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See detailUnlocking web archives through metadata, seed lists and derived data
Clavert, Frédéric UL; Schafer, Valerie UL

Scientific Conference (2022, June 01)

This presentation addresses the use, re-use, access and dissemination of data related to web archives. Web archives (Brügger, 2018) have been for several years in a hybrid position regarding access ... [more ▼]

This presentation addresses the use, re-use, access and dissemination of data related to web archives. Web archives (Brügger, 2018) have been for several years in a hybrid position regarding access, depending on the institutions that were preserving them. While Internet Archive has made its collections available online since 2001 through the Wayback Machine (but with limited features for scholars willing to conduct a distant reading based on data, WARC files, etc.), most national libraries only allowed an onsite access due to authors rights restrictions (and in some cases the frame of legal deposits), while starting to provide interesting metadata for research projects willing to explore them. However, the situation is currently evolving in the frame of several research projects that allow to access a vast amount of (international) metadata and datasets. Taking two research projects in progress as case studies, WARCnet and AWAC2, this paper aims to present the move towards the use of metadata and derived data related to huge collections of web archives of the COVID crisis. WARCnet (Web ARChive studies network researching web domains and events) is a network whose activities (funded by the Independent Research Fund Denmark | Humanities (grant no 9055-00005B)) run in 2020-2023. The networking activities are guided by overarching research questions, one of them being “How transnational events developed on the European web?” (and notably the COVID crisis which is explored in WG2 (https://cc.au.dk/en/warcnet/working-groups)). AWAC2 (Analysing Web Archives of the COVID Crisis through the IIPC Novel Coronavirus dataset) is a project part of the Archives Unleashed Cohort Program, that supports and facilitates research engagement with web archives. It aims to explore a unique collection of web material (https://archive-it.org/collections/13529) related to the pandemic, with contributions from over 30 members of IIPC (International Internet Preservation Consortium) as well as public nominations from over 100 individuals/institutions. May it be in terms of access or tools, both projects are currently exploring new methodologies based on broad datasets (i.e. 5,3 TB for the IIPC collection related to the COVID crisis; 9.4 GB and 8,738,751 lines for the CSV related to plain text webpages). Starting with the WARCnet project, the presentation will explain how its WG2 gathered and accessed several national European datasets of COVID web archives, their specificities as well as their heterogeneity, the first analysis conducted through a datathon on January- February 2021 (Aasman et al. 2021) and the limits and assets of such access. Within the AWAC2 project (2021-2022) the access to the international IIPC COVID collection, through Archive-It and through the cohort program developed by the Archives Unleashed Team (Netpreserve, 2021; Ruest et al., 2021), is then a new opportunity to access data through mediated interfaces (ARCH) and to go further into them. Here again the presentation will demonstrate new opportunities and show a few examples of the analysis conducted by the team. Both examples aim to present the way web archiving institutions, libraries and researchers are developing new ways of accessing and exploring web archives, while also increasing their value(s) (Schafer and Winters, 2021). References Aasman, S., Bingham, N., Brügger, N., de Wild, K., Gebeil S. & Schafer V. (2021). Chicken and Egg: Reporting from a Datathon Exploring Datasets of the COVID- 19 Special Collections, WARCnet paper, Aarhus, https://cc.au.dk/fileadmin/dac/Projekter/WARCnet/Aasman_et_al_Chicken_and_Egg.pdf Brügger, N. (2018). The Archived Web. Doing History in the Digital Age. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. IIPC (2021), A Retrospective with the Archives Unleashed Project, netpreserve blog, https://netpreserveblog.wordpress.com/2021/04/01/a-retrospective-with-the-archives-unleashed-project/ Ruest, N., Fritz, S., Deschamps, R. Lin, J. & Milligan, I. (2021) From archive to analysis: accessing web archives at scale through a cloud-based interface. International Journal of Digital Humanities, https://paperity.org/p/260049927/from-archive-to-analysis-accessing-web-archives-at-scale-through-a-cloud-based-interface Schafer V. & Winters J. (2021). The values of web archives, International Journal of Digital Humanities, 1-10, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8190571/ [less ▲]

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See detail“Use”: When personas become real users…
Clavert, Frédéric UL; Schafer, Valerie UL

Scientific Conference (2022, May 24)

Building upon our experience with ARCH, our study related to the IIPC Novel Coronavirus collection, as well as upon the first months of research we conducted as a cohort team in the Archives Unleashed ... [more ▼]

