References of "Sikk, Kaarel 50026462"
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See detailEnvironment and settlement location choice in Stone Age Estonia
Sikk, Kaarel UL; Kriiska, Aivar; Johanson, Kristiina et al

in Estonian Journal of Archaeology (2020), 2

The location choice of Stone Age settlements has been long considered to be influenced by environmental conditions. Proximity to water and sandy soils are most typical examples of those conditions. The ... [more ▼]

The location choice of Stone Age settlements has been long considered to be influenced by environmental conditions. Proximity to water and sandy soils are most typical examples of those conditions. The notion of the influence resulted from the evidence from a relatively small amount of sites. During the recent decades the number of known settlements has increased to a level where statistical assessment of relation between environmental characteristics and settlement location choice is possible. To undertake this task we collected data about known Estonian Stone Age settlements and acquired environmental data of their locations using publicly available geological datasets. We provide univariate descriptive statistics of the distributions of variables describing site conditions and compare them to characteristics generally present in the environment. We experiment with a set of environmental variables including soil type, distance to water and a selection of geomorphometry derivatives of the digital elevation model. Quantitative assessment confirmed previous observations showing significant effect towards choice of sandy, dry location close to water bodies. The statistical analysis allowed us to assess the effect size of different characteristics. Proximity to water had the largest effect on settlement choice, while soil type was also of considerable importance. Abstract geomorphological variables Topographic Position Index and Topographic Wetness index also inform us about significant effects of surface forms. Differences of settlement locations during stages of the Stone Age are well observable. The environmental conditions of sites from the pre-pottery Mesolithic follow the general pattern but with the greatest variation. Narva and Comb Ware stage settlement locations preferences are nearly identical to each other showing preference of sandy higher areas near the shoreline and indicating increased site investment. For Corded Ware period a new settlement mode is observable which is not any more directly related to water bodies and can be explained by semi-agrarian subsistence and decreasing dependence on aquatic resources. [less ▲]

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See detailA Spatially explicit ABM of Central Place Foraging Theory and its explanatory power for hunter-gatherers settlement patterns formation processes
Sikk, Kaarel UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

in Adaptive Behavior (2020)

The behavioural ecological approach to anthropology states that the density and distribution of resources determine optimal patterns of resource use and also sets its constraints to grouping, mobility and ... [more ▼]

The behavioural ecological approach to anthropology states that the density and distribution of resources determine optimal patterns of resource use and also sets its constraints to grouping, mobility and settlement choice. Central Place Foraging (CPF) models have been used for analysing foraging behaviours of hunter-gatherers and to draw a causal link from the volume of available resources in the environment to the mobility decisions of hunter-gatherers. In this study we propose a spatially explicit agent-based CPF mode. We explore its potential for explaining formation of settlement patterns and test its robustness to the configuration of space. Building on a model assuming homogeneous energy distributions we had to add several new parameters and an adaptation mechanism for foragers to predict the length of their stay, together with a heterogeneous environment configuration. The validation of the model shows that the spatially explicit CPF is generally robust to spatial configuration of energy resources. The total volume of energy has a significant effect on constraining sedentism as predicted by aspatial model and thus can be used on different environmental conditions. Still the spatial autocorrelation of resource distribution has a linear effect on optimal mobility decisions and needs to be considered in predictive models. The effect on settlement choice is not substantial and is more determined by other characteristics of settlement location. This limits the CPF models in analysing settlement pattern formation processes. [less ▲]

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See detailCentral place foraging and hunter-gatherer settlement patterns: how resource depletion influences population concentration
Sikk, Kaarel UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

Scientific Conference (2019, September 09)

Settlement patterns are one of the main products of the Stone Age archaeological research. Their emergence processes can be explained by different models of settlement and mobility choices done by past ... [more ▼]

Settlement patterns are one of the main products of the Stone Age archaeological research. Their emergence processes can be explained by different models of settlement and mobility choices done by past inhabitants. In current study we explore central place foraging (CPF) model of huntergatherers as a tool for exploring formation of settlement patterns. CFP model is used for describing mobility choices of hunter-gatherer groups. It implies the groups settle at a central location and make logistic forays to surrounding areas foraging for required resources. The central location is chosen by it’s optimal position in relation to those resources and the group is willing to leave the current base location if a better alternative arises. We introduce a spatially explicit Agent-Based Model (ABM) of the CPF and explore how heterogeneous environment influences the settlement pattern formation. The motivation to move in CFP comes from changes in the environment. An important part of the change is the depletion of existing resources by the hunter-gatherers themselves. We are using the ABM model to explore how depletion process influences the dispersal of huntergatherer groups in the environment and which conditions and strategies will result in higher concentration and clustering of the population. [less ▲]

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See detailVirtuaalsed agendid minevikku ennustamas
Sikk, Kaarel UL

Article for general public (2018)

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See detailConceptual framework of assessing the influence of cultural complexity to settlement pattern formation
Sikk, Kaarel UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Kriiska, Aivar

Scientific Conference (2018, September)

