References of "Wolf, Oliver T."
     in
Bookmark and Share    
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailImpact of a hypnotic trance on the physiological and subjective stress response to an acute stressor
Dierolf, Angelika UL; Wortmeier, Theresa; Zeyer, Reinhold et al

in Kirschbaum, C. (Ed.) 45. Jahrestagung Psychologie und Gehirn - Abstractban (2019)

Clinical hypnosis is a valuable therapeutic tool in the treatment of phobias and acute pain. These conditions have in common that stress constitutes a crucial factor in the genesis and frightening or ... [more ▼]

Clinical hypnosis is a valuable therapeutic tool in the treatment of phobias and acute pain. These conditions have in common that stress constitutes a crucial factor in the genesis and frightening or painful situations. The present study was aimed to investigate whether hypnotic trance has a positive immediate impact on the psychological and physiological responses to an acute stressor. 48 men and women underwent the socially-evaluated cold pressor test and a warm water control procedure in two separated sessions. Beforehand, hypnotic suggestibility was tested with the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility. Participants were randomly assigned to three groups: to a hypnotic trance group, an active control group, and a natural history group. Before the stress and the control procedures, the hypnotic trance group received a hypnotic trance strengthening stress resilience and stress coping. The active control group received a non-fictional text together with a suggestion to strengthen resilience. The natural history group received no intervention. After both procedures, participants performed a working memory task. Hormonal, cardiovascular, respiratory, and subjective measures were taken throughout the sessions. Results show that the hypnotic trance affected hormonel and cardiovascular parameters differently. While cortisol and alpha amylase were generally reduced in the hypnotic trance group, cardiovascular parameters and subjective stress were specifically altered in the stress procedure and modulated by suggestibility. Our results show the potential of a short hypnotic intervention to positively influence the stress response and the restoration of the homeostasis. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 26 (2 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailGood to be stressed? Improved response inhibition and error processing after acute stress in young and older men
Dierolf, Angelika UL; Schoofs, Daniela; Hessas, Eve-Mariek et al

in Neuropsychologia (2018), 119

own on whether and how age modulates stress effects on executive functions and their neural correlates. The current study investigated the effect of acute stress on response inhibition and error ... [more ▼]

own on whether and how age modulates stress effects on executive functions and their neural correlates. The current study investigated the effect of acute stress on response inhibition and error processing and their underlying cortical processes in younger and older healthy men, using EEG. Forty-nine participants (30 young) were stressed with the Trier Social Stress Test (16 young, 9 older) or underwent a friendly control procedure (14 young, 10 older) and subsequently performed a Go/No-Go task with two levels of task difficulty while performance (reaction time, error rate), stimulus-locked (N2, P3) and response-locked (Ne, Pe) ERPs were measured. Previous results on age-related cognitive deficits were replicated, with slower responses and reduced and delayed N2 and P3 components, as well as reduced Ne and Pe components in older participants. Independent of age, acute stress improved response inhibition, reflected in higher accuracy for compatible trials and enhanced inhibition-related components (N2, P3 and N2d, P3d of the difference waves No-Go minus Go), and improved error processing, reflected in enhanced error-related components (Ne, Pe and Ne_d, Pe_d of the difference waves error minus correct trial). Our findings indicate that acute stress leads to a reallocation of cognitive resources, strengthening inhibition and error processing in young and older healthy men to a similar degree. Neural generators of the analyzed ERPs are mainly part of the salience network, which is upregulated immediately after stress. This offers an explanation as to why response inhibition, in contrast to other executive functions, improves after acute stress. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 198 (9 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailInfluences of acute stress on inhibitory control - does age matter? An ERP study
Dierolf, Angelika UL; Schoofs, Daniela; Hesse, Eva et al

Poster (2017, September)

Prefrontal cortex (PFC) based cognitive functions have been shown to be impaired with increasing age. Furthermore, the PFC has been found to be highly sensitive to stress and the stress hormone cortisol ... [more ▼]

Prefrontal cortex (PFC) based cognitive functions have been shown to be impaired with increasing age. Furthermore, the PFC has been found to be highly sensitive to stress and the stress hormone cortisol, which are assumed to influence executive functions. Although stress, allegorical for the life in the 21st century, concerns and affects both the young and the elderly in work life, little is known about the mutual impact of stress and aging on executive functioning. The present EEG study investigated the impact of acute stress on the core executive function inhibitory control in young and older males. Forty-nine participants were either stressed via the Trier Social Stress Test or underwent a control condition. Subse- quently, they performed a Go Nogo task while EEG, reaction times, errors and salivary cortisol were measured. Though older participants reacted slower to Go stimuli relative to young participants, both groups showed the same accuracy rate for Go and Nogo stimuli. Surprisingly, stress improved accuracy compared to the control group. The similar pattern was found in the EEG data with an enhanced error-related negativity (Ne/ERN) in the stress group. Beside this, elderly showed a reduced Ne compared to the young. No interaction between stress and age was observed. The present results suggest that stress may have beneficial effects on inhibitory control and error monitoring, irrespectively of the age. However, fur- ther research is needed to clarify if this is valid for other executive functions and under which circumstances negative impacts manifest. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 29 (0 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailWhat our eyes tell us about feelings: Tracking pupillary responses during emotion regulation processes
Kinner, Valerie, L.; Kuchinke, Lars; Dierolf, Angelika UL et al

in Psychophysiology (2017), 54(4),

Emotion regulation is essential for adaptive behavior and mental health. Strategies applied to alter emotions are known to differ in their impact on psychological and physiological aspects of the ... [more ▼]

