References of "Wahl, Hans-Werner"
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See detailMomentary Subjective Age is Associated with Perceived and Physiological Stress in the Daily Lives of Old and Very Old Adults
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Pauly, Theresa; Schilling, Oliver et al

in Psychology and Aging (in press)

Subjective age, that is the age people feel in relation to their chronological age, can vary on a day-to-day and even momentary basis. Previous long-term and daily-diary studies have shown that elevated ... [more ▼]

Subjective age, that is the age people feel in relation to their chronological age, can vary on a day-to-day and even momentary basis. Previous long-term and daily-diary studies have shown that elevated stress covaries with older subjective age. However, it is an open question whether such links can also be observed at the momentary level within a given day and go beyond self-reports of stress. Moving ahead, we investigated how two indicators of stress (self-reported: perceived stress; physiological: salivary cortisol) are associated with the age people feel on a momentary basis. We examined data from 118 older (Mage = 66.67 years) and 36 very old adults (Mage = 85.92 years) who reported their momentary subjective age and perceived stress and also provided saliva samples up to seven times a day over seven consecutive days. Dynamic structural equation models showed that both higher momentary perceived stress and higher cortisol levels preceding the measurement predicted an older momentary subjective age. In contrast, subjective age at the previous measurement did not predict subsequent stress. These effects were moderated by participant age group and grip strength, albeit not consistently. Our results corroborate and extend earlier findings that both self-reported and physiological stress are important explanatory variables for people’s subjective age variation even on relatively short time scales, and shed light on differential time-ordered dynamics between stress and subjective age in daily life. Findings also inform theoretical models of subjective age that highlight the importance of contextual, momentary influences on how old people feel and help better understand how biological and psychological processes are intertwined in later life. [less ▲]

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See detailExperimental Studies on Subjective Views of Aging: Overview, Challenges, and Future Directions
Wahl, Hans-Werner; Kornadt, Anna Elena UL

in Diehl, Manfred; Palgi, Yuval; Shrira, Amit (Eds.) Subjective Views of Aging: Theory, Research, and Practice (in press)

A major body of evidence points to the significant associations between views on aging (VoA) and key developmental outcomes, such as health and well-being. While much of this evidence comes from ... [more ▼]

A major body of evidence points to the significant associations between views on aging (VoA) and key developmental outcomes, such as health and well-being. While much of this evidence comes from longitudinal studies, research on VoA has also been strongly experimental since its inception. Our chapter aims to provide an overview about the major lines of prior experimental research on VoA and by this means derive its role for present and future VoA research overall. We first offer an organizing scheme for the existing body of experimental work on VoA. We arrive at the conclusion that previous experimental research on VoA with older adults has been conducted in a broad range of studies with different dependent variables and experimental manipulations, showing the importance of VoA and their impact on a wide range on phenomena. We then go into more detail of VoA research that has been done in the past decade. Here, our conclusion is that recent experimental research on VoA is taking up societal challenges, such as the aging workforce, older people in the health care system, and stereotype threat elicited by digital technologies. At the same time, current VoA research is adding to the differentiation of established effects in the prior literature as well as helped to identify moderating and contextual conditions not considered previously. We end with a set of recommendations for future experimental VoA research including strengthening the needed liaison with other research formats. [less ▲]

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See detailLongitudinal Relations Between Views on Aging and Perceived Stress: Evidence for Mutual Associations
Wahl, Hans-Werner; Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Wettstein, Markus

in Innovation in Aging (2021, November), 5(Supplement_1), 287-287

We investigated the reciprocal longitudinal relation between perceived stress and three established domains of views on aging (VoA): (1) subjective age; (2) attitude toward own aging [ATOA]; and (3) aging ... [more ▼]

We investigated the reciprocal longitudinal relation between perceived stress and three established domains of views on aging (VoA): (1) subjective age; (2) attitude toward own aging [ATOA]; and (3) aging-related cognitions including social loss, physical decline, and continuous growth. We also examined the potentially moderating role of chronological age. Data of the German Ageing Survey, comprising two measurement occasions (2014 and 2017) and a sample of 4,588 individuals aged between 40 and 95 years, were analyzed. Controlling for socio-demographic and health-related indicators, cross-lagged models indicated mutual longitudinal relations between VoA and stress. Whether the pathway from stress to VoA or the opposite pathway was stronger varied depending on the VoA considered. With increasing age, most VoA domains were less strongly associated with subsequent perceived stress. Our findings suggest that less favorable VoA predict higher perceived subsequent stress, but they are also preceded and predicted by higher levels of perceived stress. [less ▲]

