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See detailSecretion of the Phosphorylated Form of S100A9 from Neutrophils Is Essential for the Proinflammatory Functions of Extracellular S100A8/A9.
Schenten, Veronique; Plancon, Sebastien; Jung, Nicolas UL et al

in Frontiers in immunology (2018), 9

S100A8 and S100A9 are members of the S100 family of cytoplasmic EF-hand Ca(2+)-binding proteins and are abundantly expressed in the cytosol of neutrophils. In addition to their intracellular roles, S100A8 ... [more ▼]

S100A8 and S100A9 are members of the S100 family of cytoplasmic EF-hand Ca(2+)-binding proteins and are abundantly expressed in the cytosol of neutrophils. In addition to their intracellular roles, S100A8/A9 can be secreted in the extracellular environment and are considered as alarmins able to amplify the inflammatory response. The intracellular activity of S100A8/A9 was shown to be regulated by S100A9 phosphorylation, but the importance of this phosphorylation on the extracellular activity of S100A8/A9 has not yet been extensively studied. Our work focuses on the impact of the phosphorylation state of secreted S100A9 on the proinflammatory function of neutrophils. In a first step, we characterized the secretion of S100A8/A9 in different stimulatory conditions and investigated the phosphorylation state of secreted S100A9. Our results on neutrophil-like differentiated HL-60 (dHL-60) cells and purified human neutrophils showed a time-dependent secretion of S100A8/A9 when induced by phorbol 12-myristoyl 13-acetate and this secreted S100A9 was found in a phosphorylated form. Second, we evaluated the impact of this phosphorylation on proinflammatory cytokine expression and secretion in dHL-60 cells. Time course experiments with purified unphosphorylated or phosphorylated S100A8/A9 were performed and the expression and secretion levels of interleukin (IL)-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4, and CXCL8 were measured by real-time PCR and cytometry bead array, respectively. Our results demonstrate that only the phosphorylated form of the complex induces proinflammatory cytokine expression and secretion. For the first time, we provide evidence that S100A8/PhosphoS100A9 is inducing cytokine secretion through toll-like receptor 4 signaling. [less ▲]

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See detailRegulation of Neutrophil Degranulation and Cytokine Secretion: A Novel Model Approach Based on Linear Fitting
Naegelen, Isabelle UL; Beaume, Nicolas UL; Plançon, Sébastien UL et al

in Journal of Immunology Research (2015), 2015

Neutrophils participate in the maintenance of host integrity by releasing various cytotoxic proteins during degranulation. Due to recent advances, a major role has been attributed to neutrophil-derived ... [more ▼]

Neutrophils participate in the maintenance of host integrity by releasing various cytotoxic proteins during degranulation. Due to recent advances, a major role has been attributed to neutrophil-derived cytokine secretion in the initiation, exacerbation, and resolution of inflammatory responses. Because the release of neutrophil-derived products orchestrates the action of other immune cells at the infection site and, thus, can contribute to the development of chronic inflammatory diseases, we aimed to investigate in more detail the spatiotemporal regulation of neutrophil-mediated release mechanisms of proinflammatory mediators. Purified human neutrophils were stimulated for different time points with lipopolysaccharide. Cells and supernatants were analyzed by flow cytometry techniques and used to establish secretion profiles of granules and cytokines. To analyze the link between cytokine release and degranulation time series, we propose an original strategy based on linear fitting, which may be used as a guideline, to (i) define the relationship of granule proteins and cytokines secreted to the inflammatory site and (ii) investigate the spatial regulation of neutrophil cytokine release. The model approach presented here aims to predict the correlation between neutrophil-derived cytokine secretion and degranulation and may easily be extrapolated to investigate the relationship between other types of time series of functional processes. [less ▲]

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See detailAn essential role of syntaxin 3 protein for granule exocytosis and secretion of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-12b, and CCL4 from differentiated HL-60 cells
Naegelen, Isabelle UL; Plançon, Sébastien UL; Nicot, Nathalie et al

in Journal of Leukocyte Biology (2014), 97

Besides their roles in the killing of pathogens, neutrophils have the capacity to package a variety of cytokines into cytoplasmic granules for subsequent release upon inflammatory conditions. Because the ... [more ▼]

