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See detailExchangeably weighted bootstrap schemes
van Kerm, Philippe UL

Presentation (2022, November 18)

The exchangeably weighted bootstrap is one of the many variants of bootstrap resampling schemes. Rather than directly drawing observations with replacement from the data, weighted bootstrap schemes ... [more ▼]

The exchangeably weighted bootstrap is one of the many variants of bootstrap resampling schemes. Rather than directly drawing observations with replacement from the data, weighted bootstrap schemes generate vectors of replication weights to form bootstrap replications. Various ways to generate the replication weights can be adopted, and some choices bring practical computational advantages. This presentation demonstrates how easily such schemes can be implemented and where they are particularly useful, and introduces the exbsample command, which facilitates their implementation. [less ▲]

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See detailHigher Education Expansion and Labour Income Inequality in High-income Countries: A Gender-specific Perspective
Sauer, Petra; van Kerm, Philippe UL; Checchi, Daniele

Report (2022)

The expansion of higher education since the second half of the 20th century was particularly pronounced among women. In most high-income countries to date more women complete a tertiary level than men ... [more ▼]

The expansion of higher education since the second half of the 20th century was particularly pronounced among women. In most high-income countries to date more women complete a tertiary level than men. But research on the implications of higher education expansion for labour income inequality has largely treated expansion as gender neutral. With this paper we build on prior studies that have ignored potentially differential effects by factoring in what it means for earnings inequality to increase tertiary education among women as compared to men. To this end we draw on harmonised data from the Luxembourg Income Study (LIS) for 27 countries and two time points, 1995 and 2015, and use the method of Recentered Influence Function (RIF) regression. We obtain three main insights from our study. First, no average distributive effect of higher education expansion exists. Second, the distributive effect is gender-specific. The impact on the Gini coefficient of increasing tertiary attainment of men is positive and significant but the impact of increasing tertiary attainment of women is negative and significant. Third, the increasing share of tertiary educational attainment is the main factor explaining that distributive estimates shrink towards zero over time for both women and men. Only for men does larger inequality between and within educational groups significantly contribute to magnify the impact of educational expansion on earnings distributions across countries. Our analysis highlights that taking the gender dimension into account is crucial to obtain exhaustive understanding of the role of education for overall income inequality. [less ▲]

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See detailLa COVID-19 au Luxembourg: Le gradient social de l'épidémie
van Kerm, Philippe UL; Salagean, Iona Cristina; Amétépé, Fofo Senyo

Report (2022)

This report explores socio-economic and demographic disparities in COVID-19 health impacts in Luxembourg since March 2020. It describes variations in the risk of infections, hospitalizations and death ... [more ▼]

This report explores socio-economic and demographic disparities in COVID-19 health impacts in Luxembourg since March 2020. It describes variations in the risk of infections, hospitalizations and death across a number of socio-economic and demographic variables. It also examines variations in vaccination rates. It is part of the "Santé Pour Tous" project initiated by the Ministry of Health to under inequalities in health. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasuring Poverty Persistence
Fusco, Alessio UL; van Kerm, Philippe UL

Report (2022)

This chapter reviews the literature on the measurement of poverty persistence. The review has two parts. We first cover the literature on poverty persistence indicators which develops ` principled ... [more ▼]

This chapter reviews the literature on the measurement of poverty persistence. The review has two parts. We first cover the literature on poverty persistence indicators which develops ` principled', descriptive summary measures. We then review the econometric literature which teases out the determinants of poverty persistence. Finally, we describe the challenges and limitations the literature on poverty persistence face. [less ▲]

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See detailThe wealth (disadvantage) of single-parent households
Nolan, Brian; Palomino, Juan C.; van Kerm, Philippe UL et al

in Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science (2022), 702(1), 188-204

Wealth is a buffer against economic shocks and the intergenerational transmission of disadvantage. We investigate the wealth of single-parent households in six high-income countries that span a variety of ... [more ▼]

