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Excitation-intensity dependence of shallow and deep-level photoluminescence transitions in semiconductors Spindler, Conrad ; Galvani, Thomas ; Wirtz, Ludger et al in Journal of Applied Physics (2019) Detailed reference viewed: 32 (3 UL)Theory of resonant Raman scattering: Towards a comprehensive ab initio description ; Wirtz, Ludger in PHYSICAL REVIEW B (2019), 99(17), 174312-15 We develop a general, fully quantum mechanical theory of Raman scattering from first principles in terms of many-body correlation functions. In order to arrive at expressions that are practically useful ... [more ▼] We develop a general, fully quantum mechanical theory of Raman scattering from first principles in terms of many-body correlation functions. In order to arrive at expressions that are practically useful in the context of condensed matter physics, we adopt the Lehmann-Symanzik-Zimmermann reduction formula from high-energy physics and formulate it in the language of many-body perturbation theory. This enables us to derive a general and practically useful expression for the Raman scattering rate in terms of quantities that can be computed ab initio. Our work paves the way toward a comprehensive computational approach to the calculation of Raman spectra that goes beyond the current state of the art by capturing both excitonic and nonadiabatic effects. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 74 (1 UL)Photoinduced Phase Transitions in Ferroelectrics ; Torun, Engin ; Wirtz, Ludger et al in PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS (2019), 123(8), 087601-6 Ferroic materials naturally exhibit a rich number of functionalities, which often arise from thermally, chemically, or mechanically induced symmetry breakings or phase transitions. Based on density ... [more ▼] Ferroic materials naturally exhibit a rich number of functionalities, which often arise from thermally, chemically, or mechanically induced symmetry breakings or phase transitions. Based on density functional calculations, we demonstrate here that light can drive phase transitions as well in ferroelectric materials such as the perovskite oxides lead titanate and barium titanate. Phonon analysis and total energy calculations reveal that the polarization tends to vanish under illumination, to favor the emergence of nonpolar phases, potentially antiferroelectric, and exhibiting a tilt of the oxygen octahedra. Strategies to tailor photoinduced phases based on phonon instabilities in the electronic ground state are also discussed. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 67 (5 UL)Searching for materials with high refractive index and wide band gap: A first-principles high-throughput study ; ; et al in PHYSICAL REVIEW MATERIALS (2019), 3(4), 044602-12 Materials combining both a high refractive index and a wide band gap are of great interest for optoelectronic and sensor applications. However, these two properties are typically described by an inverse ... [more ▼] Materials combining both a high refractive index and a wide band gap are of great interest for optoelectronic and sensor applications. However, these two properties are typically described by an inverse correlation with high refractive index appearing in small gap materials and vice versa. Here, we conduct a first-principles high-throughput study on more than 4000 semiconductors (with a special focus on oxides). Our data confirm the general inverse trend between refractive index and band gap but interesting outliers are also identified. The data are then analyzed through a simple model involving two main descriptors: the average optical gap and the effective frequency. The former can be determined directly from the electronic structure of the compounds, but the latter cannot. This calls for further analysis in order to obtain a predictive model. Nonetheless, it turns out that the negative effect of a large band gap on the refractive index can be counterbalanced in two ways: (i) by limiting the difference between the direct band gap and the average optical gap which can be realized by a narrow distribution in energy of the optical transitions and (ii) by increasing the effective frequency which can be achieved through either a high number of transitions from the top of the valence band to the bottom of the conduction band or a high average probability for these transitions. Focusing on oxides, we use our data to investigate how the chemistry influences this inverse relationship and rationalize why certain classes of materials would perform better. Our findings can be used to search for new compounds in many optical applications both in the linear and nonlinear regime (waveguides, optical modulators, laser, frequency converter, etc.). [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 97 (8 UL)Exciton-Phonon Coupling in the Ultraviolet Absorption and Emission Spectra of Bulk Hexagonal Boron Nitride Paleari, Fulvio ; ; et al in PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS (2019), 