References of "Thorens, Gabriel"
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See detailGame Addiction Scale Assessment Through a Nationally Representative Sample of Young Adult Men: Item Response Theory Graded–Response Modeling
Khazaal, Yasser; Breivik, Kyrre; Billieux, Joël UL et al

in Journal of Medical Internet Research (2018), 20(8), 10058

Background: The 7-item Game Addiction Scale (GAS) has been validated under standard confirmatory factor analysis and exhibits good psychometric properties. Whether this scale satisfies the necessary ... [more ▼]

Background: The 7-item Game Addiction Scale (GAS) has been validated under standard confirmatory factor analysis and exhibits good psychometric properties. Whether this scale satisfies the necessary conditions for consideration by item response theory (IRT) modeling remains unknown. However, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) recently proposed criteria, in its section 3, to define internet gaming disorder (IGD) to promote research on this possible condition. Objective: The objective of our study was to (1) analyze GAS in the context of IRT (graded-response) modeling; (2) investigate differential item functioning (DIF), a feature of IRT modeling, in 2 subsamples; and (3) contribute to the ongoing (IGD) debate related to the validity of the DSM-5 criteria using GAS items as a proxy. Methods: We assessed 2 large representative samples of Swiss men (3320 French-speaking and 2670 German-speaking) with GAS. Results: All items comprised high discrimination parameters. GAS items such as relapse, conflict, withdrawal, and problems (loss of interests) were endorsed more frequently in more severe IGD stages, whereas items related to tolerance, salience (preoccupation), and mood modification (escape) were endorsed more widely among participants (including in less severe IGD stages). Several DIF effects were found but were classified as negligible. Conclusions: The results of the analyses partly support the relevance of using IRT to further establish the psychometric properties of the GAS items. This study contributes to testing the validity of the IGD criteria, although cautious generalization of our findings is required with GAS being only a proxy of the IGD criteria. [less ▲]

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See detailDisentangling the role of users' preferences and impulsivity traits in problematic Facebook use.
Rothen, Stephane; Briefer, Jean-Francois; Deleuze, Jory et al

in PloS one (2018), 13(9), 0201971

The use of social network sites (SNSs) has grown dramatically. Numerous studies have shown that SNS users may suffer from excessive use, associated with addictive-like symptoms. With a focus on the ... [more ▼]

The use of social network sites (SNSs) has grown dramatically. Numerous studies have shown that SNS users may suffer from excessive use, associated with addictive-like symptoms. With a focus on the popular SNS Facebook (FB), our aims in the current study were twofold: First, to explore the heterogeneity of FB usage and determine which kind of FB activity predicts problematic usage; second, to test whether specific impulsivity facets predict problematic use of FB. To this end, a sample of FB users (N = 676) completed an online survey assessing usage preferences (e.g., types of activities performed), symptoms of problematic FB use and impulsivity traits. Results indicated that specific usage preferences (updating one's status, gaming via FB, and using notifications) and impulsive traits (positive and negative urgency, lack of perseverance) are associated to problematic FB use. This study underscores that labels such as FB "addiction" are misleading and that focusing on the actual activities performed on SNSs is crucial when considering dysfunctional usage. Furthermore, this study clarified the role of impulsivity in problematic FB use by building on a theoretically driven model of impulsivity that assumes its multidimensional nature. The current findings have identifiable theoretical and public health implications. [less ▲]

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See detailCapitalizing upon the Attractive and Addictive Properties of Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games to Promote Wellbeing.
Thorens, Gabriel; Billieux, Joël UL; Megevand, Pierre et al

in Frontiers in Psychiatry (2016), 7

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See detailFactor Structure of the Internet Addiction Test in Online Gamers and Poker Players.
Khazaal, Yasser; Achab, Sophia; Billieux, Joël UL et al

in JMIR Mental Health (2015), 2(2), 12

BACKGROUND: The Internet Addiction Test (IAT) is the most widely used questionnaire to screen for problematic Internet use. Nevertheless, its factorial structure is still debated, which complicates ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The Internet Addiction Test (IAT) is the most widely used questionnaire to screen for problematic Internet use. Nevertheless, its factorial structure is still debated, which complicates comparisons among existing studies. Most previous studies were performed with students or community samples despite the probability of there being more problematic Internet use among users of specific applications, such as online gaming or gambling. OBJECTIVE: To assess the factorial structure of a modified version of the IAT that addresses specific applications, such as video games and online poker. METHODS: Two adult samples-one sample of Internet gamers (n=920) and one sample of online poker players (n=214)-were recruited and completed an online version of the modified IAT. Both samples were split into two subsamples. Two principal component analyses (PCAs) followed by two confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) were run separately. RESULTS: The results of principal component analysis indicated that a one-factor model fit the data well across both samples. In consideration of the weakness of some IAT items, a 17-item modified version of the IAT was proposed. CONCLUSIONS: This study assessed, for the first time, the factorial structure of a modified version of an Internet-administered IAT on a sample of Internet gamers and a sample of online poker players. The scale seems appropriate for the assessment of such online behaviors. Further studies on the modified 17-item IAT version are needed. [less ▲]