Settlement patterns are one of the main products of prehistorical archaeological research and are used as spatial projections of past societies. In current paper we study how geographical locational data ... [more ▼]

Settlement patterns are one of the main products of prehistorical archaeological research and are used as spatial projections of past societies. In current paper we study how geographical locational data can reveal information about cultural complexity. The formation of the patterns is influenced by multiple factors from human-environment interactions to complex processes within society. We analyse the forces behind formation of settlement patterns from an agent based modelling perspective. For the purpose we construct a spatial discrete choice model and formulate it using random utility theory. We argue that agent decisions in the models can be decomposed into different rulesets. Those rules are mostly determined by attraction to natural affordances and sociocultural behaviours. Paleoecological and geological data can be used to extract information about human attraction to natural affordances. Analysing the resulting empirical data can reveal the significance of environment as determining settlement choice which we argue is declining with growing cultural complexity. [less ▲]

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See detailTransferring knowledge from locational predictive models into spatial Agent Based Models: generilizing human perception of environment
Sikk, Kaarel UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

Scientific Conference (2018, March 22)

Predictive models have been used for finding potential archaeological site locations already for more than 40 years. In addition to their extensively used application in cultural heritage management they ... [more ▼]

Predictive models have been used for finding potential archaeological site locations already for more than 40 years. In addition to their extensively used application in cultural heritage management they can also offer insights into past human behaviour in relation to environment. The proposed paper discusses how the information gathered from predictive modelling of archeological settlements, especially the revealed from location determinants, can be transferred to spatial Agent Based Models. We argue that spatial simulation models, especially those based on agents behaviour, above all aim to build theory and create generalisable knowledge. They therefore need to free themselves form local contexts and particular spatial heterogeneities, and automatically test the effect of agents behaviour on a wider range of spatial configurations. In cultural heritage management, models are usually created using geographical variables of existing settlement patterns (eg. water access and land formations). For finding archaeological sites the model needs to be calibrated for specific accuracy and precision. In this paper we focus on defining the potential residential space – an area that could be considered by people of the past as suitable for habitation or specific economic activities. We develop a framework that links geographical variables and behaviour as extracted from empirical studies to the development of a theoretical spatial agent-based model. [less ▲]

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See detailAgent-based modeling as an interdisciplinary bridge in spatial humanities. Designing the modeling framework for simulation of Mesolithic settlement patterns
Sikk, Kaarel UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL; Kriiska, Aivar

Scientific Conference (2018)

Settlement patterns have been one of the central products of Stone Age archaeological research. Because of long time spans and very scarce information, scientific explanations of the patterns are usually ... [more ▼]

Settlement patterns have been one of the central products of Stone Age archaeological research. Because of long time spans and very scarce information, scientific explanations of the patterns are usually limited to just defining the areas of the phenomena of interest. Any further deductions about past communities tend to be without additional proof and thus presented as hypotheses in scientific literature. In this paper we introduce a study that seeks to create a general framework for modeling the emergence of settlement patterns. The central concept for modeling is the human / social perception of the environment and how it is related to potential residential space – places that can be used for human habitation. We hypothesize that the human perception can be used to simulate the processes of emergence of immigration and seasonal mobility. The first goal of the research is to identify possible knowledge sources (eg. paleoecology, geography, geology, anthropology) that give information about residential mobility of pre-agricultural societies. The second goal is to translate selected knowledge to algorithmic representation and evaluate its usability for modeling. The purpose of which is to find the determining factors in the emergence of the settlement patterns and to distinguish between emerging and irreducibly complex phenomena. [less ▲]

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See detailQuantifying the shoreline connection of the Stone Age settlements in Southern Karelia (Finland)
Sikk, Kaarel UL; Kriiska, Aivar; Nordqvist, Kerkko et al

Scientific Conference (2018)

The connection between settlement sites and water bodies has been the most prominent characteristic of the Stone Age settlement patterns in North-Eastern Europe. Geologist and archaeologist Constantin ... [more ▼]

The connection between settlement sites and water bodies has been the most prominent characteristic of the Stone Age settlement patterns in North-Eastern Europe. Geologist and archaeologist Constantin Grewingk stated already in 1865 that in the Eastern Baltic region “Stone Age people lived by the sea and rivers”. Although there was no empirical data at that time, the following discoveries confirmed this claim. The connection is so obvious that archaeological sites are effectively used as a proxy data for reconstructing past shorelines that have been changing due to isostatic land uplift and changing hydrological conditions. The goal of current paper is to give a statistical description of the settlements’ position relative to the shoreline. The case study is based on the Stone Age settlement site locations in Southern Karelia, Finland. The region is characterized by several water bodies, including lake Saimaa, as well as several smaller lakes and rivers. A small amount of settlements in the south-eastern part of the study area is also located on the paleoshorelines of the Baltic Sea. The following questions are asked: how many and what kind of Stone Age sites are shoreline-connected? How to statistically describe the distribution of distances from the settlements to the closest shoreline? Because of the abundance of lake shores in the region, it also has to be judged if the settlement pattern was formed by the economical/cultural lifeways of past inhabitants or was it just enforced by the landscape. To answer this question, it is analysed if the distribution of distances to shoreline of Stone Age sites significantly differs from the ones of later periods? [less ▲]

