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See detailAttitudes towards Multiculturalism in Luxembourg: Measurement Invariance and Factor Structure of the Multicultural Ideology Scale
Stogianni, Maria UL; Murdock, Elke UL; He, Jia et al

in International Journal of Intercultural Relations (in press)

In the present study, we examined the dimensionality and the measurement invariance of the Multicultural Ideology Scale (MCI), and mean differences across different cultural groups within the multilingual ... [more ▼]

In the present study, we examined the dimensionality and the measurement invariance of the Multicultural Ideology Scale (MCI), and mean differences across different cultural groups within the multilingual, multicultural context of Luxembourg. Luxembourg is a unique context to study attitudes towards diversity because 47.4% of the citizens are non-nationals (i.e. economic migrants, sojourners, refugees) and minority and majority are increasingly difficult to define. Our sample included 1,488 participants from diverse ethnic backgrounds who completed the survey in German, French or English. In contrast to previous findings, our analyses on responses to the MCI scale produced a two-dimensional structure, distinguishing between positive and negative attitudes towards multiculturalism. The factor structure was partially invariant across ethnocultural groups: Configural and metric invariance were established across natives and non-natives and different language versions. Scalar invariance was only established across gender groups. Natives and male participants reported the most negative attitudes towards multiculturalism. We discuss the importance of assessing measurement invariance and provide recommendations to improve the assessment of psychological multiculturalism. [less ▲]

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See detailSocietal Emotional Environments and Cross-Cultural Differences in Life Satisfaction: A Forty-Nine Country Study
Krys, Kuba; Yeung, June; Capaldi, Colin et al

in Journal of Positive Psychology (in press)

In this paper, we introduce the concept of ‘societal emotional environment’: the emotional climate of a society (operationalized as the degree to which positive and negative emotions are expressed in a ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we introduce the concept of ‘societal emotional environment’: the emotional climate of a society (operationalized as the degree to which positive and negative emotions are expressed in a society). Using data collected from 12,888 participants across 49 countries, we show how societal emotional environments vary across countries and cultural clusters, and we consider the potential importance of these differences for well-being. Multilevel analyses supported a ‘double-edged sword’ model of negative emotion expression, where expression of negative emotions predicted higher life satisfaction for the expresser but lower life satisfaction for society. In contrast, partial support was found for higher societal life satisfaction in positive societal emotional environments. Our study highlights the potential utility and importance of distinguishing between positive and negative emotion expression, and adopting both individual and societal perspectives in well-being research. Individual pathways to happiness may not necessarily promote the happiness of others. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasuring multicultural ideology: Scale development and validation in different languages and contexts
Stogianni, Maria UL; Schmidt, Lea Marie; Murdock, Elke UL et al

Scientific Conference (2021, July)

Increased migration has led to the formation of culturally diverse societies in many places around the world. The concept of Multicultural Ideology incorporates two values as a way to promote positive ... [more ▼]

Increased migration has led to the formation of culturally diverse societies in many places around the world. The concept of Multicultural Ideology incorporates two values as a way to promote positive intercultural relations: a) Diversity: the presence of ethnocultural diversity in the population and b) Equity: the right for equal participation of all cultural groups in the society. Both diversity and equity are necessary conditions for the success of multicultural policies. Culturally heterogeneous communities that do not support inclusion and equitable participation of all groups face the negative consequences of segregation and marginalization. In line with this notion, an international research consortium is developing a revised version of the Multicultural Ideology Scale to assess the endorsement of multicultural ideology in different national contexts. The scale aims to distinguish various attitudinal dimensions of multiculturalism, relevant to the acceptance of diversity and social inclusion of different ethnocultural groups: Cultural Maintenance, Social Interaction, Equity/Inclusion, Extent of Differences, Conflictual Relations, Essentialistic Boundaries. We present the first assessment of the new scale in the German language. The survey was administered online to a sample of native German citizens (N = 382) with different demographic characteristics. Our aim was to understand the attitude of native citizens towards cultural diversity and their willingness to have members of ethnic minority groups be included in the larger society. We investigated the factor structure of the scale, its psychometric properties, and the relationship between multicultural ideology and some individual difference variables, such as ethnic group attachment and social dominance orientation. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment and Validation of the Revised Multicultural Ideology Scale in Germany and Luxembourg
Stogianni, Maria UL; Berry, John; Grigoryev, Dmitry et al

