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See detailA Spatially explicit ABM of Central Place Foraging Theory and its explanatory power for hunter-gatherers settlement patterns formation processes
Sikk, Kaarel UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

in Adaptive Behaviour (in press)

The behavioural ecological approach to anthropology states that the density and distribution of resources determine optimal patterns of resource use and also sets its constraints to grouping, mobility and ... [more ▼]

The behavioural ecological approach to anthropology states that the density and distribution of resources determine optimal patterns of resource use and also sets its constraints to grouping, mobility and settlement choice. Central Place Foraging (CPF) models have been used for analysing foraging behaviours of hunter-gatherers and to draw a causal link from the volume of available resources in the environment to the mobility decisions of hunter-gatherers. In this study we propose a spatially explicit agent-based CPF mode. We explore its potential for explaining formation of settlement patterns and test its robustness to the configuration of space. Building on a model assuming homogeneous energy distributions we had to add several new parameters and an adaptation mechanism for foragers to predict the length of their stay, together with a heterogeneous environment configuration. The validation of the model shows that the spatially explicit CPF is generally robust to spatial configuration of energy resources. The total volume of energy has a significant effect on constraining sedentism as predicted by aspatial model and thus can be used on different environmental conditions. Still the spatial autocorrelation of resource distribution has a linear effect on optimal mobility decisions and needs to be considered in predictive models. The effect on settlement choice is not substantial and is more determined by other characteristics of settlement location. This limits the CPF models in analysing settlement pattern formation processes. [less ▲]

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See detailCentral place foraging and hunter-gatherer settlement patterns: how resource depletion influences population concentration
Sikk, Kaarel UL; Caruso, Geoffrey UL

Scientific Conference (2019, September 09)

Settlement patterns are one of the main products of the Stone Age archaeological research. Their emergence processes can be explained by different models of settlement and mobility choices done by past ... [more ▼]

Settlement patterns are one of the main products of the Stone Age archaeological research. Their emergence processes can be explained by different models of settlement and mobility choices done by past inhabitants. In current study we explore central place foraging (CPF) model of huntergatherers as a tool for exploring formation of settlement patterns. CFP model is used for describing mobility choices of hunter-gatherer groups. It implies the groups settle at a central location and make logistic forays to surrounding areas foraging for required resources. The central location is chosen by it’s optimal position in relation to those resources and the group is willing to leave the current base location if a better alternative arises. We introduce a spatially explicit Agent-Based Model (ABM) of the CPF and explore how heterogeneous environment influences the settlement pattern formation. The motivation to move in CFP comes from changes in the environment. An important part of the change is the depletion of existing resources by the hunter-gatherers themselves. We are using the ABM model to explore how depletion process influences the dispersal of huntergatherer groups in the environment and which conditions and strategies will result in higher concentration and clustering of the population. [less ▲]

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See detailVirtuaalsed agendid minevikku ennustamas
Sikk, Kaarel UL

Article for general public (2018)

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See detailQuantifying the Use of stones in the stone age Fireplaces of Estonia
Sikk, Kaarel UL

in Archaeologia Lituana (2017), 17(17), 26-34

Fireplaces and burnt stones related to them are common features found at Stone Age settlement sites. Although information about them is present in archaeological reports and also available in publications ... [more ▼]

Fireplaces and burnt stones related to them are common features found at Stone Age settlement sites. Although information about them is present in archaeological reports and also available in publications, there has been no general research done regarding combustion features specifically. The purpose of this study was to fill the gap of relevant research and to test the hypothesis that the structural features of fireplaces reveal information on the subsistence model of settlements.The study is based on a database of Estonian Stone Age fireplaces, which was compiled by using the available data on all excavated objects. The database includes 167 fireplaces and contains quantifiable data about stones in fireplaces.The analysis of data revealed that the use of stones in fireplaces changed significantly in time. While most of the Mesolithic fire-places contain them, they become scarce in the Neolithic. It can be concluded that the use of stones in fireplaces is related to the economy of settlements and changes within time reflect the changes in general subsistence strategies. Keywords : fireplaces, hearths, quantitative analysis, reuse of data, Mesolithic, Neolithic. [less ▲]

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See detailUsing modern technology to support museum activities. Case study: Estonians Deported to Siberia: Soviet Red Terror 1940-1960
Uueni, Andres; Pagi, Hembo; Sikk, Kaarel UL et al

in ICOM, Milano 2016 (2016)

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See detailLocal or imported? Assessing the flint preferences of the Mesolithic habitants in Estonia and northern Latvia with the help geochemical methods.
Johanson, Kristiina; Kriiska, Aivar; Sikk, Kaarel UL et al

in Borić, D (Ed.) Book of Abstracts: The Ninth International Conference on the Mesolithic in Europe 14th-18th September (2015)

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See detailKiviaegsed tuleasemed Eestis
Sikk, Kaarel UL

Bachelor/master dissertation (2015)

http://www.ester.ee/record=b4484001*est

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See detailReinventing the wheel? Data management system for archaeological collections
Pagi, Hembo; Sikk, Kaarel UL

Scientific Conference (2014, April 25)

We often think that we can do better than our predecessors. Over the last five months we have been working with a new archaeological data management system (called TARA) for the Archaeology Department of ... [more ▼]

We often think that we can do better than our predecessors. Over the last five months we have been working with a new archaeological data management system (called TARA) for the Archaeology Department of the University of Tartu in Estonia. Are we reinventing the wheel? Some years ago Stuard Eve presented the Archaeological Recording Kit (2008), a very flexible system, which can handle differently structured archaeological data. There are several other open source systems available. Time has passed and many new and useful web technologies are outperforming the classic PHP/MySQL approach. Our goal was to create the system where all the data structure could be modified without the need of a developer or writing any line of code. At the same time we strive to provide a good user experience and flexibility. Main keywords to describe the design principles of TARA: unrestricting, unstructured, extendable, interconnectable (with non-textual media), fast, scalable. At the moment all of the department’s data management is done using MS Excel spreadsheets. The main task of the the project is to get rid of the spreadsheets and merge it into system which provides a similar user experience via a web-based user interface. About 95% of the users are consumers of data, hence finding something fast is of utmost importance. The group of users acting as collection managers are doing data entry and for them very simple data-entry forms and workflows are created. The technical approach has taken benefits from many new web technologies and approaches. The RESTful API ensures all the data being easily accessible from outside the application and enables us to create different output layers, such as OIA-PMH. The database system is a nonrelational and no-SQL database, which makes many data-related procedures more flexible and faster. For a better user experience client-site data rendering is used. This is based on different . js-frameworks. All technologies used are open source - so is our project outcome. The project team contains developers who are specialised on museum- and cultural heritage related webapplications and two archaeologist with computer science background. [less ▲]

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See detailKuus ruutmeetrit ajalugu. Sündmused Jägala-Joa IV asulakohal 2013. aasta kaevamistulemuste põhjal.
Sikk, Kaarel UL; Kriiska, Aivar; Beljaev, Kätrin

Article for general public (2014)

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See detailArchaeological test excavations at the Mesolithic and Iron Age settlement site Jägala-Joa IV
Kriiska, Aivar; Sikk, Kaarel UL

in Archaeological field works in Estonia (2014), (2013), 45-54

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See detailKuidas sood mineviku saladusi välja annavad
Sikk, Kaarel UL

Article for general public (2013)

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See detailArheoloogilised kaevamised Eestis 1799 – 1999. Võrguteavik.
Konsa, Marge; Sikk, Kaarel UL; Tvauri, Andres

Textual, factual or bibliographical database (2013)

Detailed reference viewed: 21 (0 UL)