References of "Settels, Jason 50036379"
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See detailFurther resource multiplication at more advanced ages? Interactions between education, parental socioeconomic status, and age in their impacts upon health
Settels, Jason UL

in Sociology Compass (2022)

While scholarship has shown that socioeconomic status creates fine-grained gradients in health, there is debate regarding whether having higher amounts of one socioeconomic resource amplifies (resource ... [more ▼]

While scholarship has shown that socioeconomic status creates fine-grained gradients in health, there is debate regarding whether having higher amounts of one socioeconomic resource amplifies (resource multiplication) or reduces (resource substitution) the health benefits of  one's other socioeconomic resources. A further question is whether these processes are accentuated or diminished at more advanced ages. Using the 2016 and 2018 waves of the United States General Social Survey (N = 2995) and logistic regression analyses, this study reveals processes of resource multiplication between respondents' education and both parental education and parental occupational prestige in their effects upon self-rated health. Furthermore, these processes are accentuated at more advanced ages. Additionally, these interactive effects remain significant after controlling for respondent-level total family income and occupational prestige, suggesting mechanisms beyond actualized socioeconomic circumstances. These findings raise concerns regarding less educated older persons coming from less advantaged backgrounds. Accordingly, policies and programs should help equalize social circumstances early in the life course, to produce more salubrious trajectories with advancing age. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Role of Country-Level Availability and Generosity of Healthcare Services, and Old-Age Ageism for Missed Healthcare during the COVID-19 Pandemic Control Measures in Europe
Settels, Jason UL; Leist, Anja UL

in Journal of Aging and Health (2022)

Objectives: The effects of the COVID-19 outbreak on non-COVID-19-related healthcare need further investigation. Methods: Using the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe’s COVID-19 module (2020 ... [more ▼]

Objectives: The effects of the COVID-19 outbreak on non-COVID-19-related healthcare need further investigation. Methods: Using the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe’s COVID-19 module (2020) (N = 57,025), country-level data from the European Social Survey (2008) and OECD (2020), and logistic regressions, this study examines predictors of older Europeans’ forgone, postponed, and denied healthcare during the pandemic. Results: Country-level availability of physicians, healthcare systems’ generosity, and beliefs that older persons burden healthcare systems all increased forgone healthcare. Healthcare system generosity increased postponed and denied healthcare. Greater medical resources decreased denied healthcare. Furthermore, missed healthcare varied by individual-level gender (higher rates among women), age, education, and health. Discussion: This study reveals predictors of missed healthcare during the pandemic. To decrease unintended health consequences of a pandemic, both individual-level determinants, such as gender and health, and contextual-level determinants, such as healthcare systems’ characteristics, should be considered in research and practice. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Health Effects of Workforce Involvement and Transitions for Europeans 50–75 Years of Age: Heterogeneity by Financial Difficulties and Gender
Settels, Jason UL

in Canadian Journal on Aging (2021)

A prominent demographic trend throughout the industrialized world is population aging. Concerns about economic growth and labour force shortages have led many European nations to enact policies aimed at ... [more ▼]

A prominent demographic trend throughout the industrialized world is population aging. Concerns about economic growth and labour force shortages have led many European nations to enact policies aimed at prolonging working life. Understanding how paid work among late-middle-aged and senior adults is associated with health is therefore important. Using a sample of persons who were 50–75 years of age in 2015 from waves six (2015) and seven (2017) of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (n = 38,884), this study shows how a comprehensive set of six workforce involvement/transitions patterns are associated with health. The results show benefits of paid work, especially among respondents having financial difficulties. There is further heterogeneity by gender. The more fragmented employment histories of 50–75-year-old women are associated with stable paid work being of less benefit for addressing financial difficulties and with their health being especially vulnerable to unemployment while they are undergoing financial troubles. [less ▲]

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See detailMultiple vulnerabilities: The effects of neighborhood structural changes upon older residents' mental health and perceptions of the broader community
Settels, Jason UL

Scientific Conference (2021, May 06)

Aims: Neighborhoods’ structural conditions are consequential for their social circumstances and residents’ well-being. Neighborhood effects might be accentuated among older residents because their daily ... [more ▼]

