la Recherche et de l‘Innovation pédagogiques et technologiques (SCRIPT) (Eds.) Nationaler Bildungsbericht Luxemburg 2021 (2021)

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See detailÉducation physique inclusive – Les enseignant(e)s de l’enseignement fondamental luxembourgeois à la loupe
Heck, Sandra UL; Scheuer, Claude UL

in Luxembourg Centre for Educational Testing (LUCET); Universität Luxemburg (Uni.lu); Service de Coordination de la Recherche et de l‘Innovation pédagogiques et technologiques (SCRIPT) (Eds.) Rapport nationale sur l'éducation Luxembourg 2021 (2021)

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See detailCompetence-Orientation in Teaching Physical Education
Heck, Sandra UL; Scheuer, Claude UL

in Peters, Michael A. (Ed.) Encyclopedia of Teacher Education (2020)

In recent years, curriculum development has shifted to competence-oriented approaches in many European countries and beyond. Contents of the respective competence-oriented curricula may vary depending on ... [more ▼]

In recent years, curriculum development has shifted to competence-oriented approaches in many European countries and beyond. Contents of the respective competence-oriented curricula may vary depending on the specific cultural, social and political background, and accordingly also on the individual decision-makers. They may however comprehensively be defined as “a curriculum that emphasizes the complex outcomes of a learning process (i.e. knowledge, skills and attitudes to be applied by learners), rather than mainly focused on what learners are expected to learn about in terms of traditionally defined content” (UNESCO-International Bureau of Education, 2012). Competence-based curricula are thus criteria-based and goals-oriented, flexible and adaptive to students’ and school contexts. They have in common that learning outcomes are considered as an essential evidence of having acquired competencies. Further, they attest to the effectiveness of education systems at delivering quality education and effective learning. What learners can acquire, however, depends not only on a clear definition of intended competencies and learning outcomes. It is also related to questions like how the learning contents are packaged and presented, how they are taught, where they are taught and acquired, how learners are facilitated, and also how their acquisition is verified (UNESCO-International Bureau of Education, 2012). National and regional policies and curricula thus only pave the way to competence-oriented teaching. They can however only be successful if they are accepted and well implemented by the teacher and if they take place in a positive learning environment (UNESCO-International Bureau of Education, 2012). Accordingly, subject didactics in physical education like in any other subject have to cover two roles: contributing to determine educational standards and developing concepts for competence-oriented teaching (Gogoll & Kurz, 2013). Having this double mission in mind, this chapter is opening by exploring what competence-orientation means, first in general and secondly, more specifically, in physical education classes. It continues by transferring the theoretical knowledge into the practical implementation of competence-oriented tasks. To conclude, a critical glance is thrown on the concept of competence-orientation in physical education. [less ▲]

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See detailA Narrative Review of Motor Competence in Children and Adolescents: What We Know and What We Need to Find Out
Lopes, Luis; Santos, Rute; Coelho e Silva, Manuel et al

in International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (2020), 18(1), 1-20

Lack of physical activity is a global public health problem causing not only morbidity and premature mortality, but it is also a major economic burden worldwide. One of the cornerstones of a physically ... [more ▼]

Lack of physical activity is a global public health problem causing not only morbidity and premature mortality, but it is also a major economic burden worldwide. One of the cornerstones of a physically active lifestyle is Motor Competence (MC). MC is a complex biocultural attribute and therefore, its study requires a multi-sectoral, multi-, inter- and transdisciplinary approach. MC is a growing area of research, especially in children and adolescents due to its positive association with a plethora of health and developmental outcomes. Many questions, however, remain to be answered in this field of research, with regard to: (i) Health and Developmental-related Associations of MC; (ii) Assessment of MC; (iii) Prevalence and Trends of MC; (iv) Correlates and Determinants of MC; (v) MC Interventions, and (vi) Translating MC Research into Practice and Policy. This paper presents a narrative review of the literature, summarizing current knowledge, identifying key research gaps and presenting questions for future investigation on MC in children and adolescents. This is a collaborative effort from the International Motor Competence Network (IMCNetwork) a network of academics and researchers aiming to promote international collaborative research and knowledge translation in the expansive field of MC. The knowledge and deliverables generated by addressing and answering the aforementioned research questions on MC presented in this review have the potential to shape the ways in which researchers and practitioners promote MC and physical activity in children and adolescents across the world. [less ▲]

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See detailComparative analysis of physical education and school sport development and research in Europe
Naul, Roland; Scheuer, Claude UL

in Naul, Roland; Scheuer, Claude (Eds.) Research on Physical Education and School Sport in Europe (2020)

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See detailResearch on Physical Education and School sport in Europe - Introduction
Naul, Roland; Scheuer, Claude UL

in Naul, Roland; Scheuer, Claude (Eds.) Research on Physical Education and School Sport in Europe (2020)

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See detailHistorical roots and strands of physical education and school sport development in Europe
Naul, Roland; Scheuer, Claude UL

in Naul, Roland; Scheuer, Claude (Eds.) Research on Physical Education and School Sport in Europe (2020)

