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See detailEnhancing Participation in Probability-Based Online Panels: Two Incentive Experiments and Their Effects on Response and Panel Recruitment
Witte, Nils; Schaurer, Ines; Schröder, Jette et al

in Social Science Computer Review (2022)

This article investigates how mail-based online panel recruitment can be facilitated through incentives. The analysis relies on two incentive experiments and their effects on panel recruitment, and the ... [more ▼]

This article investigates how mail-based online panel recruitment can be facilitated through incentives. The analysis relies on two incentive experiments and their effects on panel recruitment, and the intermediate participation in the recruitment survey. The experiments were implemented in the context of the German Emigration and Remigration Panel Study and encompass two samples of randomly sampled persons. Tested incentives include a conditional lottery, conditional monetary incentives, and the combination of unconditional money-in-hand with conditional monetary incentives. For an encompassing evaluation of the link between incentives and panel recruitment, the article further assesses the incentives’ implications for demographic composition and panel recruitment unit costs. Multivariate analysis indicates that low combined incentives (€5/€5) or, where unconditional disbursement is unfeasible, high conditional incentives (€20) are most effective in enhancing panel participation. In terms of demographic bias, low combined incentives (€5/€5) and €10 conditional incentives are the favored options. The budget options from the perspective of panel recruitment include the lottery and the €10 conditional incentive which break-even at net sample sizes of 1000. [less ▲]

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See detailEnhancing Participation in Probability-Based Online Panels: Two Incentive Experiments and their Effects on Response and Panel Recruitment
Witte, Nils; Schröder, Jette; Schauer, Ines et al

Report (2021)

This article investigates how mail based online panel recruitment can be facilitated through incentives. The analysis relies on two incentive experiments and their effects on panel recruitment and the ... [more ▼]

This article investigates how mail based online panel recruitment can be facilitated through incentives. The analysis relies on two incentive experiments and their effects on panel recruitment and the intermediate participation in the recruitment survey. The experiments were implemented in the context of the German Emigration and Remigration Panel Study and encompass two samples of randomly sampled persons. Tested incentives include a conditional lottery, conditional monetary incentives, and the combination of unconditional money-in-hand with conditional monetary incentives. For an encompassing evaluation of the link between incentives and panel recruitment, the article further assesses the incentives’ implications for demographic composition and panel recruitment unit costs. Multivariate analysis indicates that low combined incentives (€5/€5) or, where unconditional disbursement is unfeasible, high conditional incentives (€20) are most effective in enhancing panel participation. In terms of demographic bias, low combined incentives (€5/€5) and €10 conditional incentives are the favored options. The budget options from the perspective of panel recruitment include the lottery and the €10 conditional incentive which break even at net sample sizes of 1,000. [less ▲]

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See detailSetting up Probability-Based Online Panels of Migrants with a Push-to-Web Approach: Lessons Learned from the German Emigration and Remigration Panel Study (GERPS)
Genoni, Andreas; Decieux, Jean Philippe Pierre UL; Ette, Andreas et al

in Erlinghagen, Marcel; Ette, Andreas; Schneider, Norbert (Eds.) et al The Global Lives of German Migrants (2021)

We address two major challenges in setting up probability-based online panels of migrants, using the German Emigration and Remigration Panel Study (GERPS) as an example. The first challenge is potential ... [more ▼]

We address two major challenges in setting up probability-based online panels of migrants, using the German Emigration and Remigration Panel Study (GERPS) as an example. The first challenge is potential spatial and social selectivity in unit response when using push-to-web recruitment. To address the first challenge, we draw on a split ballot experiment with return migrants in wave 1 of GERPS. The related analysis uses population register data and geo data. We use logistic regressions to compare unit nonresponse between a push-to-web-only control group ( n = 5999) and two sub-samples (each n = 1000) with optional paper and pencil interviews (PAPI). The second challenge is panel attrition. To address the second challenge, we investigate the role of individual-level and survey-related factors for panel consent. The regression analysis uses GERPS data of first-wave respondents, estimating panel consent rates for responding remigrants in general ( n = 6395) and in the experiment sample ( n = 2130). We find that the provision of an optional paper questionnaire marginally increases the likelihood of response. The positive correlation of PAPI and response rate, however, is counterbalanced by a negative correlation with the likelihood of panel consent. This suggests a trade-off scenario to the detriment of either response rates or panel participation rates. [less ▲]

