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See detailDaily mindfulness, motivational conflict, and stress in university students: An experience-sampling study
Senker, Kerstin; Fries, Stefan; Grund, Axel UL

Speeches/Talks (2021)

University students have a lot of freedom in organizing their everyday lives, but often also feel stressed and torn between action opportunities. Mindfulness entails the self-regulation of attention on ... [more ▼]

University students have a lot of freedom in organizing their everyday lives, but often also feel stressed and torn between action opportunities. Mindfulness entails the self-regulation of attention on immediate experience and an open and non-judging attitude towards these mental experiences. It is positively related to well-being and to intrapsychic congruence. The aim of the present work is to examine the relationship of daily mindfulness, motivational conflict, and perceived stress in the everyday life of university students. During a week of smartphone-based experience-sampling, 108 university students were asked five times daily about their momentary mindfulness and whether they experience motivational conflicts. Additionally, we assessed perceived stress each evening. The relationship between daily mindfulness, motivational conflict, and perceived stress was analyzed on the daily level with multi-level analyses. Both aggregated daily conflict (i.e., feeling that one should be doing something else) and mindfulness (i.e., being non-judgmental) yielded an effect on perceived stress, even when controlling for between-person differences in study load, for example. Findings underline the relevance of mindfulness for perceived stress in academic contexts and thereby also show an approach to positively influence well-being in university students in the future. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Comprehensive Mindfulness Experience: A Typological Approach to the Potential Benefits of Mindfulness for Dealing with Motivational Conflicts
Grund, Axel UL; Senker, Kerstin; Dietrich, Julia et al

in Motivation Science (2021)

We wanted to address two critical limitations of research on mindfulness and motivational conflict, by (a) distinguishing between conflict experiences and conflict reactivity and (b) by applying a ... [more ▼]

We wanted to address two critical limitations of research on mindfulness and motivational conflict, by (a) distinguishing between conflict experiences and conflict reactivity and (b) by applying a typological approach, exploring natural combinations of two core qualities of (state) mindfulness: present moment awareness and a nonjudgmental stance. Using an experience-sampling (ES) design (N = 107 on the personal and 3862 at the observational level) with baseline and posttest measures of general affective wellbeing, we found that between-person differences in everyday conflict reactivity (i.e., perseverative and self-evaluative reactions toward conflict experiences) but not in conflict experiences per se (i.e., feeling that one wants to or should do something else) predicted impaired affective well-being after the ES period. Furthermore, multilevel latent profile analysis showed that momentary conflict reactivity was lowest when participants reported to be both momentarily aware and nonjudgmental, mirroring the comprehensive mindfulness experience. These effects existed while controlling for baseline and accompanying affect as well as for conflict intensity, strengthening the idea that motivational conflict itself is not a critical instance of self-regulation failure and that being mindful may contribute to remain functionally efficient and psychological well-adjusted. [less ▲]

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See detailMindfulness and Academic Emotions: A Field Study During a Lecture
Senker, Kerstin; Dietrich, Julia; Fries, Stefan et al

in Learning and Individual Differences (2021)

The aim of the present study was to examine whether mindfulness and academic emotions are beneficially related in specific learning situations. For that purpose, we conducted a field study during two ... [more ▼]

The aim of the present study was to examine whether mindfulness and academic emotions are beneficially related in specific learning situations. For that purpose, we conducted a field study during two lecture sessions in which we measured momentary mindfulness and academic emotions of N = 105 university students repeatedly, resulting in N = 551 measurements. As expected, multilevel analyses indicated that students who were more mindful during the lecture felt more positive and less negative activating emotions, better valence, and were more optimistic about an upcoming exam. In contrast to our hypotheses, trait mindfulness was not found to be related to current academic emotions. Multilevel mediation analyses point towards an indirect effect of trait mindfulness via momentary mindfulness during the lecture sessions. These findings suggest that mindfulness is of high relevance to academic emotions which in turn are important for learning, achievement, and well-being. [less ▲]

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See detailMindfulness in everyday life: Between- and within-person relationships to motivational conflicts
Senker, Kerstin; Fries, Stefan; Grund, Axel UL

in Current Psychology (2020)

Mindfulness has shown beneficial relationships with well-being and self-regulation. We aim to improve the understanding of the effects of between- and within-person differences in mindfulness when dealing ... [more ▼]

Mindfulness has shown beneficial relationships with well-being and self-regulation. We aim to improve the understanding of the effects of between- and within-person differences in mindfulness when dealing with situations of motivational conflict. For this purpose, we conducted an experience sampling study with 56 university students who replied to a total of N = 1889 short questionnaires, which they received via their smartphones over a period of eight consecutive days. In addition to a state mindfulness questionnaire with the facets presence and non-judgment (focusing attention on the experience of the current action and a momentary non-judgmental stance towards these, respectively), the participants received questions about their current affective well-being and perceived intensity of want or should conflict experiences. Multi-level analyses revealed that want conflicts were predicted by both state mindfulness facets, even after momentary affect was controlled. In addition, to be non-judgmental (as a trait), and having momentary presence (as a state), related to lower intensity of should conflicts. The results suggest that being mindful might be a particularly beneficial way of dealing with daily motivational conflicts, which is an essential and frequent task of self-regulation. [less ▲]