Wealth is a buffer against economic shocks and the intergenerational transmission of disadvantage. We investigate the wealth of single-parent households in six high-income countries that span a variety of institutional contexts and welfare regimes. Using household survey data, we show that single-parent households in all these countries are disadvantaged in the wealth they hold, compared to dual-parent households—more so in Great Britain, France, Germany, and the United States; and less so in Italy and, especially, Spain. We tease out major differences in types of wealth holdings in single- and dual-parent households. We find that the single-parent wealth deficit is not explained by differences in age or number of children but that it is influenced by education, income, homeownership, and receipt of intergenerational transfers. We discuss the policy implications of our findings, both in terms of how single parents are treated in social protection and taxation systems and, more broadly, in the supports they require if they are to overcome barriers to accumulating wealth. [less ▲]

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See detailPublic Support for Tax Policies in COVID-19 Times: Evidence from Luxembourg
Olivera, Javier; van Kerm, Philippe UL

in International Tax and Public Finance (2022), 29

We study attitudes towards the introduction of hypothetical new taxes to finance the cost of the COVID-19 pandemic. We rely on survey data collected in Luxembourg in 2020. The survey asks for the ... [more ▼]

We study attitudes towards the introduction of hypothetical new taxes to finance the cost of the COVID-19 pandemic. We rely on survey data collected in Luxembourg in 2020. The survey asks for the agreement of respondents over: a one-time net wealth tax, an inheritance tax, a temporary solidarity income tax, and a temporary increase in VAT. All questions include different and randomly assigned tax attributes (tax rates and exemption amounts). We find a clear divide with relatively high support for new wealth and inheritance taxes on the one hand and a low support for increases in VAT and income taxes on the other hand. While 58% of respondents agree or strongly agree with a one-time tax levied on net worth, only 24% are in favor of a small increase in VAT. Support for any tax is however negatively associated with the size of the tax as measured by the predicted revenues. Our results indicate that a one-time wealth tax could raise substantial revenues and still garner public support. [less ▲]

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See detailIntergenerational wealth transfers in Great Britain from the Wealth and Assets Survey in comparative perspective
Nolan, Brian; Palomino, Juan C.; van Kerm, Philippe UL et al

in Fiscal Studies (2022), 43(2), 179-199

Wealth surveys that collect information on intergenerational transfers provide new scope for comparative study of those transfers and their relationship with wealth across rich countries. However, this is ... [more ▼]

Wealth surveys that collect information on intergenerational transfers provide new scope for comparative study of those transfers and their relationship with wealth across rich countries. However, this is problematic in the case of Great Britain, due to specific features of the Wealth and Assets Survey (WAS), the central source of survey-based household wealth data, in particular the extent of missing information in its first wave. This has severely constrained efforts to investigate patterns of wealth transfer in Great Britain in comparative perspective. In this paper, we set out these issues and present ways of dealing with them. On this basis, we then examine the main similarities and differences in patterns of intergenerational transmission of wealth between Great Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the United States. Our findings reveal common features across these countries as well as some important respects in which Great Britain was distinctive, though less of an outlier than the US. About 35 per cent of British households reported receiving an intergenerational wealth transfer at some point, similar to most of the comparator countries but much higher than the US. We conclude by setting out how WAS can be enhanced to address these issues at source, proposals with which the Office for National Statistics is seriously engaged. [less ▲]

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See detailUnderstanding Twenty Years of Inequality and Poverty Trends in Russia
Lisina, Anastasiya; van Kerm, Philippe UL

in Review of Income and Wealth (2022), 68(S1), 108-130

The distribution of income in Russia changed significantly over the past 25 years. This paper examines the factors that have been driving the fall in inequality and poverty over two recent decades in the ... [more ▼]

The distribution of income in Russia changed significantly over the past 25 years. This paper examines the factors that have been driving the fall in inequality and poverty over two recent decades in the Russian Federation. Changes in earnings from public and private sectors and pensions have been the main sources of changes in the income distribution between 1994 and 2015. Falling inequality and poverty were the result of a decrease in the dispersion of private sector earnings and an increase in the levels of pensions and public sector earnings. Neither the evolution of socio-demographic characteristics nor the level or structure of employment alone had big impacts. [less ▲]