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See detailSurveying Across Borders: The Experiences of the German Emigration and Remigration Panel Study
Ette, Andreas; Decieux, Jean Philippe Pierre UL; Erlinghagen, Marcel et al

in Erlinghagen, Marcel; Ette, Andreas; Schneider, Norbert (Eds.) et al The Global Lives of German Migrants (2021)

International migration is often characterised as a process of immigration from economically less developed to highly developed countries. Whereas the factors driving those flows and the integration of ... [more ▼]

International migration is often characterised as a process of immigration from economically less developed to highly developed countries. Whereas the factors driving those flows and the integration of the respective ethnic groups are widely analysed, the international mobility of the populations of precisely those affluent societies is regularly missed and less-frequently studied. The chapter describes the research design of the German Emigration and Remigration Panel Study as one of the first endeavours to study the internationally mobile populations from prosperous welfare states. Following an origin-based probability sampling of internationally migrating German citizens, it offers survey data to study the consequences of emigration and remigration along the life course. The chapter discusses the quality of this new data infrastructure along the survey lifecycle and compares the distribution of central demographic characteristics in the survey with official reference statistics. The aim is to establish this approach as a new avenue for studying the global lives of internationally mobile populations. [less ▲]

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See detailGerman Emigration and Remigration Panel Study (GERPS): Documentation of the Second Wave
Decieux, Jean Philippe Pierre UL; Witte, Nils; Erlinghagen, Marcel et al

Book published by Feder - BiB Daten- und Methodenberichte (2021)

International migration originating from highly developed countries is a crucial component of global migration flows. There are, however, surprisingly little data about the international mobility of the ... [more ▼]

International migration originating from highly developed countries is a crucial component of global migration flows. There are, however, surprisingly little data about the international mobility of the populations of affluent countries. The German Emigration and Remigration Panel Study (GERPS) aims to provide a resource that enables the analysis of individual consequences of international migration as well as the socio-structural consequences for the country of origin. GERPS is based on an origin-based multistage probability sample using the German population registers as a sampling frame. The second wave yields a net sample of roughly 7,000 persons who recently moved abroad from Germany and persons who returned from Germany after having lived abroad. The study follows a multidestination- country-design and enables the comparative analysis of migrants and nonmigrants, who stayed in the country of origin. GERPS is a panel study with at least four waves during a period of at least 24 months. This documentation presents the methods and data of the second wave. It provides information for researchers and invites them to use the new data infrastructure for their own research. [less ▲]

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See detailGerman Emigration and Remigration Panel Study (GERPS): Methodology and Data Manual of the Baseline Survey (Wave 1)
Ette, Andreas; Decieux, Jean Philippe Pierre UL; Erlinghagen, Marcel et al

Report (2020)

International migration between economically highly developed countries is a central component of global migration flows. Still, surprisingly little is known about the international mobility of the ... [more ▼]

International migration between economically highly developed countries is a central component of global migration flows. Still, surprisingly little is known about the international mobility of the populations of these affluent societies. The aim of the German Emigration and Remigration Panel Study (GERPS) is to collect data to analyse the individual consequences of international migration as well as the consequences for the country of origin. GERPS is based on an origin-based multistage probability sample using the German population registers as a sampling frame. The realised net sample includes more than 11,000 persons who recently moved abroad from Germany and persons returning to Germany after having lived abroad. The study follows a multi-destination country design and allows comparative analyses of migrants and non-migrants who stayed in the country of origin. GERPS is a panel study with at least four waves during a period of at least 24 months. This documentation, however, presents the methodology and the data for the first wave providing the baseline survey. Detailed information is provided to invite external researchers to apply the new data infrastructure to their own research and to disseminate the innovative research design to construct migrant samples. [less ▲]

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See detailGerman Emigration and Remigration Panel Study (GERPS). Neue GERPS-Daten über deutsche Aus- und Rückwandernde
Ette, Andreas; Decieux, Jean Philippe Pierre UL; Erlinghagen, Marcel et al

in Bevölkerungsforschung aktuell (2019), 4

Migration zwischen hoch entwickelten Staaten stellt heute einen zentralen Bestandteil des globalen Wanderungsgeschehens dar (OECD 2015). Dennoch wissen wir über die internationale Migration der ... [more ▼]

