References of "Waldmann, Danièle 50003293"
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See detailPerformance of lime-metakaolin pastes using gravel wash mud (GWM)
Thapa, Vishojit Bahadur UL; Waldmann, Daniele UL

in Cement and Concrete Composites (2020), 114(103772),

The performance of ternary binders using lime, metakaolin (MK) and gravel wash mud (GWM) powders is studied for the development of novel lime-pozzolan pastes. This study examines the influence of varying ... [more ▼]

The performance of ternary binders using lime, metakaolin (MK) and gravel wash mud (GWM) powders is studied for the development of novel lime-pozzolan pastes. This study examines the influence of varying mixture proportions using different types and compositions of lime powders and GWM at different treatment levels on the mechanical properties of lime-MK-GWM pastes. Various characterisation techniques including particle size distribution (PSD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), compressive strength tests, simultaneous thermal analysis (STA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), were applied on the different raw materials, respectively, on the hardened pastes to determine the reaction kinetics, the resulting microstructure and the mechanical performances of the lime-MK-GWM binder systems. Higher strength-enhancing contributions of thermally treated GWM powders (calcined at 850°C) leading to compressive strengths up to 18 MPa were confirmed and the strength-based evaluations revealed that hydrated lime-based pastes achieved higher mechanical performances than hydraulic lime-based binder systems. [less ▲]

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See detailApplication of the DAD method for damage 1 localisation on an existing bridge structure using 2 close-range UAV photogrammetry
Erdenebat, Dolgion; Waldmann, Danièle UL

in Engineering Structures (2020)

A novel damage detection and localisation method, the so-called Deformation Area Difference method for localisation of damages in bridge structures is introduced. The method is based on static load ... [more ▼]

A novel damage detection and localisation method, the so-called Deformation Area Difference method for localisation of damages in bridge structures is introduced. The method is based on static load-deflection experiments with the prerequisite of high precise deflection measurement. This study presents the first experiences of applying the DAD method on a real bridge structure. The investigated structure is a prestressed concrete slab bridge with a span of about 27 m, which was built in 2013. The loading on the bridge is applied using six heavy trucks, each weighing up to 32 t. A wide range of the modern measurement technologies were used to achieve high precision measurements of the bridge deflection along the longitudinal axis, namely the photogrammetry using a big size drone, laser scanner, total station, levelling and displacement sensors. The performed load-deflection test was non-destructive since the maximum deformation did not exceed the serviceability limit state. The exercise of the novel damage detection and localisation method on a real structure initiated further optimisation opportunities of the DAD method and the study of its limits. Several boundary conditions and methodical influence factors related to the applicability of the proposed method were analysed, such as impacts of measurement precision, damage degree, the position of damage, and the number of measurement repetitions. [less ▲]

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See detailMonotonic axial compressive behaviour and confinement mechanism of square CFRP-steel tube confined concrete
Wang, Yanlei; Cai, Gaochuang; Si Larbi, Amir et al

in Engineering Structures (2020)

Steel tube confined concrete (STCC) is widely used in the vertical members of high-rise buildings such as columns. The axial load is not directly resisted by the steel tube in STCC, but is resisted via ... [more ▼]

Steel tube confined concrete (STCC) is widely used in the vertical members of high-rise buildings such as columns. The axial load is not directly resisted by the steel tube in STCC, but is resisted via the interfacial frictional stress between steel tube and concrete core, which is different with that of concrete filled steel tube (CFT) members and would effectively suppress the outward local buckling of steel tube at early stage. Recently, fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) confined STCC presents a potential to enhance the ductility and durability of such vertical elements. This paper presents an experimental study on monotonic axial compressive behaviour of carbon FRP (CFRP) confined STCC (CFRP- STCC) stub column and an analytical study on the confinement mechanism of and the ultimate axial bearing capacity of the elements. A three-stage confinement mechanism involving the different contributions of the steel tube and the CFRP wrap in CFRP-STCC elements was proposed based on the test results. A prediction model of the ultimate axial bearing capacity of CFRP-STCC stub columns was developed subsequently. Results show that the presence of CFRP wrap enhances effectively the load-bearing capacity and the ductility of steel tube confined plain concrete and reinforced concrete elements, and significantly prevents the local buckling of the steel tubes in the elements. The proposed prediction model of ultimate axial bearing capacity assesses test results with a great agreement. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of innovative concrete mixtures aggregates
Chewe Ngapeya, Gelen Gael UL; Waldmann, Daniele UL