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See detailResearch on Physical Education and School sport in Europe
Naul, Roland; Scheuer, Claude UL

Book published by Meyer & Meyer (2020)

The purpose of this anthology is to better understand the many different developments of physical education and school sports after almost two decades of the new 21st century and to better compare the ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this anthology is to better understand the many different developments of physical education and school sports after almost two decades of the new 21st century and to better compare the current status of physical education and school sports (PESS) across European countries. For better comparisons a basic set of eight criteria (A-H) have been identified for each chapter of a country review. The book is divided into three parts. Part A includes general items of development of PESS in Europe. Part B comprises 17 different country reviews all written by national experts. Part C documents comparative analysis of the country reviews about national school systems; development of compulsory PESS; aims and objectives of current PESS curricula; promotion of active learning with physical activity; extra-curricular settings at school and outside schools in collaboration with active communities; purpose, structure, aims and objectives of PESS teacher training; current research and findings of PESS studies and finally, recommendations for new EU-based PESS research studies. [less ▲]

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See detailBoîte à outils pour la formation des enseignants
Scheuer, Claude UL; Heck, Sandra UL

E-print/Working paper (2020)

Dans le cadre du projet BMC-EU (Compétences motrices de base en Europe), une boîte à outils pour la formation des enseignants reprenant le concept de formation ainsi qu’un manuel d'utilisation (BMC-EU ... [more ▼]

Dans le cadre du projet BMC-EU (Compétences motrices de base en Europe), une boîte à outils pour la formation des enseignants reprenant le concept de formation ainsi qu’un manuel d'utilisation (BMC-EU production intellectuelle 4) a été développée afin de soutenir la mise en œuvre de la formation aux tests MOBAK (boîte à outils pour l’enseignant-support théorique) la base du concept de compétences motrices de base (BMC-EU production intellectuelle 3 ; Scheuer & Heck, 2020). L'objectif de cette boîte à outils de soutien est d'être mis en œuvre principalement au niveau des cours réguliers d'éducation physique pour aider les enseignants d’éducation physique à adapter leurs contenus et leurs méthodes d'enseignement. La boîte à outils pour la formation des enseignants présente les éléments à mettre en œuvre lors de formations d'enseignants. Celles-ci sont structurées en une partie théorique et une partie pratique. Dans un premier temps, les enseignants sont familiarisés avec le concept MOBAK, la mesure, la procédure de test, le traitement des données et l’évaluation ainsi qu'avec l'interprétation des résultats du test. Dans une deuxième partie, ils apprennent à passer du diagnostic des compétences motrices de base des élèves et des forces et faiblesses identifiées dans l'évaluation à des interventions concrètes en utilisant le cadre de soutien MOBAK et les documents qui l'accompagnent sous la forme d'un support théorique (boîte à outils pour l’enseignant), prêt à être mis en œuvre dans des situations éducatives concrètes pour soutenir les élèves ayant des besoins supplémentaires en compétences motrices de base. Étant donné que la boîte à outils pour la formation des enseignants vise à soutenir et à faciliter la mise en œuvre de la formation théorique des enseignants de soutien modulaire pour les enseignants (Scheuer et Heck, 2020), il sera fait référence au concept et au construit des tests MOBAK (Herrmann, 2018), et au manuel de test MOBAK tout au long de ce document. [less ▲]

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See detailTeacher training toolkit
Scheuer, Claude UL; Heck, Sandra UL

E-print/Working paper (2020)

In the frame of the BMC-EU project (Basic motor competencies in Europe), a teacher training toolkit consisting of a teacher training concept with an accompanying user manual (BMC-EU intellectual output 4 ... [more ▼]

In the frame of the BMC-EU project (Basic motor competencies in Europe), a teacher training toolkit consisting of a teacher training concept with an accompanying user manual (BMC-EU intellectual output 4) was developed in order to support the implementation of the modular support toolkit on the basis of the concept of basic motor competences (BMC-EU intellectual output 3; Scheuer & Heck, 2020). The aim of this support toolkit is to be implemented mainly at the level of regular physical education lessons to initiate adaptations regarding the content and methods in physical education instruction. The teacher training toolkit contains materials to implement teacher trainings structured in a theoretical and a practical part. In a first step, teachers are familiarized with the MOBAK concept, measurement, test procedure, data procession and evaluation as well as with the interpretation of test results. In a second part, they learn how to get from the diagnosis of the students’ basic motor competencies and the strengths and weaknesses identified in the assessment to concrete interventions by using the MOBAK support framework and the accompanying supportive handouts in form of a modular support toolkit, ready to be implemented in concrete educational situations to support students with additional needs in basic motor competencies. As the teacher training toolkit aims to support and facilitate the implementation of the Modular support toolkit for teachers (Scheuer & Heck, 2020) based on the MOBAK concept and measurement (Herrmann, 2018), reference to the support toolkit and the MOBAK Test manual is given throughout this document [less ▲]

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