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See detailDistributional Change: Assessing the Contribution of Household Income Sources
Kyzyma, Iryna; Fusco, Alessio; van Kerm, Philippe UL

in Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics (2022), n/a(n/a),

We develop a decomposition of changes in household income distributions by factor components to quantify the contribution of changes over time in the association between sources of income and changes in ... [more ▼]

We develop a decomposition of changes in household income distributions by factor components to quantify the contribution of changes over time in the association between sources of income and changes in their (marginal) distributions. The two components are broken down to isolate the contribution of specific income sources. An application to the change in the distribution of household incomes in Luxembourg between 2004 and 2013 reveals contrasted results: increased association between spouse earnings, public transfers and taxes depressed the income share of poor households while changes in marginal distributions increased incomes in the upper half of the distribution. [less ▲]

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See detailInheritance, gifts and the accumulation of wealth for low-income households
Morelli, Salvatore; Nolan, Brian; Palomino, Juan C. et al

in Journal of European Social Policy (2021), 31(5), 533-548

Many low-income households in rich countries have very little wealth, but the role of intergenerational wealth transmission in underpinning this deficit is not known. This article seeks to fill that gap ... [more ▼]

Many low-income households in rich countries have very little wealth, but the role of intergenerational wealth transmission in underpinning this deficit is not known. This article seeks to fill that gap by investigating patterns of past wealth transfer receipt for low-income versus other households in seven rich countries and assessing the contribution that these transfers, or their absence, make to current wealth levels. We find that households on low incomes are relatively disadvantaged in terms of intergenerational transfers received in the past, both in terms of the likelihood of having received any and the amounts received by those who do benefit from such transfers. The role that this disadvantage plays in the linkage between current low-income and low wealth is assessed and evidence presented that it is significant. Simulation of a universal wealth transfer scheme or ‘capital endowment’ on reaching adulthood for two countries shows that such a policy could lead to a marked decline in the proportion of low-income adults with negative or no wealth. This and alternative or complementary policy responses to these wealth deficits merit the most serious attention. [less ▲]

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See detailPublic support for tax policies in COVID-19 times: Evidence from Luxembourg
Olivera, Javier; van Kerm, Philippe UL

E-print/Working paper (2021)

We study attitudes towards the introduction of hypothetical new taxes to finance the cost of the COVID-19 pandemic. We rely on survey data collected in Luxembourg in 2020. The survey asks for the ... [more ▼]

We study attitudes towards the introduction of hypothetical new taxes to finance the cost of the COVID-19 pandemic. We rely on survey data collected in Luxembourg in 2020. The survey asks for the agreement of respondents over: a one-time net wealth tax, an inheritance tax, a temporary solidarity income tax, and a temporary increase in VAT. All questions include different and randomly assigned tax attributes (tax rates and exemption amounts). We find a clear divide with relativelyhigh support for new wealth and inheritance taxes on the one hand and a low support for increases in VAT and income taxes on the other hand. While 58% of respondents agree or strongly agree with a one-time tax levied on net worth, only24% are in favor of a small increase in VAT. Support for any tax is however negatively associated with the size of the tax as measured by the predicted revenues. Our results indicate that a one-time wealth tax could raise substantial revenues andstill garner public support. [less ▲]

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See detailNew Estimates of Inequality of Opportunity Across European Cohorts (and Some Insights on the Long-term Impact of Educational Policy)
Andreoli, Francesco; Fusco, Alessio; Kyzyma, Iryna et al

Scientific Conference (2021, August 25)

This paper provides a set of new estimates of inequality of opportunity (IOp) in Europe, using the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Condition (EU-SILC). Unlike previous research, we estimate ... [more ▼]