Emotion regulation is essential for adaptive behavior and mental health. Strategies applied to alter emotions are known to differ in their impact on psychological and physiological aspects of the emotional response. However, emotion regulation outcome has primarily been assessed via self‐report, and studies comparing regulation strategies with regard to their peripheral physiological mechanisms are limited in number. In the present study, we therefore aimed to investigate the effects of different emotion regulation strategies on pupil dilation, skin conductance responses, and subjective emotional responses. Thirty healthy females were presented with negative and neutral pictures and asked to maintain or up‐ and downregulate their upcoming emotional responses through reappraisal or distraction. Pupil dilation and skin conductance responses were significantly enhanced when viewing negative relative to neutral pictures. For the pupil, this emotional arousal effect manifested specifically late during the pupillary response. In accordance with subjective ratings, increasing negative emotions through reappraisal led to the most prominent pupil size enlargements, whereas no consistent effect for downregulation was found. In contrast, early peak dilations were enhanced in all emotion regulation conditions independent of strategy. Skin conductance responses were not further modulated by emotion regulation. These results indicate that pupil diameter is modulated by emotional arousal, but is initially related to the extent of mental effort required to regulate automatic emotional responses. Our data thus provide first evidence that the pupillary response might comprise two distinct temporal components reflecting cognitive emotion regulation effort on the one hand and emotion regulation success on the other hand. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 125 (2 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailStress Reduction via Hypnosis? Influence of Hypnosis on the physiological Stress Response
Dierolf, Angelika UL; Wortmeier, Theresa; Zeyer, Reinhold et al

Poster (2017)

Hypnosis and self-hypnosis are assumed to have positive long-term effects for successful stress coping. However, so far it is unclear where hypnosis can instantly influence the physiological stress ... [more ▼]

Hypnosis and self-hypnosis are assumed to have positive long-term effects for successful stress coping. However, so far it is unclear where hypnosis can instantly influence the physiological stress response. To examine this, 48 participants underwent an acute stressor and a control condition in balanced order. Beforehand, sixteen participants were hypnotized inducing enhanced stress cop- ing ability with the posthypnotic suggestion of strengthened stress resilience. Another group listened to an unrelated non-fictional text receiving the same post- hypnotic suggestion. A third group received no intervention before the stress and control procedure. Afterwards, working memory performance was measured via a 3-back tasks. During the experiment, the electrocardiogram was recorded and salivary samples were collected for cortisol- and alpha-amylase analyses. Hypnotic suggestibility was assessed a week before the experimental sessions in a group setting. Preliminary results show a positive impact of hypnosis and post- hypnotic suggestion on the endocrine and cardiovascular parameters of the stress response, with reduced cortisol- and alpha amylase levels relative to the control group. Moreover, power of frequency bands of the heart rate variability spectrum was altered by hypnosis and posthypnotic suggestion depending on the suggestibility. These results indicate a beneficial immediate modulation the physiological stress response by hypnosis, reinforcing its application for stress management as for instance in therapy, coaching and prevention. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 19 (0 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailEinfluss von akutem Stress auf die Verhaltensinhibition –eine ERP Studie
Dierolf, Angelika UL; Trimborn, Nina; Pomrehn, Dennis et al

Poster (2017)

Stress beeinflusst verschiedene Kognitionen, wie zum Bespiel Lernen und Gedächtnisbildung/-abruf. Der Einfluss von Stress auf exekutive Funktionen ist erst in den letzten Jahren vermehrt untersucht worden ... [more ▼]

Stress beeinflusst verschiedene Kognitionen, wie zum Bespiel Lernen und Gedächtnisbildung/-abruf. Der Einfluss von Stress auf exekutive Funktionen ist erst in den letzten Jahren vermehrt untersucht worden. Diese Studien zeigen, dass akuter Stress das Arbeitsgedächtnis, kognitive Flexibilität und kognitive Inhibition negative beeinflusst, während Verhaltensinhibition durch Stress verbessert zu werden scheint. Bislang ist wenig über den Einfluss von Stress auf die zugrundelie- genden kognitiven Prozesse der Verhaltensinhibition bekannt. Um dies zu untersuchen wurden 55 gesunde junge Männer und Frauen zunächst dem sozialevaluativen Kaltwasserstresstest bzw. einer Kontrollbedingung mit warmen Wasser unterzogen und bearbeitet danach eine Go-Nogo-Aufgabe, während EEG und EKG aufgezeichnet wurden. Im Verlauf des Experiments wurden fünf Speichelproben abgegeben. Erste Analysen zeigen, dass akuter Stress die Verhaltensinhibition in Abhängigkeit der Stress-induzierten Cortisol-Konzentration beein- flusst. Versuchspersonen mit einem deutlichen Cortisolanstieg (> 2 nmol/l, Cortisol-high-responder) zeigten eine verbesserte Verhaltens- inhibition, während gestresste Versuchspersonen ohne nennenswer- ten Cortisolanstieg (Cortisol-low-responder) die schlechteste Leistung zeigten. Die Ergebnisse der EKPs bestätigen diesen Eindruck. Wäh- rend die Nogo N2 nur durch den akuten Stress moduliert wurde, zeigte die Nogo P3 Änderungen in Abhängigkeit der Stress- induzierten Cortisol-Konzentration. Diese Ergebnisse bestätigen bisherige Befunde zur verbesserten Verhaltensinhibition durch akuten Stress. Gleichzeitig deuten sie darauf hin, dass die zugrundeliegenden kognitiven Prozesse unter- schiedlich beeinflusst werden und dass Cortisol bei der Umverteilung kognitiver Ressourcen durch Stress entscheidend ist. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (0 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAcute stress influences the discrimination of complex scenes and complex faces in young healthy men
Paul, Marcus; Lech, Robert, K.; Scheil, Juliane et al

