References of "Suchan, Boris"
     in
Bookmark and Share    
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailGood to be stressed? Improved response inhibition and error processing after acute stress in young and older men
Dierolf, Angelika UL; Schoofs, Daniela; Hessas, Eve-Mariek et al

in Neuropsychologia (2018), 119

own on whether and how age modulates stress effects on executive functions and their neural correlates. The current study investigated the effect of acute stress on response inhibition and error ... [more ▼]

own on whether and how age modulates stress effects on executive functions and their neural correlates. The current study investigated the effect of acute stress on response inhibition and error processing and their underlying cortical processes in younger and older healthy men, using EEG. Forty-nine participants (30 young) were stressed with the Trier Social Stress Test (16 young, 9 older) or underwent a friendly control procedure (14 young, 10 older) and subsequently performed a Go/No-Go task with two levels of task difficulty while performance (reaction time, error rate), stimulus-locked (N2, P3) and response-locked (Ne, Pe) ERPs were measured. Previous results on age-related cognitive deficits were replicated, with slower responses and reduced and delayed N2 and P3 components, as well as reduced Ne and Pe components in older participants. Independent of age, acute stress improved response inhibition, reflected in higher accuracy for compatible trials and enhanced inhibition-related components (N2, P3 and N2d, P3d of the difference waves No-Go minus Go), and improved error processing, reflected in enhanced error-related components (Ne, Pe and Ne_d, Pe_d of the difference waves error minus correct trial). Our findings indicate that acute stress leads to a reallocation of cognitive resources, strengthening inhibition and error processing in young and older healthy men to a similar degree. Neural generators of the analyzed ERPs are mainly part of the salience network, which is upregulated immediately after stress. This offers an explanation as to why response inhibition, in contrast to other executive functions, improves after acute stress. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 197 (9 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailInfluences of acute stress on inhibitory control - does age matter? An ERP study
Dierolf, Angelika UL; Schoofs, Daniela; Hesse, Eva et al

Poster (2017, September)

Prefrontal cortex (PFC) based cognitive functions have been shown to be impaired with increasing age. Furthermore, the PFC has been found to be highly sensitive to stress and the stress hormone cortisol ... [more ▼]

Prefrontal cortex (PFC) based cognitive functions have been shown to be impaired with increasing age. Furthermore, the PFC has been found to be highly sensitive to stress and the stress hormone cortisol, which are assumed to influence executive functions. Although stress, allegorical for the life in the 21st century, concerns and affects both the young and the elderly in work life, little is known about the mutual impact of stress and aging on executive functioning. The present EEG study investigated the impact of acute stress on the core executive function inhibitory control in young and older males. Forty-nine participants were either stressed via the Trier Social Stress Test or underwent a control condition. Subse- quently, they performed a Go Nogo task while EEG, reaction times, errors and salivary cortisol were measured. Though older participants reacted slower to Go stimuli relative to young participants, both groups showed the same accuracy rate for Go and Nogo stimuli. Surprisingly, stress improved accuracy compared to the control group. The similar pattern was found in the EEG data with an enhanced error-related negativity (Ne/ERN) in the stress group. Beside this, elderly showed a reduced Ne compared to the young. No interaction between stress and age was observed. The present results suggest that stress may have beneficial effects on inhibitory control and error monitoring, irrespectively of the age. However, fur- ther research is needed to clarify if this is valid for other executive functions and under which circumstances negative impacts manifest. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 25 (0 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAcute stress influences the discrimination of complex scenes and complex faces in young healthy men
Paul, Marcus; Lech, Robert, K.; Scheil, Juliane et al

in Psychoneuroendocrinology (2016), 66

The stress-induced release of glucocorticoids has been demonstrated to influence hippocampal functions via the modulation of specific receptors. At the behavioral level stress is known to influence ... [more ▼]

The stress-induced release of glucocorticoids has been demonstrated to influence hippocampal functions via the modulation of specific receptors. At the behavioral level stress is known to influence hippocampus dependent long-term memory. In recent years, studies have consistently associated the hippocampus with the non-mnemonic perception of scenes, while adjacent regions in the medial temporal lobe were associated with the perception of objects, and faces. So far it is not known whether and how stress influences non-mnemonic perceptual processes. In a behavioral study, fifty male participants were subjected either to the stressful socially evaluated cold-pressor test or to a non-stressful control procedure, before they completed a visual discrimination task, comprising scenes and faces. The complexity of the face and scene stimuli was manipulated in easy and difficult conditions. A significant three way interaction between stress, stimulus type and complexity was found. Stressed participants tended to commit more errors in the complex scenes condition. For complex faces a descriptive tendency in the opposite direction (fewer errors under stress) was observed. As a result the difference between the number of errors for scenes and errors for faces was significantly larger in the stress group. These results indicate that, beyond the effects of stress on long-term memory, stress influences the discrimination of spatial information, especially when the perception is characterized by a high complexity. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 164 (4 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailBessere Verhaltensinhibition nach Stress bei Jung und Alt – eine EKP Studie
Dierolf, Angelika UL; Hessas, Eve; Schoofs, Daniela et al

in Kathmann, Norbert (Ed.) Programmheft PuG 2016; Abstractband PuG2016 (2016)

Ein Großteil der kognitiven Fertigkeiten, vor allem im Bereich der exekutiven Funktionen, nimmt mit zunehmendem Alter ab. Dabei sind insbesondere diejenigen Funktionen betroffen, welche auf dem ... [more ▼]

Ein Großteil der kognitiven Fertigkeiten, vor allem im Bereich der exekutiven Funktionen, nimmt mit zunehmendem Alter ab. Dabei sind insbesondere diejenigen Funktionen betroffen, welche auf dem präfrontalen Cortex basieren. Dieser gilt als besonders stress-sensitiv. Im Humanbereich sind Stresseffekte auf exekutive Funktionen, speziell Verhaltensinhibition, bisher wenig erforscht worden. Die vorliegende EEG Studie untersuchte den gemeinsamen Einfluss von Alter und Stress auf Verhaltensinhibition und deren neuronale Korrelate. Dazu wurden 49 junge und alte Männer mittels des Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) gestresst oder durchliefen eine Kontrollprozedur bevor sie ein Go Nogo Paradigma bearbeiteten. Der TSST führte in beiden Altersgruppen gleichermaßen zu einem signifikanten Cortisolanstieg. Junge und alte Probanden machten nach dem TSST weniger Fehler in Nogo Durchgängen. Die Analyse der ereigniskorrelierten Potentiale zeigte, dass Alter und Stress die neuronalen Korrelate (N2, P3) veränderte. Während ältere Probanden generell eine reduzierte N2 und P3 im Vergleich zu jungen Probanden aufwiesen, führte Stress in beiden Altersgruppen zu einer vergrößerten N2. Hinsichtlich der P3 zeigten junge gestresste Probanden eine reduzierte P3 Amplitude, während Stress in älteren Probanden eine Vergrößerung der Amplitude bewirkte. Zudem führte Stress tendenziell in beiden Gruppen zu kürzeren Latenzen, insbesondere bei jungen Probanden. Entgegen der weit verbreitenden Annahme, dass Stress zu Einbußen in exekutiven Funktionen führt, zeigen die Ergebnisse eine stressinduzierte Verbesserung der inhibitorischen Kontrolle in beiden Altersklassen. Allerdings scheinen zum Teil unterschiedliche Mechanismen dafür in jungen und alten Probanden dafür verantwortlich zu sein. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 10 (0 UL)