References of "Stojkovski, Borce 50030235"
     in
Bookmark and Share    
Full Text
See detailUser Experience Design for Cybersecurity & Privacy: addressing user misperceptions of system security and privacy
Stojkovski, Borce UL

Doctoral thesis (2022)

The increasing magnitude and sophistication of malicious cyber activities by various threat actors poses major risks to our increasingly digitized and inter-connected societies. However, threats can also ... [more ▼]

The increasing magnitude and sophistication of malicious cyber activities by various threat actors poses major risks to our increasingly digitized and inter-connected societies. However, threats can also come from non-malicious users who are being assigned too complex security or privacy-related tasks, who are not motivated to comply with security policies, or who lack the capability to make good security decisions. This thesis posits that UX design methods and practices are necessary to complement security and privacy engineering practices in order to (1) identify and address user misperceptions of system security and privacy; and (2) inform the design of secure systems that are useful and appealing from end-users’ perspective. The first research objective in this thesis is to provide new empirical accounts of UX aspects in three distinct contexts that encompass security and privacy considerations, namely: cyber threat intelligence, secure and private communication, and digital health technology. The second objective is to empirically contribute to the growing research domain of mental models in security and privacy by investigating user perceptions and misperceptions in the afore-mentioned contexts. Our third objective is to explore and propose methodological approaches to incorporating users’ perceptions and misperceptions in the socio-technical security analyses of systems. Qualitative and quantitative user research methods with experts as well as end users of the applications and systems under investigation were used to achieve the first two objectives. To achieve the third objective, we also employed simulation and computational methods. Cyber Threat Intelligence: CTI sharing platforms Reporting on a number of user studies conducted over a period of two years, this thesis offers a unique contribution towards understanding the constraining and enabling factors of security information sharing within one of the leading CTI sharing platforms, called MISP. Further, we propose a conceptual workflow and toolchain that would seek to detect user (mis)perceptions of key tasks in the context of CTI sharing, such as verifying whether users have an accurate comprehension of how far information travels when shared in a CTI sharing platform, and discuss the benefits of our socio-technical approach as a potential security analysis tool, simulation tool, or educational / training support tool. Secure & Private Communication: Secure Email We propose and describe multi-layered user journeys, a conceptual framework that serves to capture the interaction of a user with a system as she performs certain goals along with the associated user beliefs and perceptions about specific security or privacy-related aspects of that system. We instantiate the framework within a use case, a recently introduced secure email system called p≡p, and demonstrate how the approach can be used to detect misperceptions of security and privacy by comparing user opinions and behavior against system values and objective technical guarantees offered by the system. We further present two sets of user studies focusing on the usability and effectiveness of p≡p’s security and privacy indicators and their traffic-light inspired metaphor to represent different privacy states and guarantees. Digital Health Technology: Contact Tracing Apps Considering human factors when exploring the adoption as well as the security and privacy aspects of COVID-19 contact tracing apps is a timely societal challenge as the effectiveness and utility of these apps highly depend on their widespread adoption by the general population. We present the findings of eight focus groups on the factors that impact people’s decisions to adopt, or not to adopt, a contact tracing app, conducted with participants living in France and Germany. We report how our participants perceived the benefits, drawbacks, and threat model of the contact tracing apps in their respective countries, and discuss the similarities and differences between and within the study groups. Finally, we consolidate the findings from these studies and discuss future challenges and directions for UX design methods and practices in cybersecurity and digital privacy. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 455 (9 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailWhat's in a Cyber Threat Intelligence sharing platform?: A mixed-methods user experience investigation of MISP
Stojkovski, Borce UL; Lenzini, Gabriele UL; Koenig, Vincent UL et al

in Annual Computer Security Applications Conference (ACSAC ’21) (2021, December)

The ever-increasing scale and complexity of cyber attacks and cyber-criminal activities necessitate secure and effective sharing of cyber threat intelligence (CTI) among a diverse set of stakeholders and ... [more ▼]