Besides their roles in the killing of pathogens, neutrophils have the capacity to package a variety of cytokines into cytoplasmic granules for subsequent release upon inflammatory conditions. Because the rapid secretion of cytokines orchestrates the action of other immune cells at the infection site and thus, can contribute to the development and chronicity of inflammatory diseases, we aimed to determine the intracellular SNARE machinery responsible for the regulation of cytokine secretion and degranulation. From a constructed gene-expression network, we first selected relevant cytokines for functional validation by the CBA approach. We established a cytokine-secretion profile for human neutrophils and dHL-60 cells, underlining their similar ability to secrete a broad variety of cytokines within proinflammatory conditions mimicked by LPS stimulation. Secondly, after screening of SNARE genes by microarray experiments, we selected STX3 for further functional studies. With the use of a siRNA strategy, we show that STX3 is clearly required for the maximal release of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-12b, and CCL4 without alteration of other cytokine secretion in dHL-60 cells. In addition, we demonstrate that STX3 is involved in MMP-9 exocytosis from gelatinase granules, where STX3 is partly localized. Our results suggest that the secretion of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-12b, and CCL4 occurs during gelatinase degranulation, a process controlled by STX3. In summary, these findings provide first evidence that STX3 has an essential role in trafficking pathways of cytokines in neutrophil granulocytes. [less ▲]

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See detailNew Insights into the Regulation of Neutrophil NADPH Oxidase Activity in the Phagosome: A Focus on the Role of Lipid and Ca(2+) Signaling
Bréchard, Sabrina UL; Plançon, Sébastien UL; Tschirhart, Eric UL

in Antioxidants & Redox Signaling (2013), 18(6), 661-676

Significance: Reactive oxygen species, produced by the phagosomal NADPH oxidase of neutrophils, play a significant physiological role during normal defense. Their role is not only to kill invading ... [more ▼]

Significance: Reactive oxygen species, produced by the phagosomal NADPH oxidase of neutrophils, play a significant physiological role during normal defense. Their role is not only to kill invading pathogens, but also to act as modulators of global physiological functions of phagosomes. Given the importance of NADPH oxidase in the immune system, its activity has to be decisively controlled by distinctive mechanisms to ensure appropriate regulation at the phagosome. Recent Advances: Here, we describe the signal transduction pathways that regulate phagosomal NADPH oxidase in neutrophils, with an emphasis on the role of lipid metabolism and intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization. Critical Issues: The potential involvement of Ca(2+)-binding S100A8 and S100A9 proteins, known to interact with the plasma membrane NADPH oxidase, is also considered. Future Directions: Recent technical progress in advanced live imaging microscopy will permit to focus more accurately on phagosomal rather than plasma membrane NADPH oxidase regulation during neutrophil phagocytosis. [less ▲]

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See detailThe recruitment of p47 and Rac2G12V at the phagosome is transient and phosphatidylserine dependent.
Faure, Marie Cecile; Sulpice, Jean-Claude; Delattre, Maud et al

in Biology of the Cell (2013)

BACKGROUND INFORMATION: During phagocytosis, neutrophils internalise pathogens in a phagosome and produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the NADPH oxidase to kill the pathogen. The cytosolic NADPH ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND INFORMATION: During phagocytosis, neutrophils internalise pathogens in a phagosome and produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the NADPH oxidase to kill the pathogen. The cytosolic NADPH oxidase subunits p40phox , p47phox , p67phox and Rac2 translocate to the phagosomal membrane to participate in enzyme activation. The kinetics of this recruitment and the underlying signalling pathways are only partially understood. Anionic phospholipids, phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphoinositides (PPI) provide an important attachment site for numerous proteins, including several oxidase subunits. RESULTS: We investigated the kinetics of p47phox and Rac2 phagosomal membrane recruitment. Both subunits are known to interact with anionic phospholipids; we therefore addressed the role of PS in this recruitment. Phagosomal accumulation of p47phox and Rac2 tagged with fluorescent proteins was analysed by videomicroscopy. We used the C2 domain of lactadherin (lactC2) that interacts strongly and specifically with PS to monitor intracellular PS localisation and to decrease PS accessibility. During phagocytosis of opsonised zymosan, p47phox and constitutively active Rac2G12V briefly translocated to the phagosomal membrane, whereas ROS production continued for a longer period. However, in the presence of lactC2, Rac2G12V recruitment was inhibited and the kinetics of p47phox recruitment and detachment were delayed. A reduced phagosomal ROS production was also observed during the first 7 min following the phagosome closure. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that p47phox and Rac2 accumulate only transiently at the phagosome at the onset of NADPH activity and detach from the phagosome before the end of ROS production. Furthermore, lactC2, by masking PS, interfered with the phagosomal recruitment of p47phox and Rac2 and disturbed NADPH oxidase activity. Thus, PS appears as a modulator of NADPH oxidase activation. [less ▲]

