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See detailSocietal Emotional Environments and Cross-Cultural Differences in Life Satisfaction: A Forty-Nine Country Study
Krys, Kuba; Yeung, June; Capaldi, Colin et al

in Journal of Positive Psychology (in press)

In this paper, we introduce the concept of ‘societal emotional environment’: the emotional climate of a society (operationalized as the degree to which positive and negative emotions are expressed in a ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we introduce the concept of ‘societal emotional environment’: the emotional climate of a society (operationalized as the degree to which positive and negative emotions are expressed in a society). Using data collected from 12,888 participants across 49 countries, we show how societal emotional environments vary across countries and cultural clusters, and we consider the potential importance of these differences for well-being. Multilevel analyses supported a ‘double-edged sword’ model of negative emotion expression, where expression of negative emotions predicted higher life satisfaction for the expresser but lower life satisfaction for society. In contrast, partial support was found for higher societal life satisfaction in positive societal emotional environments. Our study highlights the potential utility and importance of distinguishing between positive and negative emotion expression, and adopting both individual and societal perspectives in well-being research. Individual pathways to happiness may not necessarily promote the happiness of others. [less ▲]

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See detailSymposium: Immigrants‘ Acculturation across the Lifespan
Schwarz, Beate; Maehler, Debora; Murdock, Elke UL et al

Scientific Conference (2021, July 28)

Immigrants’ acculturation is a bi-linear process that refer to the orientation towards the host and the ethnic culture. Additionally, acculturation is a multidimensional construct that comprises changes ... [more ▼]

Immigrants’ acculturation is a bi-linear process that refer to the orientation towards the host and the ethnic culture. Additionally, acculturation is a multidimensional construct that comprises changes with respect to practices and behaviors, values and norms, and identity and identification (Schwartz, Unger, Zamboanga, & Szapocznik, 2010). From a developmental perspective, acculturation of first and second-generation immigrants differ remarkably because usually second generation immigrants have more opportunities to interact with representatives of the host culture in a phase of life with high plasticity (Sam & Oppedal, 2003). The symposium wants to gain insight into the complex acculturation processes with four studies that referred to different dimensions of acculturation and including age groups from adolescence to old age. The studies used quantitative and qualitative analyses and variable- as well as person-centered approaches. Starting with adolescence, Maehler provides a meta-analysis on factors that are related to identification with the ethnic and mainstream culture. Murdock and Gales also refer to the identity dimension of acculturation, here among young adults in Germany. With a qualitative approach they identified the role of the parents and the intergenerational relationships for the way how these young adults integrate both identities. In the third study with middle-aged second- generation immigrants in Switzerland, again intergenerational relationships are in the focus. Schwarz and Pfammatter analyzed the association of intergenerational relationships with orientations toward ethnic and mainstream culture. In the last study, Albert and colleagues used a person-centered approach. They investigated the patterns of sense of belonging on a local and national level of older immigrants in Luxembourg and the associations with expectations to stay and well-being. All four studies provide specific insight into the acculturation mechanism that are relevant in different periods of the lifespan. [less ▲]

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See detailSymposium: Looking back or forward? The cultural identity construction of immigrant youth.
Murdock, Elke UL; Albert, Isabelle UL; Maehler, Debora et al

Scientific Conference (2021, June 03)

This symposium pursues cultural identity formation (in terms of identifications with country of origin and country of residence) of immigrant youth using different methods. We will start with a literature ... [more ▼]