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See detail“I Felt so Old This Morning.” Short-Term Variations in Subjective Age and the Role of Trait Subjective Age: Evidence from the ILSE/EMIL Ecological Momentary Assessment Data
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Weiss, David; Gerstorf, Denis et al

in Psychology and Aging (2021), 36(3), 373-382

Subjective age, how old people feel compared to their chronological age, is a central indicator of age identity and highly predictive for developmental outcomes. While mostly used as a trait-like concept ... [more ▼]

Subjective age, how old people feel compared to their chronological age, is a central indicator of age identity and highly predictive for developmental outcomes. While mostly used as a trait-like concept in previous research, recent studies employing experimental designs and daily assessments suggest that subjective age can vary after experimental manipulations or between days. However, less is known about whether subjective age varies over even shorter time frames such as within moments on a given day, how such short-term variability differs by age and its association with trait subjective age. We examined these questions with data obtained from 123 young–old (Mage = 67.19 years) and 47 old–old adults (Mage = 86.59 years) who reported their momentary subjective age six times a day over 7 consecutive days as they were going about their everyday lives. Participants felt younger on a large majority of occasions, and 25% of the total variability in subjective age could be attributed to within-person variation. Within-person variability in subjective age amounted to an average of about 3 years from one moment to the next and did not differ between age groups. However, those with younger trait subjective ages exhibited larger moment-to-moment variation. Our findings extend the literature on subjective age by showing that how old people feel can vary on a momentary basis and that state and trait components of subjective age are related. Further research should investigate the contextual predictors of variability in subjective age and the links between trait and state concepts and developmental outcomes. [less ▲]

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See detailShort-Term Fluctuation of Subjective Age and its Correlates: An Ecological Momentary Assessment of Older Adults
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Pauly, Theresa; Gerstorf, Denis et al

in Innovation in Aging (2021), 5(Supplement_1), 287-287

We examined short-term fluctuations of subjective age with data obtained from 123 young-old (Mage = 67.19 years) and 47 old-old adults (Mage = 86.59 years) who reported their momentary subjective age six ... [more ▼]

We examined short-term fluctuations of subjective age with data obtained from 123 young-old (Mage = 67.19 years) and 47 old-old adults (Mage = 86.59 years) who reported their momentary subjective age six times a day over seven consecutive days as they were going about their everyday lives. Participants felt younger on a large majority of occasions, and 25% of the total variability in subjective age could be attributed to within-person variation. Those with younger trait subjective ages exhibited larger moment-to-moment variation, while chronological age did not impact variability. Furthermore, we investigated relationships between within-day fluctuations of subjective age and daily cortisol fluctuations. Our findings extend the literature on subjective age by showing that how old people feel can vary on a momentary basis, that state and trait components of subjective age are related, and that fluctuations in subjective age are related to biomarkers of stress. [less ▲]

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See detailThe effects of age stereotypes on physical and mental health are mediated by self-perceptions of aging
Brothers, Allyson; Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Nehrkorn-Bailey, Abigail et al

in Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences (2021), 76(5), 845-857

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See detailLongitudinal Associations between Perceived Stress and Views on Aging: Evidence for Reciprocal Relations
Wettstein, Markus; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Kornadt, Anna Elena UL

in Psychology and Aging (2021), 36(6), 752-766

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See detailExamining the Interplay of Generalized and Personal Views on Aging on Physical and Mental Health Across 2.5 Years
Brothers, Allyson; Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Nehrkorn-Bailey, Abigail et al

in Innovation in Aging (2020), 4(Supplement_1), 588-588

It remains unknown how distinct types of views on aging (VoA) are related to one another, and to aging outcomes. We used a latent-variable structural equation model to test the hypothesis that generalized ... [more ▼]

It remains unknown how distinct types of views on aging (VoA) are related to one another, and to aging outcomes. We used a latent-variable structural equation model to test the hypothesis that generalized views on aging (assessed as Age Stereotypes (AS)) would influence personal views on aging (assessed as Self-Perceptions of Aging (SPA)), which in-turn would influence later physical and mental health. Data came from a longitudinal survey on VoA (N= 537, MageT1 = 64.13, age rangeT1 = 40-98). As expected, SPA mediated the effect of AS on physical (loss-SPA: β = .23, p< .001; gain-SPA: β = .06, p< .001; R2 = .62) and mental health (loss-SPA: β = .13, p< .001; gain-SPA: β = .03, p< .01, ; R2 = .31). Congruent with theoretical assumptions, our findings provide empirical support for a directional pathway by which generalized views on aging affect health outcomes via personal views of aging. [less ▲]

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See detailExamining the Relation Among Subjective Age and Working Memory in Old Age on a High-Frequency Basis Across 7 Days
Lücke, Anna; Siebert, Jelena; Schilling, Oliver et al

in Innovation in Aging (2020), 4(Supplement_1), 598-598

While increasing longitudinal evidence suggests that negative age views accelerate cognitive decline and increase dementia risk, we know little about such co-variance dynamics on a daily basis. We make ... [more ▼]