122(18), 187401-6 We present an ab initio method to calculate phonon-assisted absorption and emission spectra in the presence of strong excitonic effects. We apply the method to bulk hexagonal BN, which has an indirect ... [more ▼] We present an ab initio method to calculate phonon-assisted absorption and emission spectra in the presence of strong excitonic effects. We apply the method to bulk hexagonal BN, which has an indirect band gap and is known for its strong luminescence in the UV range. We first analyze the excitons at the wave vector (q) over bar of the indirect gap. The coupling of these excitons with the various phonon modes at (q) over bar is expressed in terms of a product of the mean square displacement of the atoms and the second derivative of the optical response function with respect to atomic displacement along the phonon eigenvectors. The derivatives are calculated numerically with a finite difference scheme in a supercell commensurate with (q) over bar. We use detailed balance arguments to obtain the intensity ratio between emission and absorption processes. Our results explain recent luminescence experiments and reveal the exciton-phonon coupling channels responsible for the emission lines. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 94 (7 UL)Intravalley Spin-Flip Relaxation Dynamics in Single-Layer WS2 ; ; et al in NANO LETTERS (2018), 18(11), 6882-6891 In monolayer (1L) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) the valence and conduction bands are spin-split because of the strong spin-orbit interaction. In tungsten-based TMDs the spin-ordering of the ... [more ▼] In monolayer (1L) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) the valence and conduction bands are spin-split because of the strong spin-orbit interaction. In tungsten-based TMDs the spin-ordering of the conduction band is such that the so-called dark excitons, consisting of electrons and holes with opposite spin orientation, have lower energy than A excitons. The transition from bright to dark excitons involves the scattering of electrons from the upper to the lower conduction band at the K point of the Brillouin zone, with detrimental effects for the optoelectronic response of 1L-TMDs, since this reduces their light emission efficiency. Here, we exploit the valley selective optical selection rules and use two-color helicity-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy to directly measure the intravalley spin-flip relaxation dynamics in 1L-WS2. This occurs on a sub-ps time scale, and it is significantly dependent on temperature, indicative of phonon-assisted relaxation. Time-dependent ab initio calculations show that intravalley spin-flip scattering occurs on significantly longer time scales only at the K point, while the occupation of states away from the minimum of the conduction band significantly reduces the scattering time. Our results shed light on the scattering processes determining the light emission efficiency in optoelectronic and photonic devices based on 1L-TMDs. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 137 (5 UL)Direct and indirect excitons in boron nitride polymorphs: A story of atomic configuration and electronic correlation ; ; et al in Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter (2018), 98(12), 125206 We present a detailed discussion of the electronic band structure and excitonic dispersion of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) in the single layer configuration and in three bulk polymorphs (usual AA′ ... [more ▼] We present a detailed discussion of the electronic band structure and excitonic dispersion of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) in the single layer configuration and in three bulk polymorphs (usual AA′ stacking, Bernal AB, and rhombohedral ABC). We focus on the changes in the electronic band structure and the exciton dispersion induced by the atomic configuration and the electron-hole interaction. Calculations are carried out at the level of ab initio many-body perturbation theory (GW and Bethe Salpeter equation) and of a purposely developed tight-binding model. We confirm the change from direct to indirect electronic gap when going from single layer to bulk systems and we give a detailed account of its origin by comparing the effect of different stacking sequences. We emphasize that the inclusion of the electron-hole interaction is crucial for the correct description of the momentum-dependent dispersion of the excitations. As a result the electron-hole dispersion is flatter than the one obtained from the band structure. In the AB stacking this effect is particularly important as the lowest-lying exciton is predicted to be direct despite the indirect electronic band gap. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 107 (6 UL)Ab initio and semiempirical modeling of excitons and trions in monolayer TiS3 Torun, Engin ; ; et al in Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter (2018), 98 We explore the electronic and the optical properties of monolayer TiS3, which shows in-plane anisotropy and is composed of a chain-like structure along one of the lattice directions. Together with its ... [more ▼] We explore the electronic and the optical properties of monolayer TiS3, which shows in-plane anisotropy and is composed of a chain-like structure along one of the lattice directions. Together with its robust direct band gap, which changes very slightly with stacking order and with the thickness of the sample, the anisotropic physical prop- erties of TiS3 make the material very attractive for various device applications. In this study, we present a detailed investigation on the effect of the crystal anisotropy on the excitons and the trions of the TiS3 monolayer. We use many-body perturbation theory to calculate the absorption spectrum of anisotropic TiS3 monolayer by solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation. In parallel, we implement and use a Wannier-Mott model for the excitons that takes into account the anisotropic effective masses and Coulomb screening, which are obtained from ab initio calculations. This model is then extended for the investigation of trion states of monolayer TiS3. Our calculations indicate that the absorption spectrum of monolayer TiS3 drastically depends on the polarization of the incoming light, which excites different excitons with distinct binding energies. In addition, the binding energies of positively and the negatively charged trions are observed to be distinct and they exhibit an anisotropic probability density distribution. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 95 (3 UL)Optical control of polarization in ferroelectric heterostructures ; ; et al in Nature Communications (2018), 9 In the ferroelectric devices, polarization control is usually accomplished by application of an electric field. In this paper, we demonstrate optically induced polarization switching in BaTiO3-based ... [more ▼] In the ferroelectric devices, polarization control is usually accomplished by application of an electric field. In this paper, we demonstrate optically induced polarization switching in BaTiO3-based ferroelectric heterostructures utilizing a two-dimensional narrow-gap semiconductor MoS2 as a top electrode. This effect is attributed to the redistribution of the photo-generated carriers and screening charges at the MoS2/BaTiO3 interface. Specifically, a two-step process, which involves formation of intra-layer excitons during light absorption followed by their decay into inter-layer excitons, results in the positive charge accumulation at the interface forcing the polarization reversal from the upward to the downward direction. Theoretical modeling of the MoS2 optical absorption spectra with and without the applied electric field provides quantitative support for the proposed mechanism. It is suggested that the discovered effect is of general nature and should be observable in any heterostructure comprising a ferroelectric and a narrow gap semiconductor. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 104 (12 UL)Interlayer and intralayer excitons in MoS2/WS2 and MoSe2/WSe2 heterobilayers Torun, Engin ; ; et al in Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter (2018), 97 Accurately described excitonic properties of transition metal dichalcogenide heterobilayers (HBLs) are crucial to comprehend the optical response and the charge carrier dynamics of them. Excitons in ... [more ▼] Accurately described excitonic properties of transition metal dichalcogenide heterobilayers (HBLs) are crucial to comprehend the optical response and the charge carrier dynamics of them. Excitons in multilayer systems possess an inter- or intralayer character whose spectral positions depend on their binding energy and the band alignment of the constituent single layers. In this paper, we report the electronic structure and the absorption spectra of MoS2/WS2 and MoSe2/WSe2 HBLs from first-principles calculations. We explore the spectral positions, binding energies, and the origins of inter- and intralayer excitons and compare our results with experimental observations. The absorption spectra of the systems are obtained by solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation on top of a G0W0 calculation, which corrects the independent-particle eigenvalues obtained from density-functional theory. Our calculations reveal that the lowest energy exciton in both HBLs possess an interlayer character which is decisive regarding their possible device applications. Due to the spatially separated nature of the charge carriers, the binding energy of interlayer excitons might be expected to be considerably smaller than that of intralayer ones. However, according to our calculations, the binding energy of lowest energy interlayer excitons is only ∼20% lower due to the weaker screening of the Coulomb interaction between layers of the HBLs. Therefore, it can be deduced that the spectral positions of the interlayer excitons with respect to intralayer ones are mostly determined by the band offset of the constituent single layers. By comparing oscillator strengths and thermal occupation factors, we show that in luminescence at low temperature, the interlayer exciton peak becomes dominant, while in absorption it is almost invisible. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 123 (8 UL)Impact of many-body effects on Landau levels in graphene ; Reichardt, Sven ; Wirtz, Ludger et al in Physical Review Letters (2018), 120(18), 187701 We present magneto-Raman spectroscopy measurements on suspended graphene to investigate the charge carrier density-dependent electron-electron interaction in the presence of Landau levels. Utilizing gate ... [more ▼] We present magneto-Raman spectroscopy measurements on suspended graphene to investigate the charge carrier density-dependent electron-electron interaction in the presence of Landau levels. Utilizing gate-tunable magnetophonon resonances, we extract the charge carrier density dependence of the Landau level transition energies and the associated effective Fermi velocity vF. In contrast to the logarithmic divergence of vF at zero magnetic field, we find a piecewise linear scaling of vF as a function of the charge carrier density, due to a magnetic-field-induced suppression of the long-range Coulomb interaction. We quantitatively confirm our experimental findings by performing tight-binding calculations on the level of the Hartree-Fock approximation, which also allow us to estimate an excitonic binding energy of ≈6 meV contained in the experimentally extracted Landau level transitions energies. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 135 (9 UL)Synthesis, theoretical and experimental characterisation of thin film Cu2Sn1-xGexS3 ternary alloys (x = 0 to 1): Homogeneous intermixing of Sn and Ge Robert, Erika ; ; De Wild, Jessica et al in Acta Materialia (2018), 151 Cu2Sn1-xGexS3 is a p-type semiconductor alloy currently investigated for use as an absorber layer in thin film solar cells. The aim of this study is to investigate the properties of this alloy in thin ... [more ▼] Cu2Sn1-xGexS3 is a p-type semiconductor alloy currently investigated for use as an absorber layer in thin film solar cells. The aim of this study is to investigate the properties of this alloy in thin film form in order to establish relationships between group IV composition and structural, vibrational and opto-electronic properties. Seven single phase Cu2Sn1-xGexS3 films are prepared from x ¼ 0 to 1, showing a uniform distribution of Ge and Sn laterally and in depth. The films all show a monoclinic crystal structure. The lattice parameters are extracted using Le Bail refinement and show a linear decrease with increasing Ge content. Using density-functional theory with hybrid functionals, we calculate the Raman active phonon frequencies of Cu2SnS3 and Cu2GeS3. For the alloyed compounds, we use a virtual atom approximation. The shift of the main Raman peak from x ¼ 0 to x ¼ 1 can be explained as being half due to the change in atomic masses and half being due to the different bond strength. The bandgaps of the alloys are extracted from photoluminescence measurements and increase linearly from about 0.90 to 1.56 eV with increasing Ge. The net acceptor density of all films is around 1018 cm 3. These analyses have established that the alloy forms a solid solution over the entire composition range meaning that intentional band gap grading should be possible for future absorber layers. The linear variation of the unit cell parameters and the band gap with group IV content allows composition determination by scattering or optical measurements. Further research is required to reduce the doping density by two orders of magnitude in order to improve the current collection within a solar cell device structure. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 234 (22 UL)Excitons in few-layer hexagonal boron nitride: Davydov splitting and surface localization Paleari, Fulvio ; Galvani, Thomas ; et al in 2D MATERIALS (2018), 5(4), 045017 Hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) has been attracting great attention because of its strong excitonic effects. Taking into account few-layer systems, we investigate theoretically the effects of the number of ... [more ▼] Hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) has been attracting great attention because of its strong excitonic effects. Taking into account few-layer systems, we investigate theoretically the effects of the number of layers on quasiparticle energies, absorption spectra, and excitonic states, placing particular focus on the Davydov splitting of the lowest bound excitons. We describe how the inter-layer interaction as well as the variation in electronic screening as a function of layer number N affects the electronic and optical properties. Using both ab initio calculations and a tight-binding model for an effective Hamiltonian describing the excitons, we characterize in detail the symmetry of the excitonic wavefunctions and the selection rules for their coupling to incoming light. We show that for N > 2, one can distinguish between surface excitons that are mostly localized on the outer layers and inner excitons, leading to an asymmetry in the energy separation between split excitonic states. In particular, the bound surface excitons lie lower in energy than their inner counterparts. Additionally, this enables us to show how the layer thickness affects the shape of the absorption spectrum. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 118 (8 UL)Critical Role of the Exchange Interaction for the Electronic Structure and Charge-Density-Wave Formation in TiSe2 ; ; et al in Physical Review Letters (2017), 119 We show that the inclusion of screened exchange via hybrid functionals provides a unified description of the electronic and vibrational properties of TiSe2. In contrast to local approximations in density ... [more ▼] We show that the inclusion of screened exchange via hybrid functionals provides a unified description of the electronic and vibrational properties of TiSe2. In contrast to local approximations in density functional theory, the explicit inclusion of exact, nonlocal exchange captures the effects of the electron-electron interaction needed to both separate the Ti-d states from the Se-p states and stabilize the charge-density- wave (CDW) (or low-T) phase through the formation of a p-d hybridized state. We further show that this leads to an enhanced electron-phonon coupling that can drive the transition even if a small gap opens in the high-T phase. Finally, we demonstrate that the hybrid functionals can generate a CDW phase where the electronic bands, the geometry, and the phonon frequencies are in agreement with experiments. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 127 (7 UL)Ab Initio Calculations of Ultrashort Carrier Dynamics in Two-Dimensional Materials: Valley Depolarization in Single-Layer WSe2 Molina-Sanchez, Alejandro ; ; Wirtz, Ludger et al in Nano Letters (2017), 17 In single-layer WSe2, a paradigmatic semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenide, a circularly polarized laser field can selectively excite electronic transitions in one of the inequivalent K± valleys ... [more ▼] In single-layer WSe2, a paradigmatic semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenide, a circularly polarized laser field can selectively excite electronic transitions in one of the inequivalent K± valleys. Such selective valley population corresponds to a pseudospin polarization. This can be used as a degree of freedom in a “valleytronic” device provided that the time scale for its depolarization is sufficiently large. Yet, the mechanism behind the valley depolarization still remains heavily debated. Recent time–dependent Kerr experiments have provided an accurate way to visualize the valley dynamics by measuring the rotation of a linearly polarized probe pulse applied after a circularly polarized pump pulse. We present here a clear, accurate and parameter–free description of the valley dynamics. By using an atomistic, ab initio approach we fully disclose the elemental mechanisms that dictate the depolarization effects. Our results are in excellent agreement with recent time–dependent Kerr experiments. We explain the Kerr dynamics and its temperature dependence in terms of electron–phonon me- diated processes that induce spin–flip inter–valley transitions. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 195 (5 UL)Ab initio calculation of the G peak intensity of graphene: Laser-energy and Fermi-energy dependence and importance of quantum interference effects Reichardt, Sven ; Wirtz, Ludger in Physical Review B (2017), 95(19), 195422 We present the results of a diagrammatic, fully ab initio calculation of the G peak intensity of graphene. The flexibility and generality of our approach enables us to go beyond the previous analytical ... [more ▼] We present the results of a diagrammatic, fully ab initio calculation of the G peak intensity of graphene. The flexibility and generality of our approach enables us to go beyond the previous analytical calculations in the low-energy regime. We study the laser and Fermi energy dependence of the G peak intensity and analyze the contributions from resonant and nonresonant electronic transitions. In particular, we explicitly demonstrate the importance of quantum interference and nonresonant states for the G peak process. Our method of analysis and computational concept is completely general and can easily be applied to study other materials as well. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 146 (11 UL)Tuning the Pseudospin Polarization of Graphene by a Pseudomagnetic Field ; ; et al in Nano Letters (2017), 17 One of the intriguing characteristics of honeycomb lattices is the appearance of a pseudomagnetic field as a result of mechanical deformation. In the case of graphene, the Landau quantization resulting ... [more ▼] One of the intriguing characteristics of honeycomb lattices is the appearance of a pseudomagnetic field as a result of mechanical deformation. In the case of graphene, the Landau quantization resulting from this pseudomagnetic field has been measured using scanning tunneling microscopy. Here we show that a signature of the pseudomagnetic field is a local sublattice symmetry breaking observable as a redistribution of the local density of states. This can be interpreted as a polarization of graphene’s pseudospin due to a strain induced pseudomagnetic field, in analogy to the alignment of a real spin in a magnetic field. We reveal this sublattice symmetry breaking by tunably straining graphene using the tip of a scanning tunneling microscope. The tip locally lifts the graphene membrane from a SiO2 support, as visible by an increased slope of the I(z) curves. The amount of lifting is consistent with molecular dynamics calculations, which reveal a deformed graphene area under the tip in the shape of a Gaussian. The pseudomagnetic field induced by the deformation becomes visible as a sublattice symmetry breaking which scales with the lifting height of the strained deformation and therefore with the pseudomagnetic field strength. Its magnitude is quantitatively reproduced by analytic and tight-binding models, revealing fields of 1000 T. These results might be the starting point for an effective THz valley filter, as a basic element of valleytronics. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 100 (3 UL)Quantum Interference Effects in Resonant Raman Spectroscopy of Single- and Triple-Layer MoTe2 from First-Principles Pereira Coutada Miranda, Henrique ; Reichardt, Sven ; et al in Nano Letters (2017), 17(4), 2381--2388 We present a combined experimental and theoretical study of resonant Raman spectroscopy in single- and triple-layer MoTe2. Raman intensities are computed entirely from first-principles by calculating ... [more ▼] We present a combined experimental and theoretical study of resonant Raman spectroscopy in single- and triple-layer MoTe2. Raman intensities are computed entirely from first-principles by calculating finite differences of the dielectric susceptibility. In our analysis, we investigate the role of quantum interference effects and the electron−phonon coupling. With this method, we explain the experimentally observed intensity inversion of the A′1 vibrational modes in triple-layer MoTe2 with increasing laser photon energy. Finally, we show that a quantitative comparison with experimental data requires the proper inclusion of excitonic effects. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 106 (10 UL)Raman Spectroscopy of Graphene Reichardt, Sven ; Wirtz, Ludger in Binder, Rolf (Ed.) Optical Properties of Graphene (2017) Raman spectroscopy of graphene is reviewed from a theoretical perspective. After an introduction of the building blocks (electronic band structure, phonon dispersion, electron-phonon interaction, electron ... [more ▼] Raman spectroscopy of graphene is reviewed from a theoretical perspective. After an introduction of the building blocks (electronic band structure, phonon dispersion, electron-phonon interaction, electron-light coupling), Raman intensities are calculated using time-dependent perturbation theory. The analysis of the contributing terms allows for an intuitive understanding of the Raman peak positions and intensities. The Raman spectrum of pure graphene only displays two principle peaks. Yet, their variation as a function of internal and external parameters and the occur- rence of secondary, defect-related peaks, conveys a lot of information about the system. Thus, Raman spectroscopy is used routinely to analyze layer number, defects, doping and strain of graphene samples. At the same time, it is an intriguing playground to study the optical properties of graphene. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 206 (5 UL)Valence band splitting in Cu2(Sn,Ge, Si)S3: effect on optical absorption spectra De Wild, Jessica ; Kalesaki, Efterpi ; Wirtz, Ludger et al in Physica Status Solidi. Rapid Research Letters (2017) We perform a detailed analysis of the valence band splitting (VBS) effect on the absorption spectra of monoclinic Cu2(Sn,Ge,Si)S3 combining theory and experiment. We cal- culate the imaginary part of the ... [more ▼] We perform a detailed analysis of the valence band splitting (VBS) effect on the absorption spectra of monoclinic Cu2(Sn,Ge,Si)S3 combining theory and experiment. We cal- culate the imaginary part of the dielectric function for all three compounds using hybrid functionals and maximally lo- calized Wannier functions in remarkably dense k-meshes to ensure an accurate description of the low energy spectral regime. We find that the VBS will affect the absorption spectra of these materials leading to multiple absorption onsets. Our experimental spectra on Cu2(Sn,Ge)S3, analysed using both Tauc plots and inflection points, verify this prediction. A good agreement between theory and experiment in terms of VBS values is recorded. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 230 (10 UL) |
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