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See detailBetween „want“ and „should“. The relationship between motivational conflicts, mindfulness, and stress in everyday life at the university
Senker, Kerstin; Fries, Stefan; Grund, Axel UL

Speeches/Talks (2019)

Das Thema individuelle Förderung ist für den Unterricht aller Schularten und Jahrgangsstufen aktuell so wichtig wie kaum ein anderes. Um dem Anspruch einer inklusiven Pädagogik gerecht zu werden, gilt es ... [more ▼]

Das Thema individuelle Förderung ist für den Unterricht aller Schularten und Jahrgangsstufen aktuell so wichtig wie kaum ein anderes. Um dem Anspruch einer inklusiven Pädagogik gerecht zu werden, gilt es unterschiedliche Ausgangssituationen von SchülerInnen zu berücksichtigen. Im Sinne eines weiten Verständnisses von Inklusion, als „Education for all, and especially for some“, liegt unser Fokus auf der vulnerablen Gruppe der leistungsschwachen SchülerInnen, welche sich dadurch auszeichnen, dass sie dem Fachunterricht nicht (mehr) folgen können und langfristig Minderleistungen erbringen. Diese SchülerInnen haben oft gemeinsam, dass ihre gering ausgeprägten fachlichen Kompetenzen mit kontinuierlichen Misserfolgen und dem seltenen Erleben der eigenen Fähigkeiten einhergehen. Dies mündet häufig in einer niedrigen Selbstwirksamkeitsüberzeugung und einem dysfunktionalen Selbstkonzept. Ein vielversprechender Ansatzpunkt, um diesen Mechanismen entgegenzuwirken, ist ein Fachunterricht, der neben individuellem fachlichem Lernen auch eine Förderung von Selbstwirksamkeit integriert. Vor diesem Hintergrund haben wir an der Universität Bielefeld im Rahmen des BMBF-geförderten Projekts Biprofessional eine Veranstaltung konzipiert und evaluiert, in der Mathematiklehramtsstudierende in ihren professionellen Kompetenzen der individuellen mathematischen Diagnose und Förderung sowie in ihren Kompetenzen der Selbstwirksamkeitssteigerung geschult werden. Diese Fähigkeiten wenden Sie im Rahmen eines Förderpraktikums an. Inhaltlich setzt die Veranstaltung auf die erwiesenermaßen selbstwirksamkeitsförderliche Wirkung regelmäßiger Erfolge beim Lernen. Dazu werden Methoden aus der Psychologie und Mathematikdidaktik, wie beispielsweise Diagnostik, Zielsetzung und Feedback zu einem Modell selbstwirksamkeits- und kompetenzförderlicher individueller mathematischer Förderung integriert. Im Vortrag werden die Befunde aus den im Kontext der Veranstaltungsevaluation erhobenen Schülerdaten referiert. Diese unterstützen unter anderem bisherige Befunde, dass SchülerInnen mit mathematischem Förderbedarf im Vergleich zu SchülerInnen im Klassenunterricht ungünstigere Ausprägungen in den relevanten Konstrukten (mathematikbezogene Selbstwirksamkeit, mathematisches Selbstkonzept und Anstrengungs- Erfolgsüberzeugungen) haben. Darüber hinaus berichten SchülerInnen, die an einer Förderung durch geschulte Studierende teilgenommen haben, häufiger von erlebten Erfolgen. [less ▲]

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See detailMotivational foundations of self-control and mindfulness and their role in study-leisure conflicts
Grund, Axel UL; Senker, Kerstin

in LEARNING AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES (2018), 68

In the present paper, we compared two self-regulatory capacities, trait self-control and mindfulness, with respect to their potential to help students deal with motivational conflicts between studying and ... [more ▼]

In the present paper, we compared two self-regulatory capacities, trait self-control and mindfulness, with respect to their potential to help students deal with motivational conflicts between studying and leisure time, by either promoting a selective, normatively oriented versus open-minded, non-judgmental stance toward conflicting motivations. We also investigated the role of value orientations and need satisfaction is this regard. Study 1 (N = 196) initially showed that trait self-control, but not trait mindfulness, goes along with a preference for achievement-oriented over well-being-oriented values, which might explain the academic benefits associated with self-control. Study 2 (N = 306) replicated the link between value orientations and trait self-control. In line with this motivational pattern, we found context-specific effects for self-control in study leisure conflict scenarios, consolidating academic engagement, but not leisure engagement. Consolidating effects for trait mindfulness were context-transcending and independent from value orientations. Finally, in Study 3 (N = 160), we found evidence that the total effects of trait self-control and mindfulness are differentially mediated via either activity preferences (self-control) or need satisfaction (mindfulness). We discuss motivational interpretations for self-control and mindfulness with respect to the daily juggle between students' academic and leisure-related strivings. [less ▲]

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