The ever-increasing scale and complexity of cyber attacks and cyber-criminal activities necessitate secure and effective sharing of cyber threat intelligence (CTI) among a diverse set of stakeholders and communities. CTI sharing platforms are becoming indispensable tools for cooperative and collaborative cybersecurity. Nevertheless, despite the growing research in this area, the emphasis is often placed on the technical aspects, incentives, or implications associated with CTI sharing, as opposed to investigating challenges encountered by users of such platforms. To date, user experience (UX) aspects remain largely unexplored. This paper offers a unique contribution towards understanding the constraining and enabling factors of security information sharing within one of the leading platforms. MISP is an open source CTI sharing platform used by more than 6,000 organizations worldwide. As a technically-advanced CTI sharing platform it aims to cater for a diverse set of security information workers with distinct needs and objectives. In this respect, MISP has to pay an equal amount of attention to the UX in order to maximize and optimize the quantity and quality of threat information that is contributed and consumed. Using mixed methods we shed light on the strengths and weaknesses of MISP from an end-users’ perspective and discuss the role UX could play in effective CTI sharing. We conclude with an outline of future work and open challenges worth further exploring in this nascent, yet highly important socio-technical context. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 252 (9 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detail"Unless One Does the Research, It May Seem as Just a Useless Battery-Consuming App" - Field Notes on COVID-19 Contact Tracing Applications
Stojkovski, Borce UL; Abu-Salma, Ruba; Triquet, Karen et al

in Digital Threats: Research and Practice (2021)

Globally, countries have been developing contact tracing applications to control the spread of the Coronavirus (COVID-19) disease. In this work, we present the findings of eight focus groups we conducted ... [more ▼]

Globally, countries have been developing contact tracing applications to control the spread of the Coronavirus (COVID-19) disease. In this work, we present the findings of eight focus groups we conducted with participants living in France and Germany, to explore why they decided to adopt, or not adopt, a contact tracing application as well as understand how they perceived the benefits/drawbacks and the threat model of a contact tracing application. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 43 (2 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailA workflow and toolchain proposal for analyzing users’ perceptions in cyber threat intelligence sharing platforms
Stojkovski, Borce UL; Lenzini, Gabriele UL

in 2021 IEEE International Conference on Cyber Security and Resilience (CSR) (2021)

Cyber Threat Intelligence (CTI) sharing platforms are valuable tools in cybersecurity. However, despite the fact that effective CTI exchange highly depends on human aspects, cyber behavior in CTI sharing ... [more ▼]

Cyber Threat Intelligence (CTI) sharing platforms are valuable tools in cybersecurity. However, despite the fact that effective CTI exchange highly depends on human aspects, cyber behavior in CTI sharing platforms has been notably less investigated by the security research community. Motivated by this research gap, we ground our work in the concrete challenge of understanding users’ perceptions of information sharing in CTI platforms. To this end, we propose a conceptual workflow and toolchain that would seek to verify whether users have an accurate comprehension of how far information travels when shared in a CTI sharing platform. We contextualize our concept within MISP as a use case, and discuss the benefits of our socio-technical approach as a potential tool for security analysis, simulation, or education/training support. We conclude with a brief outline of future work that would seek to evaluate and validate the proposed model. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 73 (14 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detail"I Personally Relate It to the Traffic Light": A User Study on Security & Privacy Indicators in a Secure Email System Committed to Privacy by Default
Stojkovski, Borce UL; Lenzini, Gabriele UL; Koenig, Vincent UL

in Proceedings of the 36th Annual ACM Symposium on Applied Computing (2021)

Improving the usability and adoption of secure (i.e. end-to-end encrypted) email systems has been a notorious challenge for over two decades. One of the open questions concerns the amount and format of ... [more ▼]