Scientific Conference (2020, June 22)

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See detailOptimisation of the mechanical properties of Miscanthus lightweight concrete (Top 10 Journal)
Pereira Dias, Patrick UL; Waldmann, Danièle UL

in Construction and Building Materials (2020)

In this paper, Miscanthus fibres are used to develop lightweight concrete. The amount of Miscanthus and cement, as well as the water/cement ratio, are varied to analyse the behaviour of the mixture ... [more ▼]

In this paper, Miscanthus fibres are used to develop lightweight concrete. The amount of Miscanthus and cement, as well as the water/cement ratio, are varied to analyse the behaviour of the mixture concerning the physical and mechanical properties. The Miscanthus was pre-treated with a silicate sealant or a cement-based fluid. The current paper analyses the impact of the pre-treatment of the Miscanthus fibres on the compressive strength as well as on the long-term deformations. The specimens with a pre-treatment based on a silicate sealant reached a compressive strength of 19.3 MPa, which is higher than the compressive strength of a conventional LC 16/18, a Young's Modulus above 9.9 GPa and a shrinkage deformation of 2244 μm/m. Nevertheless, considering the density the pre-treatment showed not to be beneficial. [less ▲]

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See detailImplementation of a new strain split to model unilateral contact within the phase field method
Nguyen, Thanh Tung; Yvonnet, Julien; Waldmann, Danièle UL et al

in International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering (2020)

A new orthogonal decomposition of strain tensor into compressive/tensile parts is implemented in the phase eld model to maintain the physical crack propagation behavior. An e cient operator split scheme ... [more ▼]

A new orthogonal decomposition of strain tensor into compressive/tensile parts is implemented in the phase eld model to maintain the physical crack propagation behavior. An e cient operator split scheme with the introduction of projection tensors is proposed to facilitate the numerical implementation of the new spectral decomposition. Formulations of the present failure model accounting the unilateral contact condition are given analytically and explicitly, which implies an extremely robust computational model. In particular, compared to the existing models, the present framework is general, which can be applied to all possible elastic behavior, such as isotropic, orthotropic, and totally anisotropic elastic material. A detailed comparison of fracture response predicted by the present models with the literature approaches is then provided. It is shown that orthogonal decomposition is able to simulate various failure scenarios. Especially, this formulation shows a very remarkably prediction compared to experimental observation for the case of compression load. [less ▲]

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See detailBIM-Based End-of-Lifecycle Decision Making and Digital Deconstruction: Literature Review
Akbarieh, Arghavan UL; Jayasinghe, Laddu Bhagya UL; Waldmann, Danièle UL et al

in Sustainability (2020), 12(7), 2670

This article is the second part of a two-part study, which explored the extent to which Building Information Modelling (BIM) is used for End-of-Lifecycle (EoL) scenario selection to minimise the ... [more ▼]

This article is the second part of a two-part study, which explored the extent to which Building Information Modelling (BIM) is used for End-of-Lifecycle (EoL) scenario selection to minimise the Construction and Demolition Waste (CDW). The conventional literature review presented here is based on the conceptual landscape that was obtained from the bibliometric and scientometric analysis in the first part of the study. Seven main academic research directions concerning the BIM-based EoL domain were found, including social and cultural factors, BIM-based Design for Deconstruction (DfD), BIM-based deconstruction, BIM-based EoL within LCA, BIM-aided waste management, Material and Component Banks (M/C Banks), off-site construction, interoperability and Industry Foundation Classes (IFC). The analysis highlights research gaps in the path of raw materials to reusable materials, i.e., from the deconstruction to M/C banks to DfD-based designs and then again to deconstruction. BIM-based EoL is suffering from a lack of a global framework. The existing solutions are based on local waste management policies and case-specific sustainability criteria selection. Another drawback of these ad hoc but well-developed BIM-based EoL prototypes is their use of specific proprietary BIM tools to support their framework. This disconnection between BIM tools and EoL tools is reportedly hindering the BIM-based EoL, while no IFC classes support the EoL phase information exchange. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of a BIM-based web tool as Material and Component bank for a sustainable construction industry
Jayasinghe, Bhagya; Waldmann, Danièle UL

in Sustainability (2020)