E-print/Working paper (2020)

A revised version of the Multicultural Ideology Scale (rMCI; Berry 2020; Berry et al., 1977) is currently being developed to measure endorsement of multiculturalism in different cultural contexts. The ... [more ▼]

A revised version of the Multicultural Ideology Scale (rMCI; Berry 2020; Berry et al., 1977) is currently being developed to measure endorsement of multiculturalism in different cultural contexts. The current study, which is part of this cross-cultural research project, presents the first assessment of the rMCI scale in the German language. The measure aims to cover several attitudinal dimensions of multiculturalism, relevant to the integration of different ethnocultural groups: Cultural Maintenance, Equity/Inclusion, Social interaction, Essentialistic Boundaries, Extent of Differences, and Consequences of Diversity. Two independent datasets were acquired from Germany (N = 382) and Luxembourg (N = 148) to estimate the factor structure of the rMCI using different confirmatory factor analysis techniques. The findings suggest that a 4-factor solution, including Cultural Maintenance, Equity/Inclusion, Social interaction, and Consequences of Diversity, was the best fit for the data. Most of these subscales demonstrated adequate psychometric properties (internal consistency, convergent, and discriminant validity). The 4-factor model of the rMCI was partially invariant across the two ethnic groups and full measurement invariance was established across gender. [less ▲]

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See detailImplicit Attitudes and Beliefs about Diversity (Cancelled due to COVID-19)
Stogianni, Maria UL; Grohmann, Lara; Kremer, Marina et al

Poster (2020, June)

Short abstract: The study examined attitudes towards multiculturalism in two European countries (Germany and Luxembourg). The findings reveal a positive relationship between implicit and explicit ... [more ▼]

Short abstract: The study examined attitudes towards multiculturalism in two European countries (Germany and Luxembourg). The findings reveal a positive relationship between implicit and explicit attitudes. Between group differences in the endorsement of diversity ideologies can be attributed to personality and biographical factors. [less ▲]

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See detailMulticultural societies - and the disappearance of culture?
Murdock, Elke UL; Stogianni, Maria UL

Scientific Conference (2019, September 01)

Vertovec (2007) describes countries with a heterogeneous population in terms of origin and migration status as super-diverse. Within these plurally composed societies the boundaries between minority and ... [more ▼]

Vertovec (2007) describes countries with a heterogeneous population in terms of origin and migration status as super-diverse. Within these plurally composed societies the boundaries between minority and majority become blurred and norms, values and symbols may be negotiated dependent on context. For people growing up in such a multicultural context it is the norm to be with people of different cultural backgrounds and language skills. Reinders (2006) has introduced the term co-culturation, as distinct from enculturation and acculturation, to describe the process of engagement with cultural diversity by both, natives and those with migration background. In a sample of adolescents growing up in multicultural Luxembourg, we highlight the interplay between migration status, friendship patterns, family relations, well-being and identity. Students (N = 85) attending a Luxembourgish secondary school participated in this questionnaire study (Mage = 16.45, SD = 1.09, 46 male, 39 female). The majority (n = 68) of the students were born in Luxembourg, 17 are natives (born to two Luxembourgish parents), 43 are second generation, 17 first generation and 6 are of mixed parentage. We assessed language competence and use, friendship patterns and family relationships. Measures also included the Brief Multidimensional Students’ Life Satisfaction Scales (BMSLSS) which assesses satisfaction with life in different domains and the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) scale. The results indicate that friendship patterns are formed on the basis of the characteristics of the individual rather than based on the country of origin. Few statistically significant differences could be found in terms of country of origin/ migration status and various outcome measures. The results can be interpreted in the co-culturation framework. For this cohort of adolescents, culture contact is the norm and salience of cultural background appears to weaken as a result. However, the Luxembourgish language plays an important unifying role. [less ▲]

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See detailAssociations between perceived discrimination and life satisfaction: An ecological momentary assessment pilot study of adolescents
Stogianni, Maria UL; Murdock, Elke UL

Poster (2019, August 31)

Perceived discrimination is an important predictor of life satisfaction in ethnic minority groups (Villegas-Gold & Hyung Chol Yoo, 2014). Discriminatory practices are related to lower levels of subjective ... [more ▼]