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See detailGravity changes during animal development affect IgM heavy-chain transcription and probably lymphopoiesis
Huin-Schohn, Cécile UL; Gueguinou, Nathan UL; Schenten, Véronique UL et al

in FASEB Journal (2013), 27(1), 333-341

Our previous research demonstrated that spaceflight conditions affect antibody production in response to an antigenic stimulation in adult amphibians. Here, we investigated whether antibody synthesis is ... [more ▼]

Our previous research demonstrated that spaceflight conditions affect antibody production in response to an antigenic stimulation in adult amphibians. Here, we investigated whether antibody synthesis is affected when animal development occurs onboard a space station. To answer this question, embryos of the Iberian ribbed newt, Pleurodeles waltl, were sent to the International Space Station (ISS) before the initiation of immunoglobulin heavy-chain expression. Thus, antibody synthesis began in space. On landing, we determined the effects of spaceflight on P. waltl development and IgM heavy-chain transcription. Results were compared with those obtained using embryos that developed on Earth. We find that IgM heavy-chain transcription is doubled at landing and that spaceflight does not affect P. waltl development and does not induce inflammation. We also recreated the environmental modifications encountered by the embryos during their development onboard the ISS. This strategy allowed us to demonstrate that gravity change is the factor responsible for antibody heavy-chain transcription modifications that are associated with NF-κB mRNA level variations. Taken together, and given that the larvae were not immunized, these data suggest a modification of lymphopoiesis when gravity changes occur during ontogeny.-Huin-Schohn, C., Guéguinou, N., Schenten, V., Bascove, M., Koch, G. G., Baatout, S., Tschirhart, E., Frippiat, J.-P. Gravity changes during animal development affect IgM heavy-chain transcription and probably lymphopoiesis. [less ▲]

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See detailStress response and humoral immune system alterations related to chronic hypergravity in mice
Gueguinou, Nathan UL; Bojados, Mickael; Jamon, Marc et al

in Psychoneuroendocrinology (2012), 37(1), 137-147

Spaceflights are known to induce stress and immune dysregulation. Centrifugation, as hindlimb unloading, is a good ground based-model to simulate altered gravity which occurs during space missions. The ... [more ▼]

Spaceflights are known to induce stress and immune dysregulation. Centrifugation, as hindlimb unloading, is a good ground based-model to simulate altered gravity which occurs during space missions. The aim of this study was to investigate the consequences of a long-term exposure to different levels of hypergravity on the stress response and the humoral immunity in a mouse model. For this purpose, adult C57Bl/6J male mice were subjected for 21 days either to control conditions or to 2G or 3G acceleration gravity forces. Corticosterone level and anxiety behavior revealed a stress response which was associated with a decrease of body weight, after 21-day of centrifugation at 3G but not at 2G. Spleen lymphocyte lipopolysaccharide (LPS) responsiveness was diminished by 40% in the 2G group only, whereas a decrease was noted when cells were stimulated with concanavalin A for both 2G and 3G groups (about 25% and 20%, respectively) compared to controls. Pro-inflammatory chemokines (MCP-1 and IP-10) and Th1 cytokines (IFNγ and IL2) were slightly decreased in the 2G group and strongly decreased in the 3G mouse group. Regarding Th2 cytokines (IL4, IL5) no further significant modification was observed, whereas the immunosuppressive cytokine IL10 was slightly increased in the 3G mice. Finally, serum IgG concentration was twice higher whereas IgA concentration was slightly increased (about 30%) and IgM were unchanged in 2G mice compared to controls. No difference was observed in the 3G group with these isotypes. Consequently, functional immune dysregulations and stress responses were dependent of the gravity level. [less ▲]