Aims: Neighborhoods’ structural conditions are consequential for their social circumstances and residents’ well-being. Neighborhood effects might be accentuated among older residents because their daily activities and social lives are more confined to their immediate communities. This study examines how changing neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage affects older residents’ depression and stress, as well as perceptions of neighborhood context. Methods: This study employed waves 2 (2010-2011) and 3 (2015-2016) of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project survey (N=2,357) and fixed-effects linear regression models to study these relationships. Results: While rising neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with more depression and stress, it was negatively associated with overall neighborhood social capital and neighborhood social cohesion, and was only associated with lower perceptions of neighborhood safety among respondents who relocated to new neighborhoods. Conclusions: Beyond cross-sectional associations, changing neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with changes in mental health and perceptions of neighborhood social context. [less ▲]

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See detailFinancial Difficulties and Gender as Moderators of How Workforce Involvement and Transitions Affect the Health of Older Europeans
Settels, Jason UL

Poster (2021, May 05)

A prominent demographic trend throughout the industrialized world is population aging. In response to concerns about labor force shortages, many European nations have enacted policies aimed at keeping ... [more ▼]

A prominent demographic trend throughout the industrialized world is population aging. In response to concerns about labor force shortages, many European nations have enacted policies aimed at keeping older persons employed. Understanding how later life paid work is associated with health is thus important. Using an older sample from waves six and seven of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (N = 38,884), this study shows how a set of six workforce involvement/transitions patterns are associated with health. Also studied are whether these effects are moderated by financial difficulties. Later life paid work is found to be beneficial for health, and this benefit is accentuated by financial difficulties. The findings also reveal moderation by gender. Older women’s more fragmented employment histories cause stable paid work to be of less benefit for addressing their financial difficulties. Furthermore, older women are especially vulnerable to unemployment while undergoing financial troubles. [less ▲]

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See detailThe very long arm of wealth: Effects of intergenerational wealth resources on health in the U.S. over the last three decades
Chauvel, Louis UL; Ceron, Francisco UL; Murphy, Emily UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2021)

Health inequalities result from multidimensional socioeconomic inequalities (income, education, wealth, etc.). Given the specific size and greater stability through time of wealth than income, wealth ... [more ▼]

Health inequalities result from multidimensional socioeconomic inequalities (income, education, wealth, etc.). Given the specific size and greater stability through time of wealth than income, wealth might affect health beyond other socioeconomic indicators. An important question is how far the reach of wealth is on one’s health: Does wealth promote health even over generations? Using the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), we consider the effects of intergenerational and intragenerational wealth on age-adjusted self-assessed health (ASAH) across the life course. We find that both parental and personal household wealth strongly affect ASAH net of other socioeconomic measures. Just as social disadvantages have been shown to be inherited between generations, so too are wealth-induced health advantages. Furthermore, the inter- and intra- generational wealth effects on health increase over the life course. This study thus encourages social scientists to pay greater attention to wealth inequalities, despite difficulties in their accurate measurement. [less ▲]

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See detailChanges in Neighborhood-Level Socioeconomic Disadvantage and Older Americans’ Cognitive Functioning
Settels, Jason UL; Leist, Anja UL

in Health and Place (2021)

Background: While associations of neighborhood conditions with cognitive functioning at older ages have been established, few studies have investigated with a dynamic perspective if changing neighborhood ... [more ▼]

Background: While associations of neighborhood conditions with cognitive functioning at older ages have been established, few studies have investigated with a dynamic perspective if changing neighborhood socioeconomic conditions affect older residents’ cognitive declines, and which putative factors mediate this relationship. Method: Using data from waves 2 (2010–2011) and 3 (2015–2016) of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) survey (n = 1837), ordinary least squares regressions and mediation analyses were conducted, adjusting for multiple confounders and testing eight putative mediators. Results: Worsening neighborhood socioeconomic circumstances were associated with cognitive declines. Changes in depressive symptoms, sizes of close social networks, and physical activity substantially mediated this relationship. Discussion: While 18.10% of the total effect occurred through these mechanisms, further pathways may work through contextual- and individual-level variables not assessed in the NSHAP. [less ▲]

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See detailCompound Disadvantage between Economic Declines at the City and Neighborhood Levels for Older Americans’ Depressive Symptoms
Settels, Jason UL

in City and Community (2021)

American cities and neighborhoods vary in their residents’ typical levels of mental health. Despite scholarship emphasizing that we cannot thoroughly understand city and neighborhood problems without ... [more ▼]