The construction industry consumes an enormous amount of global resources and produces more waste than any other sector. The need to move toward sustainable development in construction requires ... [more ▼]

The construction industry consumes an enormous amount of global resources and produces more waste than any other sector. The need to move toward sustainable development in construction requires significant changes in construction and demolition (C&D) waste management. The estimation of waste, recycling materials and reusable components could be vital in waste management, achieving huge efficiency in the construction industry. Moreover, a typical building comprises of an extensive amount of materials and components with various characteristics. This study proposes a Building Information Modelling (BIM) based system to allow the circular economy by storing information of the materials and components of buildings and by effectively managing the recycling of materials and reuse of components. A tool which serves as Material and Component (M&C) bank is developed with PHP and MYSQL by making use of a web browser able to extract the materials and component information of a building through the BIM model. This information is vital for several uses such as quantification of C&D waste and assessing for the design for deconstruction. It can also be used to obtain the information of reusable condition of the components and instructions for the reconstruction. [less ▲]

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See detailRecyclable Architecture: Prefabricated and Recyclable Typologies
Ferreira Silva, Marielle UL; Jayasinghe, Laddu Bhagya UL; Waldmann, Danièle UL et al

in Sustainability (2020)

Buildings are being demolished without taking into the account the waste generated, and the housing shortage problem is getting more critical as cities are growing and the demand for built space and the ... [more ▼]

Buildings are being demolished without taking into the account the waste generated, and the housing shortage problem is getting more critical as cities are growing and the demand for built space and the use of resources are increasing. Architectural projects have been using prefabrication and modular systems to solve these problems. However, there is an absence of structures that can be disassembled and reused when the structure’s life ran its course. This paper presents three building prototypes of new recyclable architectural typologies: (i) a Slab prototype designed as a shelf structure where wooden housing modules can be plugged in and out, (ii) a Tower prototype allowing for an easy change of layout and use of different floors and (iii) a Demountable prototype characterized by the entire demountability of the building. These typologies combine modularity, flexibility, and disassembling to address the increasing demands for multi-use, re-usable and resource-efficient constructions. Design, drawings, plans, and 3D models are developed, tested and analyzed as a part of the research. The results show that the implementation of the recyclable architectural concept at the first design stage is feasible and realistic, and ensures the adaptation through time, increases life span, usability and the material reusability, while avoiding demolition, which in turn reduces the construction waste and, consequently, the CO2 emissions. [less ▲]

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See detailRecyclable Architecture: Prefabricated and Recyclable Typologies
Ferreira Silvia, Marielle; Jayasinghe, Laddu Bhagya; Waldmann, Danièle UL et al

in Sustainability (2020)

Buildings are being demolished without taking into the account the waste generated, and the housing shortage problem is getting more critical as cities are growing and the demand for built space and the ... [more ▼]

Buildings are being demolished without taking into the account the waste generated, and the housing shortage problem is getting more critical as cities are growing and the demand for built space and the use of resources are increasing. Architectural projects have been using prefabrication and modular systems to solve these problems. However, there is an absence of structures that can be disassembled and reused when the structure’s life ran its course. This paper presents three building prototypes of new recyclable architectural typologies: (i) a Slab prototype designed as a shelf structure where wooden housing modules can be plugged in and out, (ii) a Tower prototype allowing for an easy change of layout and use of different floors and (iii) a Demountable prototype characterized by the entire demountability of the building. These typologies combine modularity, flexibility, and disassembling to address the increasing demands for multi‐use, re‐usable and resource‐efficient constructions. Design, drawings, plans, and 3D models are developed, tested and analyzed as a part of the research. The results show that the implementation of the recyclable architectural concept at the first design stage is feasible and realistic, and ensures the adaptation through time, increases life span, usability and the material reusability, while avoiding demolition, which in turn reduces the construction waste and, consequently, the CO2 emissions. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of pile punching on adjacent piles: Insights 3 from a 3D coupled SPH-FEM analysis
Jayasinghe, Bhagya; Waldmann, Danièle UL; Shang, Junlong

in Applied Mechniacs (2020)