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See detailRole of the Neutrophil NADPH Oxidase and S100A8/A9 in the Pathophysiology of Chronic Inflammation
Bréchard, Sabrina UL; Schenten, Véronique UL; Tschirhart, Eric UL

in Khatami, Mahin (Ed.) Inflammation, Chronic Diseases and Cancer - Cell and Molecular Biology, Immunology and Clinical Bases (2012)

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See detailAn essential role of STIM1, Orai1, and S100A8-A9 proteins for Ca2+ signaling and FcγR-mediated phagosomal oxidative activity
Steinckwich, Natacha; Schenten, Véronique UL; Melchior, Chantal UL et al

in Journal of Immunology (2011), 186(4), 2182-2191

Phagocytosis is a process of innate immunity that allows for the enclosure of pathogens within the phagosome and their subsequent destruction through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS ... [more ▼]

Phagocytosis is a process of innate immunity that allows for the enclosure of pathogens within the phagosome and their subsequent destruction through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although these processes have been associated with increases of intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations, the mechanisms by which Ca(2+) could regulate the different phases of phagocytosis remain unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the Ca(2+) signaling pathways involved in the regulation of FcγRs-induced phagocytosis. Our work focuses on IgG-opsonized zymosan internalization and phagosomal ROS production in DMSO-differentiated HL-60 cells and neutrophils. We found that chelation of intracellular Ca(2+) by BAPTA or emptying of the intracellular Ca(2+) store by thapsigargin reduced the efficiency of zymosan internalization. Using an small interfering RNA strategy, our data establish that the observed Ca(2+) release occurs through two isoforms of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptors, ITPR1 and ITPR3. In addition, we provide evidence that phagosomal ROS production is dependent on extracellular Ca(2+) entry. We demonstrate that the observed Ca(2+) influx is supported by ORAI calcium release-activated calcium modulator 1 (Orai1) and stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1). This result suggests that extracellular Ca(2+) entry, which is required for ROS production, is mediated by a store-operated Ca(2+) mechanism. Finally, our data identify the complex formed by S100A8 and S100A9 (S100 calcium-binding protein A8 and A9 complex), two Ca(2+)-binding proteins, as the site of interplay between extracellular Ca(2+) entry and intraphagosomal ROS production. Thus, we demonstrate that FcγR-mediated phagocytosis requires intracellular Ca(2+) store depletion for the internalization phase. Then phagosomal ROS production requires extracellular Ca(2+) entry mediated by Orai1/STIM1 and relayed by S100A8-A9 as Ca(2+) sensor. [less ▲]

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See detailSphingosine kinases regulate NOX2 activity via p38 MAPK-dependent translocation of S100A8/A9
Schenten, Véronique UL; Melchior, Chantal UL; Steinckwich, Nathalie et al

in Journal of Leukocyte Biology (2011), 89(4), 587-596

Neutrophils play a fundamental role in host defense by neutralizing pathogens through the generation of ROS by NOX2. In nonexcitable cells, Ca(2+) influx is essentially mediated via SOCE, a complex ... [more ▼]

Neutrophils play a fundamental role in host defense by neutralizing pathogens through the generation of ROS by NOX2. In nonexcitable cells, Ca(2+) influx is essentially mediated via SOCE, a complex mechanism in which depletion of intracellular Ca(2+) stores from the ER results in Ca(2+) entry through Ca(2+) SOCs at the plasma membrane. In this regard, it is well established that extracellular Ca(2+) entry participates to NOX2 activation. S1P, produced by SphKs, has been involved in Ca(2+) homeostasis and thus, could intervene in NOX2 regulation. The aim of this study was to characterize the importance of SphKs in NOX2 activation and the signaling cascade involved in this mechanism. Treatment of neutrophil-like dHL-60 cells by DHS, a SphK inhibitor, and SphK siRNA inhibited fMLF-induced NOX2 activity. Sequential activation of cells by thapsigargin and the phorbol ester PMA revealed that SphK-regulated NOX2 activity relies on intracellular Ca(2+) store depletion. Confocal microscopy and immunoblot analysis showed that stimulation by thapsigargin and PMA mediated S100A8/A9 recruitment to the plasma membrane and p38 MAPK activation. S100A8/A9 translocation decreased when SphK activity was blocked. This result was confirmed in purified human neutrophils, which were physiologically stimulated by fMLF. In addition, p38 MAPK was found to be regulated by SphKs. These results define a pathway leading to NOX2 activation, in which p38 MAPK-mediated S100A8/A9 translocation is regulated by Ca(2+) store depletion-dependent SphK activation. [less ▲]