While increasing longitudinal evidence suggests that negative age views accelerate cognitive decline and increase dementia risk, we know little about such co-variance dynamics on a daily basis. We make use of subjective age and working memory performance data obtained six times a day over seven consecutive days as people went about their daily routines from 123 young-old (aged 66-69 years, 47.2% women) and 42 old-old (aged 86-90 years, 55.8% women) adults. Notably, multilevel models revealed considerably-sized short-term intra-individual variation of subjective age and working memory within days and these short-term within-day fluctuations in subjective age and working memory were coupled as expected. Hence, increased subjective age went along with lowered working memory confirming previous research. However, the respective between-day associations appeared reversed. Given this evidence of correlated short-term variability, we also discuss implications of different change dynamics that might explain moment-to-moment versus day-to-day associations between subjective age and working memory. [less ▲]

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See detailThe interplay of personality and attitudes toward own aging across two decades of later life
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Siebert, Jelena S.; Wahl, Hans-Werner

in PLoS One (2019), 14(10),

Big Five personality traits are assumed to be linked with attitudes toward own aging. Since both constructs have central importance for the aging process, it is surprising that to our knowledge no study ... [more ▼]

Big Five personality traits are assumed to be linked with attitudes toward own aging. Since both constructs have central importance for the aging process, it is surprising that to our knowledge no study so far comprehensively addressed their mutual connection over time. We used data from the ILSE study, a longitudinal study capturing personality and attitudes toward own aging at four measurement occasions, spanning 20 years and including two participant cohorts in midlife (n = 501; born 1950–52) and later life (n = 500; born 1930–32). Dual latent change score models showed that personality was longitudinally related to change in attitudes toward own aging: Lower Neuroticism, higher Conscientiousness, and higher Openness predicted more positive attitudes, whereas the direction of the effect for Extraversion varied by time. Furthermore, the role of personality seems to be confined to certain sensitive periods in midlife and early old age. Contrary to our expectations, attitudes toward own aging had only marginal longitudinal impact on the Big Five. Our results shed light on the developmental co-dynamics of personality and subjective perceptions of aging across the second half of the lifespan. [less ▲]

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See detailATTITUDES TOWARD OWN AGING AND PERSONALITY IN LATER LIFE: EXAMINATION OF BIDIRECTIONALITY OVER 20 YEARS
Kornadt, Anna Elena UL; Siebert, Jelena S.; Wahl, Hans-Werner

in Innovation in Aging (2019), 3(Supplement_1), 385-385

Big Five personality traits are assumed to be linked with attitudes toward own aging (ATOA). Both constructs have central importance for the aging process, it is thus important to comprehensively address ... [more ▼]

Big Five personality traits are assumed to be linked with attitudes toward own aging (ATOA). Both constructs have central importance for the aging process, it is thus important to comprehensively address their mutual connection over time. We used data from the ILSE study, a longitudinal study with four measurement occasions, spanning 20 years and including two participant cohorts (n = 501; born 1950-52 and n = 500; born 1930-32). Dual latent change score models showed that personality was longitudinally related to change in ATOA: Lower Neuroticism, higher Conscientiousness, and higher Openness predicted more positive attitudes; the effect for Extraversion varied by time. Furthermore, the role of personality seems to be confined to certain sensitive periods in midlife and early old age. ATOA had only marginal longitudinal impact on personality. Our results shed light on the developmental co-dynamics of personality and subjective perceptions of aging across the second half of life. [less ▲]

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See detailHow do views on aging affect health outcomes in adulthood and late life? Explanations for an established connection
Wurm, Susanne; Diehl, Manfred; Kornadt, Anna Elena UL et al

in Developmental Review (2017), 46

Personal views on aging, such as age stereotypes and subjective aging, can affect various health outcomes in later life. For the past 20 years or so, a large body of experimental and longitudinal work has ... [more ▼]

Personal views on aging, such as age stereotypes and subjective aging, can affect various health outcomes in later life. For the past 20 years or so, a large body of experimental and longitudinal work has provided ample evidence for this connection. Thus, it seems timely to better understand the pathways of this linkage. The majority of existing studies has either focused on age stereotypes or subjective aging. This theoretical paper provides a systematic comparison of major theoretical approaches that offer explanations through which different views on aging may affect health. After a short review of findings on the short- and long-term effects of different views on aging, we describe theoretical approaches that provide explanations of underlying mechanisms for the effect of both uni- and multidimensional views on aging on health outcomes. We compare the specific characteristics of these approaches, provide a heuristic framework and outline recommendations for future research routes. A better understanding of the impact of different views on aging on health outcomes is not only relevant for basic research in life-span developmental psychology, geropsychology and health psychology, it has also implications for intervention research and public health practices. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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