Migration zwischen hoch entwickelten Staaten stellt heute einen zentralen Bestandteil des globalen Wanderungsgeschehens dar (OECD 2015). Dennoch wissen wir über die internationale Migration der Bevölkerungen eben jener Wohlstandsgesellschaften vergleichsweise wenig, da bisher vor allem die Migration aus weniger in höher entwickelte Staaten untersucht wurde. Ziel der German Emigration and Remigration Panel Study (GERPS) ist es, dieses Thema am Beispiel Deutschlands zu untersuchen und neue Daten zu den individuellen Konsequenzen internationaler Mobilität zu erheben [less ▲]

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See detailIndividual Consequences of Migration in a Life Course Perspective: Experiences of the First Two Waves of the New German Emigration and Remigration Panel Study (GERPS)
Decieux, Jean Philippe Pierre UL; Witte, Nils; Ette, Andreas et al

Scientific Conference (2019)

With the German Emigration and Remigration Panel Study (GERPS) we have recently started to establish a new and unique longitudinal data set to investigate consequences of international migration from a ... [more ▼]

With the German Emigration and Remigration Panel Study (GERPS) we have recently started to establish a new and unique longitudinal data set to investigate consequences of international migration from a life course perspective. This task is challenging, as internationally mobile individuals are hard to survey for different reasons (e.g. sampling design and approach, contact strategy, panel maintenance). In our presentation, we would like to report experiences we have made and how we handled with methodical problems. GERPS is funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG) and surveys international mobile German citizens (recently emigrated abroad or recently re-migrated to Germany) in four consecutive waves within a panel design. Based on a probability sample, GERPS elucidates the individual consequences of cross-border mobility and concentrates on representative longitudinal individual data. It bases mainly on online surveys and covers topics like changing living conditions or life events linked to the migration process. Our first wave was conducted in November 2018 and the second wave will be started in April 2019. This enables us to present first hand results and experiences of the first two waves of this new and unique longitudinal dataset, which focuses on international migrants. We will mainly reflect the effectiveness of our register-based sampling focusing on traditional indicators of data quality such as response rates or attrition rates. Additionally, we will present our results concerning the success of different incentive approaches (lottery, pre-paid and post-paid incentives) and contact strategies, the used devices to run our online responsive online panel and field experiences we made (e.g. field time and fieldwork during this waves). These results can be very helpful to international researchers in the context of surveying mobile populations. [less ▲]

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See detailInternationale Migration zwischen hochentwickelten Staaten und ihre Konsequenzen für den Lebensverlauf
Erlinghagen, Marcel; Ette, Andreas; Schneider, Norbert et al

in Burzan, Nicole (Ed.) Komplexe Dynamiken globaler und lokaler Entwicklungen. Verhandlungen des 39. Kongresses der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Soziologie in Göttingen 2018 (2019)

Räumliche Mobilität ist ein konstitutives Merkmal ökonomisch hochentwickelter Gesellschaften. Hierzu zählen traditionell mobile Lebensformen innerhalb eines Nationalstaates, mit zunehmender Wichtigkeit ... [more ▼]