American cities and neighborhoods vary in their residents’ typical levels of mental health. Despite scholarship emphasizing that we cannot thoroughly understand city and neighborhood problems without investigating how they are intertwined, limited research examines how city and neighborhood effects interact as they impact health. I investigate these interactions through a study of the effects of the Great recession of 2007–2009. using Waves 1 (2005–2006) and 2 (2010–2011) of the national Social Life, Health, and Aging Project survey (N = 1,341) and in accordance with the compound disadvantage model, I find through fixed-effects linear regression models that city- and neighborhood-level economic declines combine multiplicatively as they impact older Americans’ depressive symptoms. I furthermore find that this effect is only partly based on personal socioeconomic changes, suggesting contextual channels of effect. My results show that we cannot fully understand the effects of city-level changes without also considering neighborhood-level changes. [less ▲]

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See detailMultiple Vulnerabilities: The Effects of Neighborhood Structural Changes upon Older Residents’ Mental Health and Perceptions of the Broader Community
Settels, Jason UL

in Journal of Community Psychology (2020)

Neighborhoods' structural conditions are consequential for their social circumstances and residents' well‐being. Neighborhood effects might be accentuated among older residents because their daily ... [more ▼]

Neighborhoods' structural conditions are consequential for their social circumstances and residents' well‐being. Neighborhood effects might be accentuated among older residents because their daily activities and social lives are more confined to their immediate communities. This study examines how changing neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage affects older residents' depression and stress, as well as perceptions of neighborhood context. This study employed waves 2 (2010–2011) and 3 (2015–2016) of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project survey (N= 2357) and fixed‐effects linear regression models to study these relationships. While rising neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with more depression and stress, it was negatively associated with overall neighborhood social capital and neighborhood social cohesion, and was only associated with lower perceptions of neighborhood safety among respondents who relocated to new neighborhoods. Beyond cross‐sectional associations, changing neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with changes in mental health and perceptions of neighborhood social context. [less ▲]

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See detailChanges in Neighborhood-Level Concentrated Disadvantage and Social Networks Among Older Americans
Settels, Jason UL

in Journal of Applied Gerontology (2020)

Close social networks provide older persons with resources, including social support, that maintain their well-being. While scholarship shows how networks change over time, a dearth of research ... [more ▼]

Close social networks provide older persons with resources, including social support, that maintain their well-being. While scholarship shows how networks change over time, a dearth of research investigates changing social contexts as causes of network dynamics. Using the first two waves of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project survey (N = 1,776), this study shows how rising neighborhood-level concentrated disadvantage through the Great Recession of 2007–2009 was associated with smaller close networks, largely due to fewer new close ties gained, among older Americans. Worsening neighborhood circumstances pose obstacles to older residents’ acquisition of new close ties, including heightened fear, lower generalized trust, stress and depression, and declines in local institutions that attract both residents and nonresidents. [less ▲]

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See detailChanges in City-Level Foreclosure Rates and Home Prices through the Great Recession and Depressive Symptoms among Older Americans
Settels, Jason UL

in Society and Mental Health (2020)

The changing economic fortunes of cities influence mental health. However, the mechanisms through which this occurs are underexplored. I address this gap by investigating the Great Recession of 2007-2009 ... [more ▼]

The changing economic fortunes of cities influence mental health. However, the mechanisms through which this occurs are underexplored. I address this gap by investigating the Great Recession of 2007-2009. Using the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project survey (N = 1,341), I study whether rises in cities’ home foreclosure rates and declines in median home prices through the Great Recession increase older persons’ depressive symptoms. I also study possible mediation through household assets declines. I find that increases in cities’ home foreclosure rates and declines in median home prices increase depressive symptoms beyond the effects of personal financial losses. Results show no evidence of mediation through asset loses, suggesting effects through other channels. Supplementary analyses reveal less direct links between changes in city-level unemployment rates and median household incomes and changes in depressive symptoms. [less ▲]

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See detailAs Goes the City? Older Americans’ Home Upkeep in the Aftermath of the Great Recession
Schafer, Markus; Settels, Jason UL; Upenieks, Laura

in Social Problems (2019)

The private home is a crucial site in the aging process, yet the upkeep of this physical space often poses a challenge for community-dwelling older adults. Previous efforts to explain variation in ... [more ▼]

The private home is a crucial site in the aging process, yet the upkeep of this physical space often poses a challenge for community-dwelling older adults. Previous efforts to explain variation in disorderly household conditions have relied on individual-level characteristics, but ecological perspectives propose that home environments are inescapably nested within the dynamic socioeconomic circumstances of surrounding spatial contexts, such as the metro area. We address this ecological embeddedness in the context of the Great Recession, an event in which some U.S. cities saw pronounced and persistent declines across multiple economic indicators while other areas rebounded more rapidly. Panel data (2005–6 and 2010–11) from a national survey of older adults were linked to interviewer home evaluations and city-level economic data. Results from fixed-effects regression support the hypothesis that older adults dwelling in struggling cities experienced an uptick in disorderly household conditions. Findings emphasize the importance of city-specificity when probing effects of a downturn. Observing changes in home upkeep also underscores the myriad ways in which a city’s most vulnerable residents— older adults, in particular—are affected by its economic fortunes. [less ▲]