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See detailiPLA 2 , a novel determinant in Ca2+ - and phosphorylation-dependent S100A8/A9 regulated NOX2 activity
Schenten, Véronique UL; Bréchard, Sabrina UL; Plançon, Sébastien UL et al

in Biochimica et Biophysica Acta-Molecular Cell Research (2010), 1803(7), 840-847

The neutrophil NADPH oxidase (NOX2) is a key enzyme responsible for host defense against invading pathogens, via the production of reactive oxygen species. Dysfunction of NOX2 can contribute to ... [more ▼]

The neutrophil NADPH oxidase (NOX2) is a key enzyme responsible for host defense against invading pathogens, via the production of reactive oxygen species. Dysfunction of NOX2 can contribute to inflammatory processes, which could lead to the development of diseases such as atherosclerosis. In this paper, we characterize a pathway leading to NOX2 activation in which iPLA(2)-regulated p38 MAPK activity is a key regulator of S100A8/A9 translocation via S100A9 phosphorylation. Studies in cell-free or recombinant systems involved two Ca2+-binding proteins of the S100 family, namely S100A8 and S100A9, in NOX2 activation dependent on intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+](i)) elevation. Using differentiated HL-60 cells as a model of neutrophils, we provide evidence that [Ca2+](i)-regulated S100A8/A9 translocation is mediated by an increase in [Ca2+](i) through intracellular Ca2+ store depletion. Moreover, we confirm that p38 MAPK induces S100A9 phosphorylation, a mandatory precondition for S100 translocation. Based on a pharmacological approach and an siRNA strategy, we identify iPLA(2) as a new molecular player aiding S100 translocation and NOX2 activity. Inhibition of p38 MAPK activity and S100A9 phosphorylation by bromoenol lactone, a selective inhibitor of iPLA(2), indicated that p38 MAPK-mediated S100A9 phosphorylation is dependent on iPLA(2). In conclusion, we have characterized a pathway leading to NOX2 activation in which iPLA(2)-regulated p38 MAPK activity is a key regulator of S100A8/A9 translocation via S100A9 phosphorylation. [less ▲]

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See detailNew biological investigations on 3-bromophenyl 6-acetoxymethyl-2-oxo-2H-1-benzopyran-3-carboxylate as anti-angiogenic agent
Hemmer, Marc UL; Kempen, Isabelle; de Tullio, Pascal et al

in Drug Development Research (2010), 71

The development of blood vessels inside tumors is required to provide the nutrients and oxygen needed for tumor growth and to allow the spread of cancer cells at a distance to form metastasis ... [more ▼]

The development of blood vessels inside tumors is required to provide the nutrients and oxygen needed for tumor growth and to allow the spread of cancer cells at a distance to form metastasis. Angiogenesis is also implicated in ocular diseases like age-related macular degeneration. The present work describes the potential anti-angiogenic properties of a coumarinic derivative, 3-bromophenyl 6-acetoxymethyl-2-oxo-2H-1-benzopyran-3-carboxylate (IK9), previously described as a potent inhibitor of HT 1080 fibrosarcoma cell invasion in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. In vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro models were used to delineate the anti-angiogenic properties of IK9. The anti-angiogenic effect of IK9 was demonstrated in vivo in a choroidal neovascularization mice model and additionally ex vivo in a rat aortic ring assay where it was more active than the known matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor Ro 28-2653. IK9 did not affect apoptosis, proliferation, or endothelial cell invasiveness in vitro. These findings suggest a complex mechanism of action of the compound via direct or indirect effects on endothelial cell properties. This study identifies IK9 as a new potent inhibitor of angiogenesis and suggests its potential use as a therapeutic agent. [less ▲]