This paper provides a set of new estimates of inequality of opportunity (IOp) in Europe, using the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Condition (EU-SILC). Unlike previous research, we estimate inequality of opportunity within birth cohorts, which we argue is the most appropriate population level for inequality of opportunity analysis. Most IOp measures require estimation of the conditional distribution of the outcome of interest given circumstances. With multiple circumstances and the sample sizes available in EU-SILC, we use distribution regression methods combined with local kernel weighting and show how these can be used to estimate a large set of IOp measures. Endowed with cohort-level estimates of IOp, we finally examine the relationship between educational policy variables measured at the time of parental education and offspring generation inequality of opportunity in adulthood. We find a negative relationship between the duration of compulsory education of the parents and IOp among offspring, but the relationship is not very strong. [less ▲]

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See detailUnemployment and working hours of women and men during the pandemic
Todorovic, Jelena; van Kerm, Philippe UL; Peluso, Eugenio UL

Report (2021)

Nearly all modern recessions have had one thing in common: men's employment has been affected significantly more than that of women. At least this was the case until 2020, with the recession caused by the ... [more ▼]

Nearly all modern recessions have had one thing in common: men's employment has been affected significantly more than that of women. At least this was the case until 2020, with the recession caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. Not only has it been unique in terms of its origin, but also in terms of its impact on the labour market: for the first time women were significantly more likely than men to be laid off, furloughed or to experience a reduction in working hours. This has led some economists to coin the term “shecession” (she + recession) to describe the recent economic downturn [less ▲]

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See detailHigher Education Expansion and Inequality in Labour Incomes: The Importance of a Gendered Perspective
Sauer, Petra; van Kerm, Philippe UL

Article for general public (2021)

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See detailAccounting for Differences in Income Inequality across Countries: Tax-benefit Policy, Labour Market Structure, Returns and Demographics
Sologon, Denisa UL; van Kerm, Philippe UL; Li, Jinjing et al

in Journal of Economic Inequality (2021), 19

This paper presents a framework for studying international differences in the distribution of household income. Integrating micro-econometric and micro-simulation approaches in a decomposition analysis ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a framework for studying international differences in the distribution of household income. Integrating micro-econometric and micro-simulation approaches in a decomposition analysis, it quantifies the role of tax-benefit systems, employment and occupational structures, labour and financial market returns, and demographic composition in accounting for differences in income inequality across countries. Building upon EUROMOD (the European tax-benefit calculator) and its harmonised datasets, the model is portable and can be implemented for cross-country comparisons between any participating country. An application to the UK and Ireland—two countries that have much in common while displaying different levels of inequality—shows that differences in tax benefit rules between the two countries account for roughly half of the observed difference in disposable household income inequality. Demographic differences play negligible roles. The Irish tax-benefit system is more redistributive than UK\textquoterights due to a higher tax progressivity and higher average transfer rates. These are largely attributable to policy parameter differences, but also to differences in pre-tax, pre-transfer income distributions. [less ▲]

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See detailIntergenerational wealth transfers and wealth inequality in rich countries: What do we learn from Gini decomposition?
Nolan, Brian; Palomino, Juan C.; van Kerm, Philippe UL et al

in Economics Letters (2021), 199

The role of intergenerational transfers of wealth via inheritance and gifts inter vivos in the accumulation of household wealth and the generation of wealth inequality has been hotly debated. This paper ... [more ▼]

The role of intergenerational transfers of wealth via inheritance and gifts inter vivos in the accumulation of household wealth and the generation of wealth inequality has been hotly debated. This paper uses data from household wealth surveys for six rich countries – Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the US – to assess the contribution of intergenerational wealth transfers to wealth inequality using decomposition methods for the Gini coefficient. The results show that transfer wealth is consistently a good deal more unequally distributed than non-transfer wealth and total wealth. Transfer wealth accounts for only about one-tenth of overall wealth inequality for the US compared to one-third for Germany and Italy. This mirrors the importance of transfer wealth in total wealth in each country, with differences in inequality in transfer wealth and its correlation with total wealth having only a modest impact. We find that a marginal percentage increase in all transfers reduces total wealth inequality in Britain, Germany and the US, while it would increase total wealth inequality in France, Italy and Spain. [less ▲]

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See detailTime use, childcare and home schooling
Todorovic, Jelena; van Kerm, Philippe UL; Peluso, Eugenio UL

Report (2021)