Perceived discrimination is an important predictor of life satisfaction in ethnic minority groups (Villegas-Gold & Hyung Chol Yoo, 2014). Discriminatory practices are related to lower levels of subjective well-being and greater anxiety (Clark, Anderson, Clark, & Williams, 1999). The present study aims to extend these findings by assessing the affective consequences of perceived discrimination with the use of experience sampling methodology. We are interested in within person changes in subjective well-being that occur as a result of perceived discrimination. International high-school students (N = 30) attending at European school of Luxembourg were recruited to participate in an e-diary study for a period of 10 days. Participants were first and second generation immigrants (Mage = 14.63, SD = .62) from different European and non-European countries, growing up in multicultural Luxembourg. Perceptions of discrimination by peers and teachers were assessed with a self-report questionnaire daily after school. Our measures captured different experiences of discrimination including discrimination based on gender, social status, ethnic origin, and physical appearance. Each evening, participants completed the Brief Multidimensional Students’ Life Satisfaction Scales (BMSLSS), which assesses satisfaction with life in general and satisfaction in five domains that are considered important for adolescents: self, family, friends, living environment, and school context. The findings suggest that experiences of discrimination were associated with lower levels of subjective well-being. Participants were less satisfied with themselves, their relationships, and their school environment during the days they reported higher levels of discrimination experiences. With this pilot study using ecological momentary assessment, we develop a more dynamic understanding of the within-person variability of different facets of well-being among first and second generation adolescent immigrants and their discrimination experiences in different domains. [less ▲]

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See detailFacial perception and implicit prejudice: An eye-tracking study
Stogianni, Maria UL

Poster (2019, July 09)

Racial bias can affect the way of processing visual stimuli that are targets of prejudice. Different levels of prejudice and the type of prejudice (implicit vs. explicit) were related to automatic and ... [more ▼]

Racial bias can affect the way of processing visual stimuli that are targets of prejudice. Different levels of prejudice and the type of prejudice (implicit vs. explicit) were related to automatic and controlled processes of visual exploration (Hansen Rakhshan, Ho, & Pannasch, 2015). The proposed study aims to extend these findings by including pictures of individuals that belong to different racial and ethnic groups (White, Asian, Black, Latino) and vary in prototypical characteristics. Images of the Chicago Face Database will be presented in an online study. Eye movements will be recorded during the presentation of visual stimuli. We will examine differences in exploratory looking behavior among natives in a western European country and individuals with migratory background. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification patterns and well-being in a plurally composed society: Growing up with multiple cultural influences
Stogianni, Maria UL

Presentation (2019, March 21)

Luxembourg is one of the most ethnically diverse countries in Europe with a foreign population percentage of nearly 48%. Children are being raised in mixed-national households, attend multilingual ... [more ▼]

Luxembourg is one of the most ethnically diverse countries in Europe with a foreign population percentage of nearly 48%. Children are being raised in mixed-national households, attend multilingual educational programs, and interact with people from various ethnic groups on a daily basis. These culture contact situations are particularly challenging for immigrant youth who are being socialized in two or more different cultures as well as for the native Luxembourgers who can find themselves in the minority in certain contexts. The primary aim of this PhD project is to investigate identity construal processes in adolescence and emerging adulthood within this multicultural context. We are particularly interested in the dispositional and contextual factors that affect cultural identification, behavior-related outcomes, academic performance, and psychological well-being. Another line of research will focus on implicit vs. explicit attitudes towards diversity and migration. These are some of the research questions we will try to answer using self-report questionnaires, experience sampling methodology, lab experiments, and semi-structured interviews. So far, a systematic literature review was conducted with the aim to identify the most frequently used instruments in the assessment of cultural identity and multiculturalism. Based on our findings, we conducted pilot studies to examine the cultural equivalence of these measures in diverse samples. [less ▲]

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See detailMigration patterns in Luxembourg
Stogianni, Maria UL

E-print/Working paper (2018)

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See detailThe Multicultural Ideology Scale (MIS): Factor structure and measurement invariance
Stogianni, Maria UL; Murdock, Elke UL

Scientific Conference (2018, July 02)

The concept of multiculturalism has been widely used in cross-cultural research to describe positive attitudes towards a culturally plural society and practices that support cultural diversity. To date ... [more ▼]

