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See detailStaging the Nation in an Intermediate Space: Cultural Policy in Luxembourg and the State Museums (1918-1974)
Spirinelli, Fabio UL

Doctoral thesis (2020)

Cultural policy has been analysed from various perspectives, ranging from sociology over cultural studies to political science. Historians have also been interested in cultural policy, but they have ... [more ▼]

Cultural policy has been analysed from various perspectives, ranging from sociology over cultural studies to political science. Historians have also been interested in cultural policy, but they have barely reflected on a theoretical framework. In addition, cultural policy has not been thoroughly researched in Luxembourg. The present thesis aims to contribute to this gap and examines how national cultural policy in Luxembourg evolved from the 1920s to the early 1970s. It investigates the presence of the national idea in cultural policy, and possible tensions and connections between the idea of the nation and the use or inclusion of foreign cultural references. Drawing on the concept of Zwischenraum (intermediate space) coined by the historian Philip Ther, the study considers Luxembourg as a nationalised intermediate space with the tensions that this status entails. Furthermore, it investigates how the State Museums, particularly the history section, evolved in the cultural policy context. To analyse the evolution of cultural policy, three interconnected aspects are considered: structures, actors and discourses. Three main periods are considered in a chronological fashion: the interwar period marked by efforts of nation-building and an increasingly interventionist state; the Nazi occupation of Luxembourg (1940-1944), when the idea of an independent nation-state was turned into its opposite; the post-war period until the early 1970s, subdivided into an immediate post-war period marked by restitution and reconstruction, and the 1950s and the 1960s characterised by a state-administrator and a conservative cultural policy. These periods, however, are not always neatly separable and reveal continuities. For each period, the State Museums are analysed in their cultural policy context: from their construction in the age of nation-building, over their ambiguous situation during Nazi occupation, to their new missions in the post-war period. [less ▲]

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See detailLëtzebuerg op d’Weltkaart setzen – Kulturpolitik vum nation building zum Nation Branding
Spirinelli, Fabio UL

Conference given outside the academic context (2019)

Detailed reference viewed: 80 (7 UL)
See detailThe Occupied Museum. Culture and Science in Luxemburg during the Nazi Occupation, 1940–1944
Spirinelli, Fabio UL

Scientific Conference (2019, October 24)

Prior to the invasion of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg by Nazi Germany on May 10, 1940, national research infrastructures were barely developed. A university did not exist. Research was mainly carried out ... [more ▼]

Prior to the invasion of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg by Nazi Germany on May 10, 1940, national research infrastructures were barely developed. A university did not exist. Research was mainly carried out in the Grand-Ducal Institute, comparable to a scientific academy, and within the State Museum. During the occupation, the Germans introduced a civil administration and constitutional institutions were consequently abolished. Furthermore, the occupying power aimed at neutralizing French influence in Luxembourg while implementing a policy of ʻteutonizationʼ or ʻgermanizationʼ. From a National Socialist perspective, Luxembourg was considered a territory adherent to the German nation. Though the desired annexation of Luxembourg to the Third Reich did not happen, the measures implemented by the regime and the incorporation of the country into the Gau Moselland in February 1941 meant a de facto annexation. New policies implemented by the Nazi regime affected all spheres of social, cultural, and economic life. In the area of culture and science, plans were drafted to build new institutions or expand existing ones. Cultural and research societies were reorganised or disbanded. Theatres, libraries and museums became propaganda tools to diffuse and consolidate an official German culture. The state museum, renamed Landesmuseum during the occupation, expanded its collection and increased its staff. While the origins of objects and artefacts acquired during the occupation are not entirely clear, the museum strengthened its public role as a protector and conservator of cultural heritage. My paper aims at exploring how the occupation has shaped research in both sciences and humanities and their related institutions. A comparative view that considers other occupied countries and the Third Reich will be complemented by a case study related to the Landesmuseum during the four-year occupation. Three questions are at the core of the present contribution: How were the research infrastructures incorporated into the new administration? How did the museum adapt to and cope with a situation out of the ordinary? What worldview was to be disseminated to the general public and which particular elements of this worldview were disseminated through cultural and research institutions? My contribution takes into account the relationship between structures (both administrative and legislative), actors, and discourses. Additionally, specific difficulties related to the currently available primary sources will be dealt with and the ambiguous scientific relations between Germany and Luxembourg before the war will be examined. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 98 (7 UL)
See detailD'Europaparlament an de politeschen Ëmgang mat der Geschicht
Spirinelli, Fabio UL

Diverse speeches and writings (2019)

Detailed reference viewed: 59 (1 UL)
See detailL'utilisation politique de l'histoire par le Parlement européen
Spirinelli, Fabio UL

Article for general public (2019)

Detailed reference viewed: 50 (2 UL)
See detailA small country in a global context: the case of Luxembourg’s cultural policy
Spirinelli, Fabio UL

Scientific Conference (2019, June 27)

This paper focuses on a small nation state instead of a big country to provide a different perspective on cultural policy history. Due to its small size, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg has been influenced ... [more ▼]

This paper focuses on a small nation state instead of a big country to provide a different perspective on cultural policy history. Due to its small size, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg has been influenced by the cultures of its neighbouring countries and looked beyond its national boundaries for inspirations. Members of the political, cultural and economic elite studied abroad and brought ideas and transnational contacts to Luxembourg. Hence, Luxembourg’s national cultural policy needs to be examined within the international context. Throughout the cultural policy of the 20th century, we discover numerous examples of how European and international developments have affected Luxembourg’s cultural policy. During the interwar period, a national era initiated by the First World War, the increasingly interventionist state promoted a national culture alongside a high culture imported from France and Germany. Intellectuals developed the idea that Luxembourgish culture was created by the mixture of French and German cultures. For its cultural policy, the government took inspiration from examples abroad: Luxembourg’s first law on the protection of national monuments and sites (1927) was influenced by a French law of 1913. In the 1970s, the development of a new cultural policy around concepts such as democratization of culture cannot be understood without the developments in other countries. From the 1980s onwards, European and global developments have increasingly influenced Luxembourg’s cultural policy. The promotion of the creative industries, for instance, is the most recent example of how Luxembourg follows a global trend. This paper has several aims. First, it wishes to analyse how Luxembourg has adapted models and reacted to developments abroad. Second, it wants to investigate to what extent Luxembourg has shifted its geographic horizon when looking for models and ideas. Third, it advocates for a cultural policy history that does not limit itself to national borders. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 64 (2 UL)
See detailLe Centenaire de l'Indépendance en 1939: une célébration dans l'esprit de son époque
Spirinelli, Fabio UL

Article for general public (2019)

Detailed reference viewed: 118 (6 UL)
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See detailCreative Luxembourg? From implicit debates on cultural industries to an explicit policy on creative industries in Luxembourg
Spirinelli, Fabio UL

in Hemecht: Zeitschrift für Luxemburger Geschichte (2018), 70(3), 5-22

Detailed reference viewed: 79 (16 UL)
See detailDu « Plakert » au cerf bleu
Spirinelli, Fabio UL

Article for general public (2017)

Detailed reference viewed: 62 (3 UL)
See detailPour une histoire de la politique culturelle qui rompt avec les frontières
Spirinelli, Fabio UL

Article for general public (2017)

Detailed reference viewed: 77 (9 UL)
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See detailDie Geschichte des Rassismus und des Antirassismus in Luxemburg seit den 1970er Jahren
Spirinelli, Fabio UL

Bachelor/master dissertation (2012)

Detailed reference viewed: 83 (5 UL)