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See detailDoes self-selection affect samples' representativeness in online surveys? An investigation in online video game research.
Khazaal, Yasser; van Singer, Mathias; Chatton, Anne et al

in Journal of medical Internet research (2014), 16(7), 164

BACKGROUND: The number of medical studies performed through online surveys has increased dramatically in recent years. Despite their numerous advantages (eg, sample size, facilitated access to individuals ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The number of medical studies performed through online surveys has increased dramatically in recent years. Despite their numerous advantages (eg, sample size, facilitated access to individuals presenting stigmatizing issues), selection bias may exist in online surveys. However, evidence on the representativeness of self-selected samples in online studies is patchy. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to explore the representativeness of a self-selected sample of online gamers using online players' virtual characters (avatars). METHODS: All avatars belonged to individuals playing World of Warcraft (WoW), currently the most widely used online game. Avatars' characteristics were defined using various games' scores, reported on the WoW's official website, and two self-selected samples from previous studies were compared with a randomly selected sample of avatars. RESULTS: We used scores linked to 1240 avatars (762 from the self-selected samples and 478 from the random sample). The two self-selected samples of avatars had higher scores on most of the assessed variables (except for guild membership and exploration). Furthermore, some guilds were overrepresented in the self-selected samples. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that more proficient players or players more involved in the game may be more likely to participate in online surveys. Caution is needed in the interpretation of studies based on online surveys that used a self-selection recruitment procedure. Epidemiological evidence on the reduced representativeness of sample of online surveys is warranted. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacteristics and treatment response of self-identified problematic Internet users in a behavioral addiction outpatient clinic.
Thorens, Gabriel; Achab, Sophia; Billieux, Joël UL et al

in Journal of Behavioral Addictions (2014), 3(1), 78-81

AIMS: Controversies remain about the validity of the diagnosis of problematic Internet use. This might be due in part to the lack of longitudinal naturalistic studies that have followed a cohort of ... [more ▼]

AIMS: Controversies remain about the validity of the diagnosis of problematic Internet use. This might be due in part to the lack of longitudinal naturalistic studies that have followed a cohort of patients who self-identify as having Internet-related problems. METHODS: This retrospective study included 57 patients who consulted the Geneva Addiction Outpatient Clinic from January 1, 2007, to January 1, 2010. Patients underwent an initial clinical psychiatric evaluation that included collection of data on socio-demographics, method of referral, specific Internet usage, psychiatric diagnosis, and Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI) scores. Treatment consisted of individual psychotherapeutic sessions. RESULTS: Of these patients, 98% were male and 37% were 18 years or younger. Most patients were online gamers (46% playing massively multiplayer online role-playing games). The mean IAT score was 52.9 (range 20-90). Sixty-eight percent of patients had a co-morbid psychiatric diagnosis, with social phobia being the most prevalent (17.8%). Patients who remained in treatment (dropout rate 24%) showed an overall improvement of symptoms: 38.6% showed significant or average improvement on their CGI score, 26.3% showed minimal improvement, and 14% showed no change. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the hypothesis that there are specific types of Internet use, with online gaming mainly affecting young male patients. As Internet addiction is not yet an official diagnosis, better instruments are needed to screen patients and to avoid false-negative and false-positive diagnoses. Successful care should integrate the treatment of co-morbid symptoms and involve families and relatives in the therapeutic process. [less ▲]

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See detailFrench validation of the compulsive internet use scale (CIUS).
Khazaal, Yasser; Chatton, Anne; Horn, Alessandra et al

in The Psychiatric quarterly (2012), 83(4), 397-405

The popularity of using the Internet and related applications has grown in European countries in the last two decades. Despite numerous advantages in terms of optimizing communications among individuals ... [more ▼]

The popularity of using the Internet and related applications has grown in European countries in the last two decades. Despite numerous advantages in terms of optimizing communications among individuals and social systems, the use of the Internet may be associated with excessive use and possible Internet addiction. The goals of the current study were to validate a French version of the compulsive Internet use scale (CIUS) and to assess its links with common psychiatric symptoms such as depression (assessed with the Beck depression inventory: BDI), anxiety (assessed with the trait anxiety inventory: STAI) and alcohol misuse (assessed with the alcohol use disorder identification test: AUDIT). The French versions of the CIUS, BDI, STAI and AUDIT were administered to a sample of Internet users. Exploratory and confirmatory analyses, correlation analysis and logistic regression were performed. As previously found with the original version, a one-factor model of the CIUS had good psychometric properties and fit the data well. Excessive use of the Internet was associated with depressive symptoms. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of expertise on football betting.
Khazaal, Yasser; Chatton, Anne; Billieux, Joël UL et al