Building upon our experience with ARCH, our study related to the IIPC Novel Coronavirus collection, as well as upon the first months of research we conducted as a cohort team in the Archives Unleashed Project, we will provide feedback related to users’ needs and achievements. Ian Milligan distinguished in his paper “You shouldn’t Need to be a Web Historian to Use Web Archives: Lowering Barriers to Access Through Community and Infrastructure” (WARCnet paper, Aarhus, 2020), three personas: a computational humanist, a digital humanist, and a conventional historian. As an heterogeneous team, mirroring in some ways the personas distinguished by Ian Milligan, we will underline the successes and failures we experienced, the technical layers and levels we unfolded, our experience of collective work which also needs to take interdisciplinarity and heterogeneity (of technical skills, interests, availability, digital literacy) into account, the value of mentorship and our iterative process with data and research questions. We will finally shortly discuss the many pros and few cons in lowering barriers to access web archives (e.g. How to make access easiest without hiding the complexity of web archives?). [less ▲]

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See detailLe Centenaire et les nouveaux médias
Clavert, Frédéric UL

in Weinrich, Arndt; Patin, Nicolas (Eds.) Quel Bilan Scientifique pour le Centenaire de 1914-1918? (2022)

This chapter assesses the general and academic uses of social media (most particularly twitter) during the Centenary of the First World War.

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See detailIntroduction
Mourlon-Druol, Emmanuel; Clavert, Frédéric UL

in Politique Européenne (2022), 2022(2), 6-11

Le vingtième siècle européen a été caractérisé par des visions concurrentes et/ou conflictuelles de l'organisation du continent. Cette introduction générale explique pourquoi les éditeurs ont décidé de se ... [more ▼]

Le vingtième siècle européen a été caractérisé par des visions concurrentes et/ou conflictuelles de l'organisation du continent. Cette introduction générale explique pourquoi les éditeurs ont décidé de se concentrer sur la période de la guerre froide, présente brièvement le contexte historique plus large et clarifie enfin l'utilisation du mot "asymétrie". [less ▲]

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See detailHow to Design Web Archives Research
Ogden, Jessica; Kurzmeier, Michael; Clavert, Frédéric UL

Book published by SAGE Publications, Ltd. (2022)

The aim of this guide is to provide a starting point for using web archives as a source for social science research. With the migration of many aspects of the so- cial world online, fundamental questions ... [more ▼]

The aim of this guide is to provide a starting point for using web archives as a source for social science research. With the migration of many aspects of the so- cial world online, fundamental questions have been raised about how and even when social science research happens in the online sphere (Karpf, 2012). Web archives, or archives of content and communications from the Web through time, crucially provide the means for retrospectively studying dynamic media and online interactions that are often subject to change and deletion. In addition to the opportunities afforded by web archives as a primary source, however, given their scale and complexity, these collections also present challenges for researchers who want to use them. This guide provides a primer for how to approach web archives research design by first outlining what web archives are and how they differ from other types of web data, as well as identifying key sources for web archives collections. Following this, we provide several high-level descriptions and examples of existing research to demonstrate how web archives offer particular methodological opportunities for studying different types of web phenomena. Next, we draw on the literature to highlight three key considerations for designing a project using web archives, including the ethical implications of using archived web data without the consent of content producers. The guide concludes by summarising the opportunities and challenges of using web archives and provides additional sources to consult. [less ▲]

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See detailUne informalité bien ordonnée ? La conversation académique sur Twitter
Clavert, Frédéric UL; Muller, Caroline

in Tracés. Revue de sciences humaines. (2021), (#21), 65-84

Twitter and social media do not have a good reputation. However, this reputation does not correspond, or only partly corresponds, to the experience of many researchers. Based on a corpus of tweets, we ... [more ▼]

Twitter and social media do not have a good reputation. However, this reputation does not correspond, or only partly corresponds, to the experience of many researchers. Based on a corpus of tweets, we argue in this article that academic Twitter reflects the material conditions of research in France, allows for greater visibility of researchers and consequently for the formation of atypical networks that does not occur in the more traditional places of academic socialization, all in a form of a “well-ordered” informality, partly constrained by the hierarchies of higher education and research. [less ▲]

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See detailHistoire de la construction européenne et mise en données du monde
Clavert, Frédéric UL

in Stratégies et acteurs. Construire l’Europe au XXe siècle (2021)

This article investigates the opportunities and risks that the datafication of primary sources – i.e. not only their digitization but also their transformation into statistical material that can be ... [more ▼]