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See detailSTIM1 but not STIM2 is an essential regulator of Ca2+ influx-mediated NADPH oxidase activity in neutrophil-like HL-60 cells
Bréchard, Sabrina UL; Plançon, Sébastien UL; Melchior, Chantal UL et al

in Biochemical Pharmacology (2009), 78(5), 504-513

Extracellular Ca2+ entry, primarily mediated through store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE), is known to be a critical event for NADPH oxidase (NOX2) regulation in neutrophils. While defective NOX2 activity has ... [more ▼]

Extracellular Ca2+ entry, primarily mediated through store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE), is known to be a critical event for NADPH oxidase (NOX2) regulation in neutrophils. While defective NOX2 activity has been linked to various inflammatory diseases, regulatory mechanisms that control Ca2+ influx-induced NOX2 activation are poorly understood in SOCE. The role of STIM1, a Ca2+ sensor that transduces the store depletion signal to the plasma membrane, seems well established and supported by numerous studies in non-phagocytic cells. Here, in neutrophil-like HL-60 cells we used a siRNA approach to delineate the effect of STIM1 knock-down on NOX2 activity regulated by Ca2+ influx. Because the function of the STIM1 homolog, STIM2, is still unclear, we determined the consequence of STIM2 knock-down on Ca2+ and NOX2. STIM1 and STIM2 knock-down was effective and isoform specific when assayed by real-time PCR and Western blotting. Consistent with a unique role of STIM1 in the regulation of SOCE, STIM1, but not STIM2, siRNA significantly decreased Ca2+ influx induced by fMLF or the SERCA pump inhibitor thapsigargin. A redistribution of STIM1, originally localized intracellularly, near the plasma membrane was observed by confocal microscopy upon stimulation by fMLF. Inhibition of STIM1-induced SOCE led to a marked decrease in NOX2 activity while STIM2 siRNA had no effect. Thus, our results provide evidence for a role of STIM1 protein in the control of Ca2+ influx in neutrophils excluding a STIM2 involvement in this process. It also places STIM1 as a key modulator of NOX2 activity with a potential interest for anti-inflammatory pharmacological development. [less ▲]

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See detailCould spaceflight-associated immune system weakening preclude the expansion of human presence beyond Earth’s orbit?
Gueguinou, Nathan UL; Huin-Schohn, Cécile UL; Bascove, Matthieu et al

in Journal of Leukocyte Biology (2009), 86(5), 1027-1038

This year, we celebrate the 40th birthday of the first landing of humans on the moon. By 2020, astronauts should return to the lunar surface and establish an outpost there that will provide a technical ... [more ▼]

This year, we celebrate the 40th birthday of the first landing of humans on the moon. By 2020, astronauts should return to the lunar surface and establish an outpost there that will provide a technical basis for future manned missions to Mars. This paper summarizes major constraints associated with a trip to Mars, presents immunological hazards associated with this type of mission, and shows that our current understanding of the immunosuppressive effects of spaceflight is limited. Weakening of the immune system associated with spaceflight is therefore an area that should be considered more thoroughly before we undertake prolonged space voyages. [less ▲]

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See detailSpaceflight-associated changes in immunoglobulin VH gene expression in the amphibian Pleurodeles waltl
Bascove, Matthieu; Huin-Schohn, Cécile UL; Gueguinou, Nathan UL et al

in FASEB Journal (2009), 23(5), 1607-1615

Understanding why the immune system is depressed during spaceflight is of obvious importance for future human deep-space missions, such as the foreseen missions to Mars. However, little is known about the ... [more ▼]