in Substance abuse treatment, prevention, and policy (2012), 7

BACKGROUND: Football (soccer) is one of the most popular sports in the world, including Europe. It is associated with important betting activities. A common belief, widely spread among those who ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Football (soccer) is one of the most popular sports in the world, including Europe. It is associated with important betting activities. A common belief, widely spread among those who participate in gambling activities, is that knowledge and expertise on football lead to better prediction skills for match outcomes. If unfounded, however, this belief should be considered as a form of "illusion of control." The aim of this study was to examine whether football experts are better than nonexperts at predicting football match scores. METHODS: Two hundred and fifty-eight persons took part in the study: 21.3% as football experts, 54.3% as laypersons (non-initiated to football), and 24.4% as football amateurs. They predicted the scores of the first 10 matches of the 2008 UEFA European Football Championship. Logistic regressions were carried out to assess the link between the accuracy of the forecasted scores and the expertise of the participants (expert, amateur, layperson), controlling for age and gender. RESULTS: The variables assessed did not predict the accuracy of scoring prognosis (R2 ranged from 1% to 6%). CONCLUSIONS: Expertise, age, and gender did not appear to have an impact on the accuracy of the football match prognoses. Therefore, the belief that football expertise improves betting skills is no more than a cognitive distortion called the "illusion of control." Gamblers may benefit from psychological interventions that target the illusion of control related to their believed links between betting skills and football expertise. Public health policies may need to consider the phenomenon in order to prevent problem gambling related to football betting. [less ▲]

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See detailMotivations to play specifically predict excessive involvement in massively multiplayer online role-playing games: evidence from an online survey.
Zanetta Dauriat, Francesca; Zermatten, Ariane; Billieux, Joël UL et al

in European addiction research (2011), 17(4), 185-9

BACKGROUND: Several studies have linked massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) with possible problematic usage or internet addiction. AIMS: The main goal of the present study was to ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Several studies have linked massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) with possible problematic usage or internet addiction. AIMS: The main goal of the present study was to assess links between motivations to play in MMORPGs and addictive involvement in such types of games. METHODS: A total of 696 gamers responded to an online survey. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Five distinct motivations to play were identified in gamers: achievement, socializing, immersion, relaxing and escaping. Multiple regression analysis revealed that addictive MMORPG use patterns are predicted by achievement, escapism and socializing motives. Gender was also a significant predictor of problematic involvement in MMORPGs. Moreover, addictive MMORPG use positively correlated with the weekly time devoted to playing MMORPGs. [less ▲]

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See detailSwiss psychiatrists' beliefs and attitudes about internet addiction.
Thorens, Gabriel; Khazaal, Yasser; Billieux, Joël UL et al

in The Psychiatric quarterly (2009), 80(2), 117-23

AIMS: To investigate the beliefs and attitudes of Swiss general psychiatrists toward Internet addiction. METHODS: Ninety-fourth Swiss psychiatrists filled out a questionnaire at a conference of general ... [more ▼]

AIMS: To investigate the beliefs and attitudes of Swiss general psychiatrists toward Internet addiction. METHODS: Ninety-fourth Swiss psychiatrists filled out a questionnaire at a conference of general psychiatry assessing their views on the concept of Internet addiction, their evaluation methods and treatment procedures they use. RESULTS: A cluster analysis revealed three groups: DISBELIEVERS (N = 20) rejected the concept of Internet addiction and its importance, not considering it a real clinical problem and consequently not considering the existence of a specific treatment. The NOSOLOGY BELIEVERS (N = 66) and NOSOLOGY/TREATMENT BELIEVERS (N = 8) assumed that Internet addiction is a real problem. While NOSOLOGY/TREATMENT BELIEVERS asserted the availability of effective treatment (mainly psychological), NOSOLOGY BELIEVERS were less affirmative regarding treatment. CONCLUSION: Thought the concept of Internet addiction is largely acknowledged as a clinical reality by Swiss psychiatrists, routine screening and treatment remain uncommon, mainly due to the belief that efficient treatment is still lacking. [less ▲]

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See detailFrench validation of the internet addiction test.
Khazaal, Yasser; Billieux, Joël UL; Thorens, Gabriel et al

in Cyberpsychology & behavior : the impact of the Internet, multimedia and virtual reality on behavior and society (2008), 11(6), 703-6

The main goal of the present study is to investigate the psychometric properties of a French version of the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and to assess its relationship with both time spent on Internet ... [more ▼]

The main goal of the present study is to investigate the psychometric properties of a French version of the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and to assess its relationship with both time spent on Internet and online gaming. The French version of the Young's Internet Addiction Test (IAT) was administered to a sample of 246 adults. Exploratory and confirmatory analyses were carried out. We discovered that a one-factor model of the IAT has good psychometric properties and fits the data well, which is not the case of a six-factor model as found in previous studies using exploratory methods. Correlation analysis revealed positive significant relationships between IAT scores and both the daily duration of Internet use and the fact of being an online player. In addition, younger people scored higher on the IAT. The one-factor model found in this study has to be replicated in other IAT language versions. [less ▲]

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