This article investigates the opportunities and risks that the datafication of primary sources – i.e. not only their digitization but also their transformation into statistical material that can be tabulated – creates for the history of European integration. It uses cases of online digital libraries to show the consequences of digitization policy choices on the way historians can analyse these sources and, as a consequence, write history. We then explain the principle of ‘distant reading’, which stems from the work of the historian Franco Moretti, and try, with a few examples of research already carried out or to be carried out, to illustrate its possibilities for this historiographical school. All in all, we attempt to describe what it is to ‘write the history of European integration’ in the digital era. [less ▲]

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See detailOn pyramids, prisms, and scalable reading
Fickers, Andreas UL; Clavert, Frédéric UL

in Journal of Digital History (2021), 1(1),

Since Robert Darnton’s 1999 essay sketched a broad vision of what could become historical scholarship, many scholars have tried to put into practice new ways to publish in the digital era. Inspired by the ... [more ▼]

Since Robert Darnton’s 1999 essay sketched a broad vision of what could become historical scholarship, many scholars have tried to put into practice new ways to publish in the digital era. Inspired by the concept of digital hermeneutics, the Journal of Digital History – a joint venture between the C2DH and De Gruyter Publishing group – proposes to put Darnton’s vision into reality by offering a multi-layered publication platform for data-driven scholarship in the field of digital history. [less ▲]

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See detailDe la poussière à la lumière bleue. Émotions, récits, gestes de l'archive à l'ère numérique
Muller, Caroline; Clavert, Frédéric UL

in Signata. Annales des Sémiotiques (2021), 12(12),

For a great many historians, Arlette Farge’s book The Allure of the Archives remains a seminal description of working with archives, at least in France. In the past few years however, a clear disparity ... [more ▼]

For a great many historians, Arlette Farge’s book The Allure of the Archives remains a seminal description of working with archives, at least in France. In the past few years however, a clear disparity has emerged between this book and the actual experience and practice of historical research because of the rise in digital technologies, which have prompted a dramatic change in historians’ relationship with archives. Based on the collective online book Le Goût de l’archive à l’ère numérique (“The allure of the archives in the digital age” – https://www.gout-numerique.net/) and on a study day held in 2018 at the French National Archives, this paper aims to investigate the changing relationship of historians with archives: their emotional engagement, their relations with archivists and their practices when consulting paper, digitised or born-digital archives. From dusty shelves to blue light, the entire profession of historian has changed, often in discreet, implicit ways, such as the recent practice of taking photos at archival centers, a consequence of the widespread ownership and use of digital cameras. Do archives still elicit the same emotions when they are merely one snapshot among many on a hard disk, or when they are turned into data and published online in a corpus? If the emotion attached to archives is no longer the same, does this change the way in which we interpret them? How should we reflect on our own practices so that we can see past the algorithms that drive the search engines and software we now use? [less ▲]

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See detail4rth RESAW conference
Schafer, Valerie UL; Clavert, Frédéric UL

Presentation (2021, June)

The 4th RESAW conference, organised by the C²DH (Luxembourg Centre for Contemporary and Digital History) at the University of Luxembourg, is part of a remote Web archiving week starting on 14 June 2021 ... [more ▼]

The 4th RESAW conference, organised by the C²DH (Luxembourg Centre for Contemporary and Digital History) at the University of Luxembourg, is part of a remote Web archiving week starting on 14 June 2021, which will involved a series of RESAW pre-conference workshops in parallel to the IIPC General Assembly, followed by the IIPC conference organised by the BnL (Bibliothèque nationale du Luxembourg) on 15-16 June 2021 (all details about the programme and registrations are available at https://netpreserve.org/ga2021/), then the RESAW conference. [less ▲]

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See detailHistory in the Era of Massive Data
Clavert, Frédéric UL

in Geschichte und Gesellschaft (2021), 47(1), 175--194

Abstract This article draws on the experience of the Luxembourg Centre for Contemporary and Digital History (C2DH) research project, ``\#ww1 the centenary of the Great War on Twitter,'' to contemplate ... [more ▼]

Abstract This article draws on the experience of the Luxembourg Centre for Contemporary and Digital History (C2DH) research project, ``\#ww1 the centenary of the Great War on Twitter,'' to contemplate what it means to use born-digital and big data primary sources, both as a methodology and as a contribution to the field of memory studies and contemporary history more broadly. It discusses the notion of distant reading in order to show the interest of multiscale reading in the framework of big data. It also elaborates upon the use of reflexive thinking in terms of what we really study when using this kind of primary source materials (tweets and, more generally, feeds of borndigital sources), namely: temporalities and information circulation. [less ▲]