in Psychoneuroendocrinology (2016), 66

The stress-induced release of glucocorticoids has been demonstrated to influence hippocampal functions via the modulation of specific receptors. At the behavioral level stress is known to influence ... [more ▼]

The stress-induced release of glucocorticoids has been demonstrated to influence hippocampal functions via the modulation of specific receptors. At the behavioral level stress is known to influence hippocampus dependent long-term memory. In recent years, studies have consistently associated the hippocampus with the non-mnemonic perception of scenes, while adjacent regions in the medial temporal lobe were associated with the perception of objects, and faces. So far it is not known whether and how stress influences non-mnemonic perceptual processes. In a behavioral study, fifty male participants were subjected either to the stressful socially evaluated cold-pressor test or to a non-stressful control procedure, before they completed a visual discrimination task, comprising scenes and faces. The complexity of the face and scene stimuli was manipulated in easy and difficult conditions. A significant three way interaction between stress, stimulus type and complexity was found. Stressed participants tended to commit more errors in the complex scenes condition. For complex faces a descriptive tendency in the opposite direction (fewer errors under stress) was observed. As a result the difference between the number of errors for scenes and errors for faces was significantly larger in the stress group. These results indicate that, beyond the effects of stress on long-term memory, stress influences the discrimination of spatial information, especially when the perception is characterized by a high complexity. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 165 (4 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailBessere Verhaltensinhibition nach Stress bei Jung und Alt – eine EKP Studie
Dierolf, Angelika UL; Hessas, Eve; Schoofs, Daniela et al

in Kathmann, Norbert (Ed.) Programmheft PuG 2016; Abstractband PuG2016 (2016)

Ein Großteil der kognitiven Fertigkeiten, vor allem im Bereich der exekutiven Funktionen, nimmt mit zunehmendem Alter ab. Dabei sind insbesondere diejenigen Funktionen betroffen, welche auf dem ... [more ▼]

Ein Großteil der kognitiven Fertigkeiten, vor allem im Bereich der exekutiven Funktionen, nimmt mit zunehmendem Alter ab. Dabei sind insbesondere diejenigen Funktionen betroffen, welche auf dem präfrontalen Cortex basieren. Dieser gilt als besonders stress-sensitiv. Im Humanbereich sind Stresseffekte auf exekutive Funktionen, speziell Verhaltensinhibition, bisher wenig erforscht worden. Die vorliegende EEG Studie untersuchte den gemeinsamen Einfluss von Alter und Stress auf Verhaltensinhibition und deren neuronale Korrelate. Dazu wurden 49 junge und alte Männer mittels des Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) gestresst oder durchliefen eine Kontrollprozedur bevor sie ein Go Nogo Paradigma bearbeiteten. Der TSST führte in beiden Altersgruppen gleichermaßen zu einem signifikanten Cortisolanstieg. Junge und alte Probanden machten nach dem TSST weniger Fehler in Nogo Durchgängen. Die Analyse der ereigniskorrelierten Potentiale zeigte, dass Alter und Stress die neuronalen Korrelate (N2, P3) veränderte. Während ältere Probanden generell eine reduzierte N2 und P3 im Vergleich zu jungen Probanden aufwiesen, führte Stress in beiden Altersgruppen zu einer vergrößerten N2. Hinsichtlich der P3 zeigten junge gestresste Probanden eine reduzierte P3 Amplitude, während Stress in älteren Probanden eine Vergrößerung der Amplitude bewirkte. Zudem führte Stress tendenziell in beiden Gruppen zu kürzeren Latenzen, insbesondere bei jungen Probanden. Entgegen der weit verbreitenden Annahme, dass Stress zu Einbußen in exekutiven Funktionen führt, zeigen die Ergebnisse eine stressinduzierte Verbesserung der inhibitorischen Kontrolle in beiden Altersklassen. Allerdings scheinen zum Teil unterschiedliche Mechanismen dafür in jungen und alten Probanden dafür verantwortlich zu sein. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 13 (0 UL)