This symposium pursues cultural identity formation (in terms of identifications with country of origin and country of residence) of immigrant youth using different methods. We will start with a literature review on previous findings on cultural identification of first-generation immigrant youth worldwide, zoom in closer by looking on identity transmission processes between generations and finishing off with individual-level findings on identity construction by second-generation immigrants. First, results from a meta-analysis will be presented which investigated core factors affecting identity development among first-generation youth. The meta-analysis summarized which individual and context related factors predict cultural identity formation. The second study, employing a quantitative design, focuses on the cultural identity processes and dynamics of change between first-generation immigrant parents and their children (second generation) in a heterogeneous European country context - Luxemburg. The third study employs a qualitative design focusing on identity negotiation processes of young second generation immigrants growing up in Germany. Young Tamils were interviewed, exploring the cultural navigation processes in-depth. Findings across the studies and approaches indicate moderate to strong identifications with both, the country of origin and country of residence. The drivers for each outcome will be discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailPersonal life satisfaction as a measure of societal happiness is an individualistic presumption: Evidence from fifty countries
Krys, Kuba; Park, Joonha; Kocimska-Zych, Agata et al

in Journal of Happiness Studies (2021), 22

Numerous studies document that societal happiness is correlated with individualism, but the nature of this phenomenon remains understudied. In the current paper, we address this gap and test the reasoning ... [more ▼]

Numerous studies document that societal happiness is correlated with individualism, but the nature of this phenomenon remains understudied. In the current paper, we address this gap and test the reasoning that individualism correlates with societal happiness because the most common measure of societal happiness (i.e., country-level aggregates of personal life satisfaction) is individualism-themed. With the data collected from 13,009 participants across fifty countries, we compare associations of four types of happiness (out of which three are more collectivism-themed than personal life satisfaction) with two different measures of individualism. We replicated previous findings by demonstrating that societal happiness measured as country-level aggregate of personal life satisfaction is correlated with individualism. Importantly though, we also found that the country-level aggregates of the collectivism-themed measures of happiness do not tend to be significantly correlated with individualism. Implications for happiness studies and for policy makers are signaled. [less ▲]

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See detailFamiliale Generationsbeziehungen (international)
Albert, Isabelle UL; Schwarz, Beate; Mayer, Boris et al

in Ecarius, Jutta; Schierbaum, Anja (Eds.) Handbuch Familie: Bildung, Erziehung und sozialpädagogische Arbeitsfelder (2020)

Der vorliegende Beitrag beschäftigt sich mit intergenerationalen Familienbeziehungen im Kulturvergleich. Nach einer Einführung in grundlegende theoretische Modelle und Forschungstraditionen werden im ... [more ▼]

Der vorliegende Beitrag beschäftigt sich mit intergenerationalen Familienbeziehungen im Kulturvergleich. Nach einer Einführung in grundlegende theoretische Modelle und Forschungstraditionen werden im zweiten Teil Forschungsprojekte und -ergebnisse zur Ausgestaltung von Generationsbeziehungen in verschiedenen kulturellen Kontexten und im Zusammenhang mit Migration aufgezeigt sowie die Bedeutung von gesellschaftlichen Rahmenbedingungen für die Ausgestaltung von familiären Generationsbeziehungen dargelegt. [less ▲]

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See detailIntergenerational Family Solidarity, Well-Being and Health
Albert, Isabelle UL; Schwarz, Beate

Scientific Conference (2018, April 19)

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See detailIntergenerational support and life satisfaction: a comparison of Chinese, Indonesian, and German elderly mothers.
Schwarz, Beate; Albert, Isabelle UL; Trommsdorff, Gisela et al

in Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology (2010), 41(5-6), 706-722

The exchange of support between generations is a fundamental feature of intergenerational relationships. Although most studies have concentrated on the impact of social support on the receiver, effects on ... [more ▼]

The exchange of support between generations is a fundamental feature of intergenerational relationships. Although most studies have concentrated on the impact of social support on the receiver, effects on subjective well-being of the provider of support have been studied less often. Given cultural differences in the norms and values of intergenerational relationships, the present study compared samples from rural and urban China, Indonesia, and Germany. The results showed that in the different cultural contexts elderly mothers’ well-being was differently related to help that they provided to their adult daughters. The results are discussed from a culture-informed perspective on intergenerational relationships. [less ▲]

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