The concept of multiculturalism has been widely used in cross-cultural research to describe positive attitudes towards a culturally plural society and practices that support cultural diversity. To date, attitudes towards multiculturalism among majority and minority group members have been assessed with the same instruments. However, there is little psychometric evidence that these measures operate appropriately in various cultural contexts. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the factor structure of the Multicultural Ideology Scale (MIS; Berry & Kalin, 1995) and test its measurement invariance across different language versions and ethnic groups. The entire sample consisted of 1572 adolescents and adults in Luxembourg, including native majority members (N = 693) and immigrants from diverse ethnic backgrounds (N = 879). Participants were given the option to complete the questionnaire in one of the following languages: English, German or French. The unidimensional model of multicultural ideology did not show an acceptable fit of the data across all language versions of the MIS. Exploratory and confirmatory factorial analyses revealed a two-factor structure, which was partially invariant across two different language versions (English and German). The two factors reflected positive and negative attitudes towards cultural diversity respectively. Subsequent multigroup confirmatory factor analyses supported configural and metric invariance across majority and minority group members. Scalar invariance was not established, indicating that respondents across these two groups conceptualize multiculturalism in different ways. Implications of these findings are discussed together with methodological issues concerning the assessment of measurement invariance. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentity processes in multicultural Antwerp: Report on an ethnographic - cross-cultural study
Stogianni, Maria UL; Van de Vijver, Fons J. R.

Presentation (2018, June 21)

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See detailIdentification patterns and subjective well-being in native and migrant emerging adults: The mediating role of self-efficacy
Stogianni, Maria UL; Murdock, Elke UL

Poster (2018, May 18)

Background: Luxembourg is one of the most diverse countries in Europe with a foreign population percentage of 47%. National identification processes become complex for young adults growing up in this ... [more ▼]

Background: Luxembourg is one of the most diverse countries in Europe with a foreign population percentage of 47%. National identification processes become complex for young adults growing up in this multicultural context with important implications for psychological outcomes. Research has shown that salience of national identification is heightened within this multicultural context (Murdock, Hirst, & Ferring, 2014) while higher levels of national identification are associated with life satisfaction and better health outcomes. Other findings suggest that intercultural contact can contribute to the development of a shared identity in highly diverse areas. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in identification patterns among native and non-native emerging adults and potential factors that mediate their impact on subjective well-being. As the native population is almost in the minority within its own country, we wanted to explore the relationships between well-being, ethnic, and transnational identification among this group. Methods: The sample included 260 young adults, ranging from 18 to 29 years old (M = 21.78, SD = 2.36). Participants were native citizens of Luxembourg and immigrants from different ethnic backgrounds. They completed standardized self-report questionnaires, including the Satisfaction with Life Scale and the General Self-Efficacy Scale. Identification with Luxembourg was assessed with the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure. Based on previous studies (van de Vijver et al, 2015), a 7-item scale was developed for the assessment of cosmopolitan/transnational identification, including items that assess beliefs about global citizenship and the level of contact with people from different ethnic groups. Results: All participants reported high levels of Luxembourgish and cosmopolitan identification with average scores M = 3.23 (SD = .79) and M = 4.15 (SD = .49) respectively. There were no significant differences for Luxembourgish identification and well-being between natives and non-natives but participants with migratory background scored significantly higher on the cosmopolitan identity scale. Luxembourgish and cosmopolitan identity correlated positively with self-efficacy in both groups and self-efficacy perceptions were positively related to well-being. To examine the direct and indirect relationships among these variables, we tested path mediation models with the two identity domains as predictors. The first model tested the mediating effect of self-efficacy on the relationship between identification patterns and well-being among native Luxembourgish citizens. The model showed a good fit χ²(1, N = 112) = .087, p = .768, RMSEA = .000, CFI = 1.00, indicating that ethnic identity was a significant predictor of self-efficacy perceptions which indeed mediated the effect of ethnic identification on well-being. Ethnic and transnational identification were not directly associated with the outcome variable. A second path model tested these relationships in the immigrant group χ²(1, N =145) = 2.452, p = .117, RMSEA = .100, CFI = .946. Neither identity component (Luxembourgish or cosmopolitan identity) was a significant predictor of subjective well-being but the findings suggest a mediating effect of self-efficacy on the relationship between transnational identification and well-being. Discussion: The present study contributes to the literature by exploring potential individual difference variables that affect the link between identification patterns and life satisfaction. [less ▲]

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See detailResearch Report
Stogianni, Maria UL

E-print/Working paper (2017)

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