Understanding why the immune system is depressed during spaceflight is of obvious importance for future human deep-space missions, such as the foreseen missions to Mars. However, little is known about the effects of these flights on humoral immunity. We previously immunized adult Pleurodeles waltl (urodele amphibian) onboard the Mir space station and showed that heavy-chain variable (VH) domains of specific IgM antibodies are encoded by genes belonging to the VHII and VHVI families. We have now determined how these animals use their individual VHII and VHVI genes by screening IgM heavy-chain cDNA libraries and by quantifying IgM heavy-chain transcripts encoded by these genes. Results were compared with those obtained using control animals immunized on Earth under the same conditions as onboard Mir. Our experiments revealed an increase in the expression of IgM heavy-chain mRNAs encoded by the VHII and VHVI.C genes and a strong decrease in the expression of IgM heavy-chain mRNAs encoded by the VHVI.A and VHVI.B genes in spaceflight animals. Consequently, different heavy-chain mRNAs are expressed by spaceflight animals, demonstrating that this environment affects the humoral response. These observations may be due to a change in B-cell selection under spaceflight conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailLes peptides opioïdes et autres médiateurs de la nociception
Tschirhart, Eric UL

in Landry, Yves; Gies, Jean-Pierre (Eds.) Pharmacologie. Des cibles vers l’indication thérapeutique (2009)

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See detailOAG induces an additional PKC-, PI3K-, and Rac2-mediated signaling pathway up-regulating NOX2 activity, independently of Ca 2+ entry
Bréchard, Sabrina UL; Salsmann, Alexandre UL; Tschirhart, Eric UL

in Journal of Leukocyte Biology (2009), 85(4), 638-647

The requirement of calcium ion (Ca(2)(+)) entry for neutrophil NADPH oxidase (NOX2) regulation is clearly established. However, its role in the signaling pathway leading to NOX2 activation is still ... [more ▼]

The requirement of calcium ion (Ca(2)(+)) entry for neutrophil NADPH oxidase (NOX2) regulation is clearly established. However, its role in the signaling pathway leading to NOX2 activation is still elusive. 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (OAG) causes an increase in NOX2 activity and has been shown to directly modulate Ca(2)(+) channels unrelated to the well-known store-operated Ca(2)(+) entry (SOCE) mechanism. In our study, we have investigated the potential role of OAG in Ca(2)(+) influx-mediated NOX2 activity in neutrophil-like-differentiated HL-60 cells to further characterize second signals involved in the regulation of NOX2. OAG inhibited fMLF- and thapsigargin-induced Ca(2)(+) entry, a phenomenon that was not restored by protein kinase C (PKC) or PI3K blockade. Addition of OAG resulted in a rapid decrease of maximal intracellular Ca(2)(+) concentration induced by thapsigargin. Both results suggest that OAG has an inhibitory effect, independent of PI3K and PKC, on the regulation of SOCE. In contrast to SOCE inhibition, OAG-induced NOX2 activation was mediated by PKC and PI3K. Our data establish that both kinases exert their effects through the regulation of Rac2 activity. In addition, OAG potentiated the effect of fMLF on the activation of NOX2 and led to a discernible activity of NOX2 upon thapsigargin stimulation. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that an additional PKC- and/or PI3K-dependent signal may act in synergy with Ca(2)(+) influx to trigger NOX2 activation. [less ▲]

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See detailCa2+-dependent regulation of NOX2 activity via MRP proteins in HL-60 granulocytes
Schenten, Véronique UL; Bréchard, Sabrina UL; Melchior, Chantal UL et al

in Calcium Binding Proteins (2008), 3(1), 25-30

Recently, two proteins of the S100 protein family, the myeloid-related calcium-binding proteins MRP-8 and MRP-14 have been implicated in the Ca2+-induced activation of the neutrophil NADPH oxidase (NOX2 ... [more ▼]