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected households around the globe in many dimensions. Governments' responses to the public health crisis have almost brought economies to a halt and unemployment rates have ... [more ▼]

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected households around the globe in many dimensions. Governments' responses to the public health crisis have almost brought economies to a halt and unemployment rates have jumped to historical highs.Work conditions for those who remained employed changed abruptly, with many being forced to work from home. As schools and daycare centres closed, child-care needs soared. Social distancing recommendations and stay-at-home orders made it difficult, if not impossible, for informal care providers, such as grandparents or other family members, to help with child-care responsibilities. So how did parents cope? [less ▲]

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See detailForeign-born households in the income distribution and their contribution to social indicators in European countries
Fusco, Alessio UL; Sohst, Rhea Ravenna UL; van Kerm, Philippe UL

in Guio, Anne-Catherine; Marlier, Eric; Nolan, Brian (Eds.) Improving the understanding of poverty and social exclusion in Europe (2021)

This chapter provides new evidence about the relative differences in the incomes and living conditions of native- and foreign-born households exploiting EU-SILC data for 2007 and 2018. For the 28 ... [more ▼]

This chapter provides new evidence about the relative differences in the incomes and living conditions of native- and foreign-born households exploiting EU-SILC data for 2007 and 2018. For the 28 countries with a satisfying coverage of immigrant populations, we document where the foreign-born stand along the distribution of incomes and living conditions and then derive their contribution to seven social indicators. We find that individuals living in foreign-born households have lower incomes and higher levels of poverty and deprivation in all countries examined. No clear improvement in the relative position of foreign-born households is observed between 2007 and 2018. Although there is much heterogeneity in the incomes of foreign-born households, their generally disadvantaged situation implies that, on the whole, they tend to push inequality, poverty and deprivation indicators upwards. This effect persists in many countries, albeit mitigated in magnitude, when we account for the different characteristics of foreign-born compared to natives. [less ▲]

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See detailRotation group bias in European Union social indicators
Fusco, Alessio UL; Gallo, Giovanni; van Kerm, Philippe UL

in Guio, Anne-Catherine; Marlier, Eric; Nolan, Brian (Eds.) Improving the understanding of poverty and social exclusion in Europe (2021)

EU-SILC relies on a 4-wave rotating panel design. A new population sample is drawn every year and selected respondents are interviewed annually for up to four years. A complete EU-SILC cross-section ... [more ▼]

EU-SILC relies on a 4-wave rotating panel design. A new population sample is drawn every year and selected respondents are interviewed annually for up to four years. A complete EU-SILC cross-section dataset therefore contains data from samples drawn independently in four different years. This paper applies influence function regressions methods to examine to what extent the rotating panel design of EU-SILC influences the estimates of four social indicators such as income poverty rates or income inequality measures, in other words whether a “rotation group bias” is observed. Our analysis of the 2014 EU-SILC cross-sectional data highlights that estimates of income inequality and poverty rates for newer rotation groups are often higher than for older ones. Individuals interviewed at least twice (and especially those who have been three or more years in the sample) tend to drag the selected social indicators downwards, compared to individuals interviewed for the first time. These impacts remain significant even when accounting for different socio-demographic characteristics of households. Not all countries are affected by the bias however. [less ▲]

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See detailThe intergenerational transmission of wealth in rich countries
Nolan, Brian; Palomino, Juan; van Kerm, Philippe UL et al

Article for general public (2020)

Whether and how much intergenerational transfers contribute to wealth inequality is still subject to debate. This column analyses household survey data on inheritance and gifts inter vivos in France ... [more ▼]

Whether and how much intergenerational transfers contribute to wealth inequality is still subject to debate. This column analyses household survey data on inheritance and gifts inter vivos in France, Germany, Great Britain, Ireland, Italy, Spain, and the US to relate current household wealth levels and inequality to the receipt of intergenerational wealth transfers. In these countries, large transfers increase overall wealth inequality. Strengthening taxation capacity and instating lifetime capital acquisitions tax for gifts and inheritances may help counter the dis-equalising effect of intergenerational transfers. [less ▲]

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