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See detailDepression, perceived control, and life satisfaction in university students from central-eastern and western Europe
Wardle, Jane; Steptoe, Andrew; Guliš, Gabriel et al

in International Journal of Behavioral Medicine (2004), 11

The poor health and psychological well-being of people in the former socialist states of Centeral-Eastern Europe are of serious concern and may be related to low perceived control. We compared depressive ... [more ▼]

The poor health and psychological well-being of people in the former socialist states of Centeral-Eastern Europe are of serious concern and may be related to low perceived control. We compared depressive symptoms, life satisfaction, and self-rated health in 3,571 male and female university students from 5 Western European countries and 4,793 students from 5 Central-Eastern European countries. Depression scores (short Beck Depression Inventory; Beck & Beck, 1972) were higher in Central-Eastern than Western European samples. The prevalence of low life satisfaction was also greater in Central-Eastern Europeans, but ratings of self-rated health did not differ. Ratings of perceived control were diminished, but sense of mastery and internal health locus of control were higher in Central-Eastern Europe. Depression and low life satisfaction were associated with low perceived control and mastery and with strong beliefs in the influence of chance over health. However, taking these factors into account did not explain the East-West difference in depressive symptoms and low life satisfaction. [less ▲]

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See detailPsychophysiologic effects of applied tension on the emotional fainting response to blood and injury.
Vögele, Claus UL; Coles, Justine; Wardle, Jane et al

in Behaviour research and therapy (2003), 41

OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to investigate the psychophysiologic effects of "Applied Tension" (AT) on the emotional fainting response to blood and injury in a controlled experiment. METHOD ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to investigate the psychophysiologic effects of "Applied Tension" (AT) on the emotional fainting response to blood and injury in a controlled experiment. METHOD: Twenty-two persons reporting to generally feel faint or to have fainted at the sight of blood or injury and 22 participants classified as Non-Fainters were randomly allocated to a treatment or control condition. Psychophysiologic responses were continuously monitored while individuals watched a video depicting open-heart surgery and a control film. Prior to the surgery film, participants in the treatment condition were instructed in the use of AT. RESULTS: All participants classified as Fainters showed a diphasic response pattern while watching the surgery film. This response, however, was significantly attenuated in Fainters in the treatment condition. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that AT provides an effective treatment strategy for the prevention of fainting responses in persons with a fear of blood and injury. [less ▲]

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See detailTesticular self-examination: Attitudes and practices among young men in Europe
Wardle, Jane; Steptoe, Andrew; Burckhardt, Ruth et al

in Preventive Medicine (1994), 23

BACKGROUND: Testicular self examination (TSE) is recommended for the early detection of testicular cancer. Evidence from North America suggests there is only limited public awareness of its importance ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Testicular self examination (TSE) is recommended for the early detection of testicular cancer. Evidence from North America suggests there is only limited public awareness of its importance among the young male population. Compliance with regular TSE is found in only a small minority of young men. Attitudes toward and practice of TSE have rarely been studied outside North America. METHOD: Attitudes to TSE were evaluated by questionnaire in a sample of 16,486 students. Frequency of TSE practice was reported by the 7,304 men in the sample. The data were collected as part of the European Health Behavior Survey, an international study on health beliefs and health behavior. RESULTS: Eighty-seven percent of men reported never having practiced TSE. Regular practice (monthly) was reported by only 3% of the sample, with another 10% reporting occasional TSE. Significant differences emerged between countries, ranging from 76% of German men to 98% of Icelandic men reporting no TSE. Men rated TSE as less important to health than women. Attitude toward TSE among men was a significant predictor of TSE practice. CONCLUSION: Both the low levels of TSE and the low ratings of the importance of TSE suggest that young men in Europe are unaware of the value of this comparatively simple method of early detection of cancer. If a highly educated population group in the "at risk" age category is not carrying out the recommendations, it is unlikely that there are higher levels of compliance in other groups. These results suggest an important role for health education in the early detection of testicular cancer. [less ▲]

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