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See detailPatrimoine, Public History et Humanités numériques. L’Encyclopédie pour une Histoire nouvelle de l’Europe et le fonds Colbert
Clavert, Frédéric UL

in Meynard, Cécile; Lebarbé, Thomas; Costa, Sandra (Eds.) Patrimoine et Humanités numériques (2020)

Taking the concept of digital “heritagisation” as a process that ranges from digitisation to the broad use of a collection of photos, this article explains how, from 2013 to 2015, LabEx EHNE planned to ... [more ▼]

Taking the concept of digital “heritagisation” as a process that ranges from digitisation to the broad use of a collection of photos, this article explains how, from 2013 to 2015, LabEx EHNE planned to turn a series of boxes of glass plate photographs into a digitised image-based corpus that would be used in the specific context of a research project and also be made available to the wider public. In this process, digital humanities methodologies and tools played a vital role. They provided a solid, sustainable foundation for the “datafication” of the collection (its digitisation and, importantly, improvements to the associated metadata), a crucial part of the process. They also served as a basis for various educational applications of the collection. The images were made available to a wider audience when the collection was brought online and used in the Encyclopédie pour une Histoire nouvelle de l’Europe. The datafication of the collection by means of digital humanities methods is therefore what enabled its transformation into digital heritage. [less ▲]

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See detailJulie Maeck et Matthias Steinle (dir.) L’image d’archives. Une image en devenir Rennes, PUR , 2016, 340 p.
Clavert, Frédéric UL

in Annales: Histoire, Sciences Sociales (2019), 74(3-4), 818-821

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See detailChercher sur, autour et avec le numérique
Clavert, Frédéric UL; Schafer, Valerie UL

in Blandin, Claire; Robinet, François; Schafer, Valerie (Eds.) Penser l'histoire des médias (2019)

À l’image de son objet, l’histoire sur le numérique est un champ de recherche jeune, issu d’une historiographie puisant à de nombreuses sources. Devenue aujourd’hui une composante de l’histoire des médias ... [more ▼]

À l’image de son objet, l’histoire sur le numérique est un champ de recherche jeune, issu d’une historiographie puisant à de nombreuses sources. Devenue aujourd’hui une composante de l’histoire des médias, après avoir été une composante de l’histoire des techniques et de l’innovation, elle dispose de multiples facettes : de l’histoire de l’informatique à celle des cultures numériques, elle est un champ en construction et en expansion, très ouvert à d’autres disciplines. L’évolution de l’informatique vers la micro-informatique personnelle et l’émergence du Web ont par ailleurs donné naissance à de nouvelles sources, nées numériques (aussi appelées « sources nativement numériques »), qui ouvrent de nouvelles perspectives de recherche, non sans poser des questions méthodologiques et épistémologiques également nouvelles ou renouvelées. Le numérique est aussi un outil, dont les historiens se sont emparés : l’histoire avec le numérique offre des méthodes pour analyser et lire les sources primaires nées numériques mais aussi pour écrire l’histoire. [less ▲]

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See detailLes humanités numériques, un enjeu historique
Clavert, Frédéric UL; Schafer, Valerie UL

in Quaderni (2019), 98

Digital technologies may impact the practices of historians at every stages of their research, from retrieving archives, building a corpus to writing and editing. Digital tools have influenced spaces for ... [more ▼]

Digital technologies may impact the practices of historians at every stages of their research, from retrieving archives, building a corpus to writing and editing. Digital tools have influenced spaces for scientific dialogue and free flow of ideas within the historians' community. As such, Digital Humanities are challenging the shaping of history, but they could also become an object of history. Therefore, we will analyse such an hybridization that may enrich our field of study. [less ▲]

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See detailRebecca Lemov Database of Dreams: The Lost Quest to Catalog Humanity New Haven, Yale University Press, 2015, xii -354 p.
Clavert, Frédéric UL

in Annales: Histoire, Sciences Sociales (2019), 74(3-4), 911--913

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See detailLe goût de l'archive à l'ère numérique
Clavert, Frédéric UL; Muller, Caroline

in La gazette des Archives (2019), 2019-1(253),

En 1989, Arlette Farge publie Le goût de l’archive. Elle y décrit ce que tout·e his­to­rien·ne a pu vivre : une rela­tion intime aux sour­ces pri­mai­res – que l’on s’appro­prie phy­si­que­ment et ... [more ▼]