Pile punching (or driving) affects the surrounding area where piles and the adjacent piles can be displaced out of their original positions due to horizontal loads, leading to hazardous outcomes. This ... [more ▼]

Pile punching (or driving) affects the surrounding area where piles and the adjacent piles can be displaced out of their original positions due to horizontal loads, leading to hazardous outcomes. This paper presents a 3D coupled Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics and Finite. Element Method (SPH-FEM) model, which was established to investigate pile punching and its impact on adjacent piles subjected to lateral loads. This approach handles the large distortions by avoiding mesh tangling and remeshing, contributing greatly high computational efficiency. The SPH-FEM model was validated against field measurements. Results of this study indicated that the soil type in which piles were embedded affected the interaction between piles during the pile punching. A comprehensive parametric study was carried out to evaluate the impact of soil properties on the displacement of piles due to the punching of an adjacent pile. It was found that the interaction between piles was comparatively weak when the piles were driven in stiff clays; while the pile-soil interactions were much more significant in sandy soils and soft clays. [less ▲]

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See detailPhase field simulation of early-age fracture in cement-based materials (Top 10%)
Nguyen, Thanh-Tung; Waldmann, Danièle UL; Bui, Tinh Quoc

in International Journal of Solids and Structures (2020)

In this paper, a new computational approach, which is based on a multi-physics coupling of the chemo-thermo-mechanical process, is developed for modeling failure mechanism in cement-based materials at ... [more ▼]

In this paper, a new computational approach, which is based on a multi-physics coupling of the chemo-thermo-mechanical process, is developed for modeling failure mechanism in cement-based materials at early-age hydration. A new constitutive law describing mechanical behavior of young concrete is thus derived, taking into account the effects of several factors including thermal expansion, shrinkage, damage, and both basic and transient thermal creeps. A strongly coupled model describing the interaction between fracture and multi-physics problems of cement hydration is obtained. The present phase field model in terms of smeared crack approach is highly suitable for simulating crack, especially when considering the unilateral contact conditions at crack surfaces. The capability of the proposed model in modeling complex crack initiation and propagation under arbitrary boundary conditions is highlighted. Fracture phenomena at both macroscopic and mesoscopic scales are considered and analyzed. The effects of creep and microstructural heterogeneity in different length scale are investigated, showing the great potential of the developed approach. [less ▲]

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See detailOvercome of bed-joint imperfections and improvement of actual contact in dry-stacked masonry
Chewe Ngapeya, Gelen Gael UL; Waldmann, Danièle UL

in Construction and Building Materials (2020)

Several researchers studied dry-stacked masonry walls (DSM) and inferred that the actual contact surface between the different block rows and the compressive strength in such walls are reduced by bed ... [more ▼]

Several researchers studied dry-stacked masonry walls (DSM) and inferred that the actual contact surface between the different block rows and the compressive strength in such walls are reduced by bed-joint imperfections as well as by height differences between different masonry blocks leading both to high stress concentration. This paper concentrates on the first type on imperfections. Through experimental tests, it analyses the influence of bed-joint roughness on the load bearing capacity and investigates a strategy to improve the load-bearing capacity of DSM by placing an additional horizontal layer on the top face of raw masonry blocks. First, different contact layers using conventional and auxetic materials were applied. Then 20 dry-stacked masonry prisms built with raw and improved masonry blocks were tested under axial compressive load until failure. Prescale Fujifilm strips were used to measure the actual contact in the bed-joints. Experimental tests show that the use of a contact layer with well-defined material properties enables firstly to increase the actual contact area in the bed-joints from 23% to 98% of the nominal contact area and secondly to increase the load-bearing capacity by 14 to 97%. In addition, the contact layer with an auxetic material shows a significant capacity in altering the lateral expansion in the block units. The outcomes show that although the bed joint roughness influences the stress distribution in a dry-stacked masonry block, a contact layer with well-defined material properties enables to overcome the roughness induced by the bed-joint imperfections. [less ▲]