Improving the usability and adoption of secure (i.e. end-to-end encrypted) email systems has been a notorious challenge for over two decades. One of the open questions concerns the amount and format of information that should be communicated to users to inform them of the security and privacy properties with respect to different messages or correspondents. Contributing to the ongoing discussion on the usability and effectiveness of security and privacy indicators, particularly in the context of systems targeting non-expert users, this paper sheds light on users' evaluation of traffic light-inspired indicators, as a metaphor to represent different privacy states and guarantees, provided by a new system for email end-to-end encryption called p≡p. Using a mixed-methods approach, based on input gathered from 150 participants in three online studies, we highlight the pros and cons of the traffic light semantic in p≡p's context and beyond, and discuss the potential implications on the perceived security and use of such systems. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 316 (11 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailA workflow and toolchain proposal for analyzing users’ perceptions in cyber threat intelligence sharing platforms
Stojkovski, Borce UL; Lenzini, Gabriele UL

in 2021 IEEE International Conference on Cyber Security and Resilience (CSR) (2021)

Cyber Threat Intelligence (CTI) sharing platforms are valuable tools in cybersecurity. However, despite the fact that effective CTI exchange highly depends on human aspects, cyber behavior in CTI sharing ... [more ▼]

Cyber Threat Intelligence (CTI) sharing platforms are valuable tools in cybersecurity. However, despite the fact that effective CTI exchange highly depends on human aspects, cyber behavior in CTI sharing platforms has been notably less investigated by the security research community. Motivated by this research gap, we ground our work in the concrete challenge of understanding users’ perceptions of information sharing in CTI platforms. To this end, we propose a conceptual workflow and toolchain that would seek to verify whether users have an accurate comprehension of how far information travels when shared in a CTI sharing platform. We contextualize our concept within MISP as a use case, and discuss the benefits of our socio-technical approach as a potential tool for security analysis, simulation, or education/training support. We conclude with a brief outline of future work that would seek to evaluate and validate the proposed model. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 73 (14 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailA workflow and toolchain proposal for analyzing users’ perceptions in cyber threat intelligence sharing platforms
Stojkovski, Borce UL; Lenzini, Gabriele UL

in 2021 IEEE International Conference on Cyber Security and Resilience (CSR) (2021)

Cyber Threat Intelligence (CTI) sharing platforms are valuable tools in cybersecurity. However, despite the fact that effective CTI exchange highly depends on human aspects, cyber behavior in CTI sharing ... [more ▼]

Cyber Threat Intelligence (CTI) sharing platforms are valuable tools in cybersecurity. However, despite the fact that effective CTI exchange highly depends on human aspects, cyber behavior in CTI sharing platforms has been notably less investigated by the security research community. Motivated by this research gap, we ground our work in the concrete challenge of understanding users’ perceptions of information sharing in CTI platforms. To this end, we propose a conceptual workflow and toolchain that would seek to verify whether users have an accurate comprehension of how far information travels when shared in a CTI sharing platform. We contextualize our concept within MISP as a use case, and discuss the benefits of our socio-technical approach as a potential tool for security analysis, simulation, or education/training support. We conclude with a brief outline of future work that would seek to evaluate and validate the proposed model. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 73 (14 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailA workflow and toolchain proposal for analyzing users’ perceptions in cyber threat intelligence sharing platforms
Stojkovski, Borce UL; Lenzini, Gabriele UL

in 2021 IEEE International Conference on Cyber Security and Resilience (CSR) (2021)

Cyber Threat Intelligence (CTI) sharing platforms are valuable tools in cybersecurity. However, despite the fact that effective CTI exchange highly depends on human aspects, cyber behavior in CTI sharing ... [more ▼]

Cyber Threat Intelligence (CTI) sharing platforms are valuable tools in cybersecurity. However, despite the fact that effective CTI exchange highly depends on human aspects, cyber behavior in CTI sharing platforms has been notably less investigated by the security research community. Motivated by this research gap, we ground our work in the concrete challenge of understanding users’ perceptions of information sharing in CTI platforms. To this end, we propose a conceptual workflow and toolchain that would seek to verify whether users have an accurate comprehension of how far information travels when shared in a CTI sharing platform. We contextualize our concept within MISP as a use case, and discuss the benefits of our socio-technical approach as a potential tool for security analysis, simulation, or education/training support. We conclude with a brief outline of future work that would seek to evaluate and validate the proposed model. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 73 (14 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEvaluating ambiguity of privacy indicators in a secure email app
Stojkovski, Borce UL; Lenzini, Gabriele UL

in Loreti, Michele; Spalazzi, Luca (Eds.) Proceedings of the Fourth Italian Conference on Cyber Security, Ancona Italy, February 4th to 7th, 2020 (2020)