Räumliche Mobilität ist ein konstitutives Merkmal ökonomisch hochentwickelter Gesellschaften. Hierzu zählen traditionell mobile Lebensformen innerhalb eines Nationalstaates, mit zunehmender Wichtigkeit aber auch grenzüberschreitende Mobilität (Schneider, Meil 2010; Viry, Kaufmann 2015). Während man im 20. Jahrhundert unter internationaler Migration fast ausschließlich die Zuwanderung in westliche Industriestaaten verstand, rückt zunehmend die Rolle dieser Staaten als Herkunftsländer in den Fokus (van Dalen, Henkens 2013). Die Migration zwischen den OECD-Staaten stellt heute einen zentralen Bestandteil des globalen Wanderungsgeschehens dar (OECD 2015). Auch wird internationale Mobilität und damit zusammenhängend der Aufbau von „transnationalem Humankapital“ (Gerhards, Hans 2013) bzw. „interkulturellem Kapital“ (Pöllmann 2013) oder „Mobilitätskapital“ (Kaufmann et al. 2004) als eine wichtige Ressource für eine erfolgreiche Partizipation in einer zusammenwachsenden Welt und ihren Systemen und Institutionen gesehen. Aus dieser Perspektive hat der „mobility turn“ (Grieco, Urry 2016) weitreichende Auswirkungen für die Verteilung gesellschaftlicher Ungleichheiten. Über grenzüberschreitende Kontakte und Beziehungen zu verfügen, gilt mittlerweile als ein wesentlicher Faktor zur Bestimmung sozialer Positionen (Beck 2008; Weiß 2005). Im europäischen Kontext bestehen bereits erste Hinweise, dass Mobilität einen Einfluss auf die ökonomischen und gesellschaftlichen Teilhabechancen hat (Cresswell 2006; Ohnmacht et al. 2009), ohne dass dies jedoch bislang systematisch untersucht worden ist. Während Migrationsprozesse aus ärmeren Weltregionen in ökonomisch hochentwickelte Gesellschaften und politisch gefestigte, demokratische Wohlfahrtsstaaten theoretisch und empirisch intensiv erforscht worden sind (Castles et al. 2014; Massey et al. 1999), wissen wir bislang vergleichsweise wenig über die internationale Mobilität von Bürger*innen eben jener Wohlstandsgesellschaften selbst (Favell et al. 2007). Darüber hinaus zielen die meisten der vorliegenden Studien zur Auswanderung aus ökonomisch hochentwickelten Gesellschaften auf die Rückwanderung von Migrant*innen in ihre ehemaligen Heimatländer (Constant, Massey 2003; Ghosh 2000). Im Vergleich zu anderen Bereichen in der Migrationsforschung ist die internationale Migration aus hochentwickelten Staaten vergleichsweise wenig erforscht. Vereinzelte Studien, wie zum Beispiel EU-CROSS (Recchi et al. 2019; Recchi 2014) oder PIONEUR (Recchi, Favell 2009) sind vom Design nicht darauf ausgelegt und deswegen auch nicht in der Lage, theoretisch weiterführende Fragen zu den individuellen Konsequenzen internationaler Migration für den weiteren Lebensverlauf zu beantworten. Diese befassen sich vielmehr mit spezifischen Phänomenen, wie transnationalen Lebensformen sowie ihren Konsequenzen für Identität, politische Einstellungen und Integration (Rother, Nebe 2009). Ein Grund für diesen unbefriedigenden Forschungsstand ist sicherlich der eher spärliche Datenbestand – ein Umstand, der eng damit zusammenhängt, dass die Erfassung international mobiler Bevölkerungsgruppen vor einigen methodischen Herausforderungen steht (Ette, Sauer 2010: 34–45). Mobile und insbesondere international Mobile sind ein Paradebeispiel für eine „hard to study population“ (Lynn et al. 2018). Bisherige Versuche, diese Migrantengruppe im Rahmen bestehender harmonisierter internationaler Surveys (zum Beispiel European Social Survey oder European Union Labour Force Survey) zu untersuchen, werden durch unzureichend erfasste Informationen über den Migrationsprozess erschwert (Erlinghagen 2011; Ette, Sauer 2010). Auch bestehende sozialwissenschaftliche Panelstudien stoßen bei solchen Fragestellungen räumlich an ihre Grenzen. Diese orientieren sich nämlich in der Regel an den Grenzen der Nationalstaaten. Für Zuwander*innen und Rückwander*innen resultiert daraus, dass sie erst ab dem Grenzübertritt in ihrem Zielland untersucht werden können und somit meist als „Personen ohne Vorgeschichte“ (Vermeulen 2010, S.1224) in diesen Datensätzen erscheinen. Umgekehrt können Auswander*innen in Panelstudien ihres Herkunftslandes nur bis zum Auswanderungsereignis ‚verfolgt‘ werden, da sie anschließend den nationalstaatlichen Beobachtungsraum verlassen und dieses Ereignis mit einem Ausscheiden und somit faktischer Panelmortalität verbunden ist. Auch die Erweiterung bestehender Panelstudien um diese international mobile Bevölkerungsgruppe scheitert bisher aufgrund geringer Fallzahlen (Schupp et al. 2008). In der Konsequenz fehlen in Deutschland, aber auch den anderen OECD-Staaten, adäquate Datengrundlagen zur Untersuchung der Dynamik von Wanderungsprozessen und ihren individuellen Konsequenzen. Hier setzt die „German Emigration and Remigration Panel Study“ (GERPS) an und untersucht die Prozesse internationaler Migration anhand eines völlig neuen theoretisch konzeptionellen Ansatzes, dem „Destination-Origin-Migration-Ansatzes“ (DOM-Ansatz; vgl. Erlinghagen, Ette 2019 sowie den folgenden Abschnitt). Im nächsten Abschnitt werden zunächst die Grundüberlegungen dieses DOM-Ansatzes skizziert. Anschließend wird die neu zu konzipierende Längsschnittstudie GERPS näher vorgestellt. Der Beitrag endet mit einer zusammenfassenden Schlussbetrachtung. [less ▲]

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