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See detailGDAP1 loss of function inhibits the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex by altering the actin cytoskeleton 2021.03.04.433895
Wolf, Christina; Pouya, Alireza; Bitar, Sara et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease 4A is an autosomal-recessive polyneuropathy caused by mutations of ganglioside-induced differentiation-associated protein 1 (GDAP1), a putative glutathione transferase ... [more ▼]

Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease 4A is an autosomal-recessive polyneuropathy caused by mutations of ganglioside-induced differentiation-associated protein 1 (GDAP1), a putative glutathione transferase, which affects mitochondrial shape and alters cellular Ca2+ homeostasis. Here, we identify the underlying mechanism. We found that patient-derived motoneurons and GDAP1 knockdown SH-SY5Y cells display two phenotypes: more tubular mitochondria and a metabolism characterized by glutamine dependence and fewer cytosolic lipid droplets. GDAP1 interacts with the actin-depolymerizing protein Cofilin-1 in a redoxdependent manner, suggesting a role for actin signaling. Consistently, GDAP1 loss causes less F-actin close to mitochondria, which restricts mitochondrial localization of the fission factor dynamin-related protein 1, instigating tubularity. Changes in the actin cytoskeleton also disrupt mitochondria-ER contact sites. This results in lower mitochondrial Ca2+ levels and inhibition of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, explaining the metabolic changes upon GDAP1 loss of function. Together, these findings reconcile GDAP1-associated phenotypes and implicate disrupted actin signaling in CMT4A pathophysiology. [less ▲]

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See detailTargeting prohibitins at the cell surface prevents Th17-mediated autoimmunity.
Buehler, Ulrike; Schulenburg, Katharina; Yurugi, Hajime et al

in The EMBO journal (2018), 37(16),

T helper (Th)17 cells represent a unique subset of CD4(+) T cells and are vital for clearance of extracellular pathogens including bacteria and fungi. However, Th17 cells are also involved in ... [more ▼]

T helper (Th)17 cells represent a unique subset of CD4(+) T cells and are vital for clearance of extracellular pathogens including bacteria and fungi. However, Th17 cells are also involved in orchestrating autoimmunity. By employing quantitative surface proteomics, we found that the evolutionarily conserved prohibitins (PHB1/2) are highly expressed on the surface of both murine and human Th17 cells. Increased expression of PHBs at the cell surface contributed to enhanced CRAF/MAPK activation in Th17 cells. Targeting surface-expressed PHBs on Th17 cells with ligands such as Vi polysaccharide (Typhim vaccine) inhibited CRAF-MAPK pathway, reduced interleukin (IL)-17 expression and ameliorated disease pathology with an increase in FOXP3(+)-expressing Tregs in an animal model for multiple sclerosis (MS). Interestingly, we detected a CD4(+) T cell population with high PHB1 surface expression in blood samples from MS patients in comparison with age- and sex-matched healthy subjects. Our observations suggest a pivotal role for the PHB-CRAF-MAPK signalling axis in regulating the polarization and pathogenicity of Th17 cells and unveil druggable targets in autoimmune disorders such as MS. [less ▲]

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