References of "Widenmeyer, Markus"
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See detail13.3% efficient solution deposited Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 solar cells processed with different sodium salt sources
Berner, Ulrich; Colombara, Diego UL; De Wild, Jessica UL et al

in Progress in Photovoltaics Research and Applications (2015)

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See detailVapour phase alkali species for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells
Berner, Ulrich; Colombara, Diego UL; Bertram, Tobias UL et al

Scientific Conference (2015, September)

Alkalis are essential in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 absorber layers for efficient solar cells. Current doping methods rely on solid state diffusion of an alkali through to the absorber layer, e.g. a thin NaF layer on ... [more ▼]

Alkalis are essential in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 absorber layers for efficient solar cells. Current doping methods rely on solid state diffusion of an alkali through to the absorber layer, e.g. a thin NaF layer on Mo or NaCl dissolved in a metal precursor ink[1]. The apparent concentration of alkali in the final absorber is determined by the initial alkali dosing and the use of an interfacial barrier to stop alkali diffusion from the substrate. Until now the vapor–absorber interface as a source or sink of alkali doping has been largely ignored. We show that device efficiency improves from 2 to 8% by gas phase Na adsorption alone. Conversely initial results show that Na can also be desorbed to the gas phase. Although these efficiencies are lower than those obtained by including Na directly in the precursor (device efficiency 13.3% [1]), the findings are relevant to all chalcogenide growers as they show that exact doping, and thus control of device efficiency, is only possible when gas phase adsorption/desorption processes are controlled. [less ▲]

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See detailCu2ZnSnSe4 device obtained by formate chemistry for metallic precursor layer fabrication
Tombolato, Sara; Berner, Ulrich Maximilian UL; Colombara, Diego UL et al

in Solar Energy (2015), 116

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See detailSolution-based processing of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 absorber layers for 11% efficiency solar cells via a metallic intermediate
Berner, Ulrich Maximilian UL; Widenmeyer, Markus

in Progress in Photovoltaics (2014)

In this work, a low cost solution-based method for the deposition of uniform Cu-In-Ga layers compatible with roll-to-roll processing is described. As ink system we use metal carboxylates dissolved in a ... [more ▼]

In this work, a low cost solution-based method for the deposition of uniform Cu-In-Ga layers compatible with roll-to-roll processing is described. As ink system we use metal carboxylates dissolved in a mixture of a nitrogen containing base and an alcohol. This solution can be coated homogeneously under inert atmosphere using a doctor blade technique. With this method and appropriate precursor concentrations, crack-free metal layers with dry-film thicknesses of more than 700 nm can be deposited in one fast step. For the controlled film formation during the drying of the solvents a flow channel has been used to improve the evaporative mass transport and the convective gas flows of any unwanted organic species. Due to the absence of organic binders with high molecular weight, this step allows the formation of virtually pure metal layers. Elementary analyses of the dried thin films reveal less than 5 wt% of carbon residues at 200°C. In situ X-ray diffraction data of the drying step show the formation of Cu-In-Ga alloys. The subsequent processing of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 chalcopyrites with evaporated elemental selenium takes place in a separate tube oven under inert atmosphere. Photoelectric measurements of cells with CdS buffer and ZnO window layer reveal a short-circuit current of 29 mA/cm2, an open-circuit voltage of 533 mV, and a fill factor of 0.69 under standard conditions. Thus efficiencies of up to 11% on 0.5 cm2 area without antireflective coating have been achieved. [less ▲]

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See detail4-Amino-1,2,4-triazole: Playing a key role in the chemical deposition of Cu–In–Ga metal layers for photovoltaic applications.
Berner, Ulrich; Widenmeyer, Markus; Engler, Patrick et al

in Thin Solid Films (2014)

Detailed reference viewed: 125 (1 UL)