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See detailGetting the Hours You Want in the Preretirement Years: Work Hour Preferences and Mismatch Among Older Canadian Workers
Silver, Michelle; Settels, Jason UL; Schafer, Markus et al

in Work, Aging and Retirement (2018)

Expectations regarding the work hours of older workers have changed over time. This article examines Canadian workers in their pre-retirement years to identify patterns in work hour preferences by ... [more ▼]

Expectations regarding the work hours of older workers have changed over time. This article examines Canadian workers in their pre-retirement years to identify patterns in work hour preferences by gender—and whether work hour mismatch predicts late-stage workforce transitions. Findings from a national sample of Canadian workers show that slightly over half of all respondents were content with the number of hours they worked, but that 36% of the sample expressed a preference to work fewer hours and more than 8% expressed a preference to work more hours. Among men and women there were remarkable similarities in the factors that predicted a mismatch between respondents’ preferred and actual hours worked. While highlighting heterogeneity in the work hour preferences of Canadian workers in the years leading up to traditional retirement age, findings illustrate how mismatches between workers’ preferred and actual work hours predict later career workforce transitions. Findings also emphasize the importance of good relations with coworkers and supervisor support as factors that can enhance preferences to continue working at later career stages. Our findings also support claims that employers ought to be encouraged to focus on later career transitions and to find opportunities to enhance the fit between the number of hours required to meet work demands with individuals’ capabilities and interests. [less ▲]

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See detailWorkforce Transitions and Social Connectedness Among Older Adults in the United States
Settels, Jason UL; Schafer, Markus

in Work, Aging and Retirement (2018)

As the industrialized world faces a rapidly aging population, it has become increasingly important to understand the factors that influence the well-being of older persons. In this regard, many scholars ... [more ▼]

As the industrialized world faces a rapidly aging population, it has become increasingly important to understand the factors that influence the well-being of older persons. In this regard, many scholars have emphasized the importance of social connectedness. Various theories seek to explain social connectedness in later life, particularly as it applies to workforce involvement. Among those theories, we engage the theories of activity-substitution and of complementarity, and we seek to discover which provides a better account of the social and work lives of older Americans. We do so through an analysis of the first 2 waves (Wave 1: 2005–2006, Wave 2: 2010–2011) of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP). Workforce transitions over time are assessed for their impact on 3 social connectedness outcomes: expansiveness of close networks, overall friendship network, and social participation. Results provide strong support for the theory of activity-substitution. Furthermore, our results show that those re-entering paid work after some time out of the workforce show the largest changes in social connectedness. The present study reinforces the importance of studying social connectedness as a multidimensional concept and draws attention to the increasing variability in workforce participation patterns among older persons. [less ▲]

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See detailFor everything a season? A month-by-month analysis of social network resources in later life
Upenieks, Laura; Settels, Jason UL; Schafer, Markus

in Social Science Research (2017)

It is widely acknowledged that informal social ties provide older persons with many resources that serve to protect and improve their levels of health and well-being. Most studies on this topic, however ... [more ▼]

It is widely acknowledged that informal social ties provide older persons with many resources that serve to protect and improve their levels of health and well-being. Most studies on this topic, however, ignore the month or season of the year during which data was accumulated. This study proposes two hypotheses to explain seniors' social network resources over the calendar year: the “fluctuation hypothesis”, which proposes that seasonal variation, in the form of weather fluctuations, institutional calendars, and holidays, might influence the social lives and resources of older persons, and the “network stability” perspective, which, informed by tenets of convoy theory and socioemotional selectivity theory, emphasizes the increasing importance of close network ties as individuals age and the stability of these ties. Using two waves (2005e2006 and 2010e2011) of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP), a nationally representative sample of community-dwelling older adults aged 57e85 in the United States, we examine a diverse set of nine social connectedness outcomes. Results, overall, support the network stability perspective, as the only social connectedness outcome found to significantly vary by month of year was average closeness with network members. We conclude by suggesting some methodological considerations for survey research and by noting how these findings complement the growing literature on inter-year fluctuation in social networks and social support. Changes in older adults’ networks, while frequently observable over the course of years, do not seem to be seasonally patterned. [less ▲]

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