En 1989, Arlette Farge publie Le goût de l’archive. Elle y décrit ce que tout·e his­to­rien·ne a pu vivre : une rela­tion intime aux sour­ces pri­mai­res – que l’on s’appro­prie phy­si­que­ment et intel­lec­tuel­le­ment –, qui s’ins­crit dans un espace par­ti­cu­lier, la salle de lec­ture. Cette rela­tion intime condi­tionne pour partie l’inter­pré­ta­tion de nos sour­ces et le récit du passé que nous en tirons. Aujourd’hui, la mise en don­nées des sour­ces pri­mai­res bou­le­verse cette rela­tion intime : nous consul­tons des corpus en ligne, et nos séjours en cen­tres d’archi­ves sont trans­for­més par de nou­veaux usages, à l’exem­ple de l’appa­reil photo. Ce numéro de La Gazette des archi­ves est la pre­mière cap­ture d’un projet qui ques­tionne l’évolution de ce lien au docu­ment d’archi­ves. Archivistes et his­to­rien·­nes s’inter­ro­gent : à l’ère numé­ri­que, les archi­ves ont-elles tou­jours le même goût ? Ce numéro a été conjoin­te­ment coor­donné par Frédéric Clavert, pro­fes­seur assis­tant en his­toire contem­po­raine (uni­ver­sité du Luxembourg), et Caroline Muller, maî­tresse de confé­ren­ces en his­toire contem­po­raine (uni­ver­sité Rennes 2). [less ▲]

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See detailLe goût de l'API
Clavert, Frédéric UL

in La gazette des Archives (2019), 2019-1(253),

La multiplication de sites ou plateformes web de plus en plus complexes collectant des données sur leurs utilisateurs, la place déterminante des moteurs de recherche et, surtout, de l’un d’entre eux en ... [more ▼]

La multiplication de sites ou plateformes web de plus en plus complexes collectant des données sur leurs utilisateurs, la place déterminante des moteurs de recherche et, surtout, de l’un d’entre eux en particulier, la croissance extraordinaire du rôle des réseaux sociaux numériques et la place qu’ils ont pris dans la vie d’une très grande partie de la population mondiale, ont donné lieu à la naissance de la notion protéiforme de Big Data, que l’on peut traduire sous le nom de données massives. Ces données massives sont, parfois, dès aujourd’hui, exploitables par les chercheurs et chercheuses en sciences humaines et sociales, y compris historiennes et historiens. L’accès à ces données, que l’on peut considérer comme des sources primaires nées numériques, nées hors du papier, hors d’un support matériel (mais non sans matérialité si l’on considère l’infrastructure informatique nécessaire pour les produire et les pérenniser), sous forme d’un signal informatique originellement fait de 0 et de 1, n’est pas toujours aisé. L’un des moyens de les collecter est d’utiliser ce que l’on appelle une interface de programmation. Une interface de programmation – ou Application Programming Interface (API) – est un dispositif logiciel qui permet à deux programmes d’échanger, par exemple, des fonctionnalités ou des données. De nombreux sites web en proposent à leurs utilisateurs. Sur une page web, vous voyez un petit bouton « J’aime » provenant du réseau social numérique Facebook? Le concepteur de cette page web a fait appel à l’interface de programmation de Facebook. Ces API permettent parfois également de collecter des donnés de manière massive. Ainsi, ai-je pu collecter quatre millions de tweets liés à la Première Guerre mondiale ou à son centenaire depuis avril 2014. Cette collecte ira jusqu’à la fin du mois de juin 2019, c’est-à-dire jusqu’au Centenaire du traité de Versailles. [less ▲]

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See detailFace au passé: la Grande Guerre sur Twitter
Clavert, Frédéric UL

in Le Temps des Médias (2018), (31),

Our research about the Great War and its Centenary is based on a massive harvest of tweets. The database thus assembled reveals many temporalities, from the high frequency of the information's circulation ... [more ▼]

Our research about the Great War and its Centenary is based on a massive harvest of tweets. The database thus assembled reveals many temporalities, from the high frequency of the information's circulation that is characteristic of social networks online to the presence of the longue durée. The analysis of this interplay of temporalities leads us to question the consequences of social networks online on the notion of regime of historicity. [less ▲]

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