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See detailQuantifying the Use of stones in the stone age Fireplaces of Estonia
Sikk, Kaarel UL

in Archaeologia Lituana (2017), 17(17), 26-34

Fireplaces and burnt stones related to them are common features found at Stone Age settlement sites. Although information about them is present in archaeological reports and also available in publications ... [more ▼]

Fireplaces and burnt stones related to them are common features found at Stone Age settlement sites. Although information about them is present in archaeological reports and also available in publications, there has been no general research done regarding combustion features specifically. The purpose of this study was to fill the gap of relevant research and to test the hypothesis that the structural features of fireplaces reveal information on the subsistence model of settlements.The study is based on a database of Estonian Stone Age fireplaces, which was compiled by using the available data on all excavated objects. The database includes 167 fireplaces and contains quantifiable data about stones in fireplaces.The analysis of data revealed that the use of stones in fireplaces changed significantly in time. While most of the Mesolithic fire-places contain them, they become scarce in the Neolithic. It can be concluded that the use of stones in fireplaces is related to the economy of settlements and changes within time reflect the changes in general subsistence strategies. Keywords : fireplaces, hearths, quantitative analysis, reuse of data, Mesolithic, Neolithic. [less ▲]

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See detailUsing modern technology to support museum activities. Case study: Estonians Deported to Siberia: Soviet Red Terror 1940-1960
Uueni, Andres; Pagi, Hembo; Sikk, Kaarel UL et al

in ICOM, Milano 2016 (2016)

Detailed reference viewed: 33 (0 UL)
See detailLocal or imported? Assessing the flint preferences of the Mesolithic habitants in Estonia and northern Latvia with the help geochemical methods.
Johanson, Kristiina; Kriiska, Aivar; Sikk, Kaarel UL et al

in Borić, D (Ed.) Book of Abstracts: The Ninth International Conference on the Mesolithic in Europe 14th-18th September (2015)

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See detailKiviaegsed tuleasemed Eestis
Sikk, Kaarel UL

Bachelor/master dissertation (2015)

http://www.ester.ee/record=b4484001*est

Detailed reference viewed: 29 (3 UL)
See detailReinventing the wheel? Data management system for archaeological collections
Pagi, Hembo; Sikk, Kaarel UL

Scientific Conference (2014, April 25)

We often think that we can do better than our predecessors. Over the last five months we have been working with a new archaeological data management system (called TARA) for the Archaeology Department of ... [more ▼]

We often think that we can do better than our predecessors. Over the last five months we have been working with a new archaeological data management system (called TARA) for the Archaeology Department of the University of Tartu in Estonia. Are we reinventing the wheel? Some years ago Stuard Eve presented the Archaeological Recording Kit (2008), a very flexible system, which can handle differently structured archaeological data. There are several other open source systems available. Time has passed and many new and useful web technologies are outperforming the classic PHP/MySQL approach. Our goal was to create the system where all the data structure could be modified without the need of a developer or writing any line of code. At the same time we strive to provide a good user experience and flexibility. Main keywords to describe the design principles of TARA: unrestricting, unstructured, extendable, interconnectable (with non-textual media), fast, scalable. At the moment all of the department’s data management is done using MS Excel spreadsheets. The main task of the the project is to get rid of the spreadsheets and merge it into system which provides a similar user experience via a web-based user interface. About 95% of the users are consumers of data, hence finding something fast is of utmost importance. The group of users acting as collection managers are doing data entry and for them very simple data-entry forms and workflows are created. The technical approach has taken benefits from many new web technologies and approaches. The RESTful API ensures all the data being easily accessible from outside the application and enables us to create different output layers, such as OIA-PMH. The database system is a nonrelational and no-SQL database, which makes many data-related procedures more flexible and faster. For a better user experience client-site data rendering is used. This is based on different . js-frameworks. All technologies used are open source - so is our project outcome. The project team contains developers who are specialised on museum- and cultural heritage related webapplications and two archaeologist with computer science background. [less ▲]

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See detailKuus ruutmeetrit ajalugu. Sündmused Jägala-Joa IV asulakohal 2013. aasta kaevamistulemuste põhjal.
Sikk, Kaarel UL; Kriiska, Aivar; Beljaev, Kätrin

Article for general public (2014)

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See detailArchaeological test excavations at the Mesolithic and Iron Age settlement site Jägala-Joa IV
Kriiska, Aivar; Sikk, Kaarel UL

in Archaeological field works in Estonia (2014), (2013), 45-54

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See detailKuidas sood mineviku saladusi välja annavad
Sikk, Kaarel UL

Article for general public (2013)

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See detailArheoloogilised kaevamised Eestis 1799 – 1999. Võrguteavik.
Konsa, Marge; Sikk, Kaarel UL; Tvauri, Andres

Textual, factual or bibliographical database (2013)

Detailed reference viewed: 24 (0 UL)