Informing laymen of security situations is a notoriously hard problem. Users are usually not cognoscenti of all the various secure and insecure situations that may arise, and this can be further worsened ... [more ▼]

Informing laymen of security situations is a notoriously hard problem. Users are usually not cognoscenti of all the various secure and insecure situations that may arise, and this can be further worsened by certain visual indicators that instead of helping users, fail to convey clear and unambiguous messages. Even in well-established and studied applications, like email clients providing end-to-end encryption, the problem seems far from being solved. Motivated to verify this claim, we studied the communication qualities of four privacy icons (in the form of coloured shapes) in conveying specific security messages, relevant for a particular secure emailing system called p≡p. We questioned 42 users in three different sessions, where we showed them 10 privacy ratings, along with their explanations, and asked them to match the rating and explanation with the four privacy icons. We compared the participants’ associations to those made by the p≡p developers. The results, still preliminary, are not encouraging. Except for the two most extreme cases, Secure and trusted and Under attack, users almost entirely missed to get the indicators’ intended messages. In particular, they did not grasp certain concepts such as Unsecure email and Secure email, which in turn were fundamental for the engineers. Our work has certain limitations and further investigation is required, but already at this stage our research calls for a closer collaboration between app engineers and icon designers. In the context of p≡p, our work has triggered a deeper discussion on the icon design choices and a potential revamp is on the way. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 174 (16 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDetecting misalignments between system security and user perceptions: a preliminary socio-technical analysis of an E2E email encryption system
Stojkovski, Borce UL; Vazquez Sandoval, Itzel UL; Lenzini, Gabriele UL

in 4th European Workshop on Usable Security - 2019 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy Workshops (2019)

The set of impressions that a user has about distinct aspects of a system depends on the experience perceived while interacting with the system. Considering the effects of these interactions in a security ... [more ▼]

The set of impressions that a user has about distinct aspects of a system depends on the experience perceived while interacting with the system. Considering the effects of these interactions in a security analysis allows for a new class of security properties in terms of misalignments between the system’s technical guarantees and the user’s impressions of them. For instance, a property that we call “false sense of insecurity” identifies a situation in which a secure system injects uncertainty in users, thus improperly transmitting the degree of protection that it actually provides; another, which we call “false sense of security”, captures situations in which a system instills a false sense of security beyond what a technical analysis would justify. Both situations leave room for attacks. In this paper we propose a model to define and reason about such socio-technical misalignments. The model refers to and builds on the concept of security ceremonies, but relies on user experience notions and on security analysis techniques to put together the information needed to verify misalignment properties about user’s impressions and system’s security guarantees. We discuss the innovative insight of this pilot model for a holistic understanding of a system’s security. We also propose a formal model that can be used with existing model checkers for an automatic analysis of misalignments. We exemplify the approach by modelling one specific application for end-to-end email encryption within which we analyze a few instances of misalignment properties. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 240 (48 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailA Protocol to Strengthen Password-Based Authentication
Vazquez Sandoval, Itzel UL; Lenzini, Gabriele UL; Stojkovski, Borce UL

in Emerging Technologies for Authorization and Authentication (2018, November)

We discuss a password-based authentication protocol that we argue to be robust against password-guessing and o -line dictionary attacks. The core idea is to hash the passwords with a seed that comes from ... [more ▼]

We discuss a password-based authentication protocol that we argue to be robust against password-guessing and o -line dictionary attacks. The core idea is to hash the passwords with a seed that comes from an OTP device, making the resulting identity token unpredictable for an adversary. We believe that the usability of this new protocol is the same as that of password-based methods with OTP, but has the advan- tage of not burdening users with having to choose strong passwords. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 239 (66 UL)