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See detailExperimental and analytical analysis of the load-bearing capacity Pu of improved dry-stacked masonry
Chewe Ngapeya, Gelen Gael UL; Waldmann, Danièle UL

in Journal of Building Engineering (2020), 27

Dry-Stacked Masonry (DSM) as structural load-bearing element is still unexploited because of many factors including the early face-shell cracking, the impacts of the block imperfections on the wall load ... [more ▼]

Dry-Stacked Masonry (DSM) as structural load-bearing element is still unexploited because of many factors including the early face-shell cracking, the impacts of the block imperfections on the wall load-bearing capacity (Pu) and the lack of design code safely predicting Pu. Through experimental tests, this paper investigates a strategy for improving Pu of DSM by placing an additional horizontal contact layer on the top face of raw DSM blocks. The effect of four mixtures used to improve the raw DSM blocks has been investigated. Further, a mathematical model predicting Pu is proposed which takes into account the effects of the block imperfections. In the course of the investigation, 20 DSM wallets and 25 DSM prisms built with raw and improved DSM blocks were tested to failure under axial compression. In the former, the face-shell cracking load (Pcrack) and the load-bearing capacity (Pu) were recorded, while in the latter, the actual contact area was recorded in hundred full bed-joints using Prescale Fujifilm strips. The results showed that a contact layer of well-defined properties increased the actual contact area from 23% to 55% and improved Pu by 31,9%. The mathematical model for the raw DSM blocks predicts Pu with a mean accuracy of 93% and a standard deviation of 12% where the standards EN 1996-1-1 for mortared masonry exhibited a mean accuracy of 137% and a standard deviation of about 29%. Concerning the improved DSM blocks, the proposed model predicts Pu with a mean accuracy of 106% and a standard deviation of 10%, whereas the standards EN 1996-1-1 presents a mean accuracy of 124% and a standard deviation of 9%. [less ▲]

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See detailGravel wash mud, a quarry waste material as supplementary cementitious material (SCM)
Thapa, Vishojit Bahadur UL; Waldmann, Danièle UL; Simon, Claude

in Cement and Concrete Research (2019), 124(105833),

The suitability of gravel wash mud (GWM), a sludge waste from gravel quarrying, is examined for its use as a partial Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) clinker substitute. The gravel wash mud was dried ... [more ▼]

The suitability of gravel wash mud (GWM), a sludge waste from gravel quarrying, is examined for its use as a partial Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) clinker substitute. The gravel wash mud was dried, milled into a fine powder and calcined at 750°C, 850°C and 950°C. In this study, various characterisation methods including particle size distribution (PSD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the simultaneous thermal analysis (STA) were applied on the calcined GWM powders to determine the optimal calcination temperature. Over 200 specimens were prepared based on different cement paste and mortar mixes to investigate the potential of calcined GWM powders as SCMs. The pozzolanic activity of the GWM powders was verified by applying strength-based evaluation methods, simultaneous thermal analysis and SEM on hardened samples. Very promising strength-enhancing capacities were observed for samples containing GWM powders calcined at 850°C with a OPC replacement level of 20 wt.%. [less ▲]

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See detailA material and component bank to facilitate material recycling and component reuse for a sustainable construction: concept and preliminary study
Cai, Gaochuang; Waldmann, Danièle UL

in Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy (2019)

This paper concerns the reusable components and recycled materials from demounted structures 16 which may draw a large amount of waste in construction industry. By a series of literature review 17 and ... [more ▼]

This paper concerns the reusable components and recycled materials from demounted structures 16 which may draw a large amount of waste in construction industry. By a series of literature review 17 and analyses, a material and component bank was proposed to manage more effectively the 18 recycling of materials and direct reuse of components even of whole components obtained from 19 old structures to facilitate a more sustainable construction industry. The concept, main businesses 20 and work operation of the bank were illustrated in detail including its potential management 21 method and supply chain. The relationship between the bank and current building information 22 modelling, design for deconstruction, supply chain and life cycle assessment based on the bank 23 were then analysed in detail. It can be concluded that the bank could pave the way for effectively 24 performing a further and repaid reuse of components and perfecting current recycling of materials 25 to contribute a more sustainable built environment from the view of various terms mentioned in 26 this study. The bank also can link with current method of life cycle assessment or environmental 27 impact assessment well, which all can promote the construction sustainability indicating the bank 28 can be integrated into current construction industry easily for the future. [less ▲]