Recently, two proteins of the S100 protein family, the myeloid-related calcium-binding proteins MRP-8 and MRP-14 have been implicated in the Ca2+-induced activation of the neutrophil NADPH oxidase (NOX2) but the mechanism underlying this process remains unclear. In this study, the role of MRP-8/14 in the Ca2+-dependent regulation of NOX2 activity was characterized in neutrophil-like HL-60 cells using small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to knock-down endogenous MRP-8 and/or MRP-14 expression. Real-time PCR and Western blot revealed that MRP-8 and MRP-14 expression was 20 times higher in dimethylsulfoxide-differentiated neutrophil-like HL-60 cells compared to quiescent HL-60 cells. Knock-down of MRP-8 and MRP-14 in differentiated HL-60 cells decreased protein levels by 30 and 45% respectively. The impact of the reduced MRP-8/14 protein expression on NOX2 activity was investigated by measuring fMLF-induced H2O2 production. In cells simultaneously transfected with MRP-8 and MRP14 siRNAs, H2O2 production was reduced by 50%, suggesting that both MRP-8 and MRP-14 are required for NOX2 activity; single knock-downs were inefficient. To elucidate the role of Ca2+ in MRP8/14, and consequently in NOX2 activation, siRNA-transfected cells were treated with the Ca2+ ionophore ionomycin prior to stimulation with PMA, a Ca2+-independent protein kinase C activator. PMA-induced H2O2 production was enhanced by ionomycin. This amplification of NOX2 activity was abolished by MRP8/14 knock-down, indicating that both MRP-8 and MRP-14 are necessary to regulate Ca2+-induced NOX2 activation. Taken together, our results suggest that the mechanism of MRPs activation is highly dependent on the increase of intracellular Ca2+ level for a full activation of NOX2. [less ▲]

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See detailRegulation of superoxide production in neutrophils: role of calcium influx
Bréchard, Sabrina UL; Tschirhart, Eric UL

in Journal of Leukocyte Biology (2008), 84(5), 1223-1237

Upon stimulation, activation of NADPH oxidase complexes in neutrophils produces a burst of superoxide anions contributing to oxidative stress and the development of inflammatory process. Store-operated ... [more ▼]

Upon stimulation, activation of NADPH oxidase complexes in neutrophils produces a burst of superoxide anions contributing to oxidative stress and the development of inflammatory process. Store-operated calcium entry (SOCE), whereby the depletion of intracellular stores induces extracellular calcium influx, is known to be a crucial element of NADPH oxidase regulation. However, the mechanistic basis mediating SOCE is still only partially understood, as is the signal-coupling pathway leading to modulation of store-operated channels. This review emphasizes the role of calcium influx in the control of the NADPH oxidase and summarizes the current knowledge of pathways mediating this extracellular calcium entry in neutrophils. Such investigations into the cross-talk between NADPH oxidase and calcium might allow the identification of novel pharmacological targets with clinical use, particularly in inflammatory diseases. [less ▲]

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See detailStore-operated Ca2+ channels formed by TRPC1, TRPC6 and Orai1 and non-store-operated channels formed by TRPC3 are involved in the regulation of NADPH oxidase in HL-60 granulocytes
Bréchard, Sabrina UL; Melchior, Chantal UL; Plançon, Sébastien UL et al

in Cell Calcium (2008)

Ca(2+) influx has been shown to be essential for NADPH oxidase activity which is involved in the inflammatory process. Ca(2+) conditions underlying the oxidative response are clearly delineated. Here, we ... [more ▼]

Ca(2+) influx has been shown to be essential for NADPH oxidase activity which is involved in the inflammatory process. Ca(2+) conditions underlying the oxidative response are clearly delineated. Here, we show that store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) is required at the beginning of NADPH oxidase activation in response to fMLF (N-formyl-l-methionyl-l-leucyl-l-phenylalanine ) in neutrophil-like HL-60 cells. When extracellular Ca(2+) is initially removed, early addition of Ca(2+) after stimulation causes a complete restoration of Ca(2+) entry and H(2)O(2) production. Both Ca(2+) entry and H(2)O(2) production are decreased by purported SOCE blockers, 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borane (2-APB) and SK&F 96365. Endogenously expressed TRPC (transient receptor potential canonical) homologues and Orai1 were investigated for their role in supporting store-operated Ca(2+) channels activity. TRPC1, TRPC6 and Orai1 knock-out by siRNA resulted in the inhibition of Ca(2+) influx and H(2)O(2) production in response to fMLF and thapsigargin while suppression of TRPC3 had no effect on thapsigargin induced-SOCE. 2-APB and SK&F 96365 were able to amplify the reduction of fMLF-stimulated Ca(2+) entry and H(2)O(2) production observed in cells transfected by TRPC3 siRNA. In summary, Ca(2+) influx in HL-60 cells relies on different membrane TRPC channels and Orai1 for allowing NADPH oxidase activation. TRPC3 primarily mediates SOCE-independent pathways and TRPC1, TRPC6 and Orai1 exclusively contribute to SOCE. [less ▲]

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