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See detailModelling of interfacial crack propagation in strongly heterogeneous materials by using phase field method
Nguyen, Thanh-Tung; Yvonnet, Julien; Waldmann, Danièle UL et al

in Proceedings of the 8th GACM Colloquium on Computational Mechanics for Young Scientists from Academia and Industry (2019, August 28)

Phase field model has been proved to be a useful tool to study the fracture behaviors in heterogeneous materials. This method is able to model complex, multiple crack fronts, and branching in both 2D/3D ... [more ▼]

Phase field model has been proved to be a useful tool to study the fracture behaviors in heterogeneous materials. This method is able to model complex, multiple crack fronts, and branching in both 2D/3D without ad-hoc numerical treatments. In this study, a new interfacial cracking model in the phase field framework is proposed. The effects of both stiff and soft interphases on the fracture response of composite materials are considered. A dimensional-reduced model based on a rigorous asymptotic analysis is adapted to derive the null thickness imperfect interface models from an original configuration containing thin interphase. The idea of mixing the bulk and interfacial energy within the phase field framework is then used to describe the material degradation both on the interface and in bulk. Moreover, in order to ensure the physical crack propagation patterns, a unilateral contact condition is also proposed for the case of spring imperfect interface. The complex cracking phenomena on interfaces such as initiation, delamination, coalescence, deflection, as well as the competition between the interface and bulk cracking are successfully predicted by the present method. Concerning the numerical aspect, the one-pass staggered algorithm is adapted, providing an extremely robust approach to study interfacial cracking phenomena in a broad class of heterogeneous materials. [less ▲]

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See detailPotential of the Deformation Area Difference (DAD)-Method for Condition Assessment of Bridge Structures
Waldmann, Danièle UL; Erdenebat, Dolgion UL

Scientific Conference (2019, August 27)

The construction industry ranks in the back rows in terms of digitalization. The numerous existing bridge structures require considerable effort for inspection and reliable assessment of their condition ... [more ▼]

The construction industry ranks in the back rows in terms of digitalization. The numerous existing bridge structures require considerable effort for inspection and reliable assessment of their condition. However, the state-of-the-art for inspecting these structures still relies on the visual inspection realized by bridge inspectors. The current paper summarizes several research projects in the field of condition assessment of bridge structures at the University of Luxembourg by analysing the structural response due to dynamic excitation and static loading tests. The latest development aims at using the most modern measurement techniques by combining them to a new method, the Deformation Area Difference (DAD)-Method in order to simplify and automatize at most the inspection process. The proposed DAD-Method is based on conventional static load deflection tests. It allows the localization of stiffness-reducing damage by using a very precise measurement of the deflection line and by combining this outcome to the deflection line generated by a simplified finite element model of the bridge. In order to investigate the condition of a bridge by the DAD-Method modern measurement techniques such as photogrammetry and laser scanning are used. In the framework of the conducted research, these techniques are also compared to traditional measurement systems such as total station and inductive displacement sensors as well as to digital levelling sensors. By theoretical examples and experimental tests, it can be shown that the DAD-Method is able to detect and localize damage when the damage level is dominant on the measurement noise. This paper investigates also the application of the method on a real bridge structure in Luxembourg. All of the above-mentioned measurement techniques were used, whereby the photogrammetry is applied using both, stable tripods and an autonomous flying drone. This allows examining the accuracy of the different measurement systems when applied on a real-size structure. [less ▲]

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See detailKeynote lecture: Potential of the Deformation Area Difference (DAD)-Method for Condition Assessment of Bridge Structures
Waldmann, Danièle UL; Erdenebat, Dolgion

in Proceedings of SMAR 2019 - Fifth Conference on Smart Monitoring, Assessment and Rehabilitation of Civil Structures (2019, August)

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