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See detailHow Germany achieved a record share of renewables during the COVID-19 pandemic while relying on the European interconnected power network
Halbrügge, Stephanie; Buhl, Hans Ulrich; Fridgen, Gilbert UL et al

in Energy (2022)

In 2020, Germany reached a maximum share of 50.5% intermittent renewables in electricity generation. Such a high share results in an increasing need for flexibility measures such as international ... [more ▼]

In 2020, Germany reached a maximum share of 50.5% intermittent renewables in electricity generation. Such a high share results in an increasing need for flexibility measures such as international transmission flexibility, i.e., electricity imports and exports. In fact, during the COVID-19 pandemic, Germany changed from a former electricity net exporter to a net importer. This paper, therefore, analyzes what we can learn from the resulting development of German electricity imports as a flexibility measure from a market, environmental, and network perspective. We analyze data on electricity imports/exports, generation, prices, and interconnection capacities of 38 bidding zones, respectively 11 countries within the ENTSO-E. In particular, we formulate three hypotheses to partition our overarching research question. Our results reveal that from a market perspective, Germany's increased need for transmission flexibility did not generally result in increased prices for German electricity imports. Also, from an environmental perspective, Germany increasingly relied on electricity imports from countries that exhibited a lower share of renewables. Finally, during the COVID-19 pandemic some of Germany's interconnection capacities to its neighboring countries exhibited a higher utilization. In view of our results, German policymakers may reflect on decarbonization policies considering a holistic European perspective. [less ▲]

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See detailEnergieflexibilitätsdatenmodell der Energiesynchronisationsplattform: Teil der Reihe Diskussionspapiere V4 Konzept der Energiesynchronisationsplattform
Buhl, Hans Ulrich; Duda, Sebastian; Schott, Paul et al

Report (2021)

The energy flexibility data model developed within the framework of SynErgie is used for the generic and standardised description and modelling of energy flexibility. The data model enables (partially ... [more ▼]

The energy flexibility data model developed within the framework of SynErgie is used for the generic and standardised description and modelling of energy flexibility. The data model enables (partially) automated information technology processing of a wide variety of flexibility. The aim is to develop a comprehensive data model to map flexibility in a flexibility space and concrete flexibility measures. The aim is not to create a completely realistic representation of a flexibility. The focus is on mapping technically and energetically relevant information in a granularity that enables the communication of flexibility between industrial companies and energy markets. [less ▲]

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See detailElectricity Spot Market Design 2030-2050
Novirdoust, Amir Ashour; Bichler, Martin; Bojung, Caroline UL et al

Report (2021)

Driven by the climate conference in Paris in December 2015 countries worldwide are confronted with the question of how to shape their power system and how to establish alternative technologies to reduce ... [more ▼]

Driven by the climate conference in Paris in December 2015 countries worldwide are confronted with the question of how to shape their power system and how to establish alternative technologies to reduce harmful CO2 emissions. The German government plans that even before the year 2050, all electricity generated and consumed in Germany should be greenhouse gas neutral [1]. To successfully integrate renewable energies, a future energy system must be able to handle the intermittent nature of renewable energy sources such as wind and solar. One important means to address such electricity production variability is demand-side flexibility. Here, industry plays a major role in responding to variable electricity supply with adequate flexibility. This is where the Kopernikus project SynErgie comes in with more than 80 project partners from academia, industry, governmental, and non-governmental organizations as well as energy suppliers and network operators. The Kopernikus project SynErgie investigates how to best leverage demand-side flexibility in the German industry. The current electricity market design in Germany is not well suited to deal with increasing levels of re- newable energy, and it does not embrace demand-side flexibility. Almost 6 GW of curtailed power in 2019 provide evidence that changes are needed with respect to the rules governing electricity markets. These rules were designed at a time when electricity generation was concentrated on a few large and dispatchable conventional power plants and demand was considered inelastic. The SynErgie Cluster IV investigates how a future-proof electricity market design should be organized. The corresponding Work Package IV.3.1 more specifically deals with analyzing and designing allocation and pricing rules on electricity spot markets. The resulting design must be well suited to accommodate demand-side flexibility and address the intermittent nature of important renewable energy sources. This whitepaper is the result of a fruitful collaboration among the partners involved in SynErgie Cluster IV which include Germany’s leading research organizations and practitioners in the field. The collaboration led to an expert workshop in October 2020 with participation from a number of international energy market experts such as Mette Bjørndal (NHH), Endre Bjørndal (NHH), Peter Cramton (University of Maryland and University of Cologne), and Raphael Heffron (University of Dundee). The whitepaper details the key recommendations from this workshop. In particular, the whitepaper recommends a move to a locational, marginal price-based system together with new bidding formats allowing to better express flexibility. We argue in favor of a one-step introduction of locational, marginal prices instead of repeatedly splitting existing zones. Frequent zone splitting involves recurring political debates as well as short- and long-run instabilities affecting the basis for financial con- tracts, for example. Importantly, the definition of stable prize zones is very challenging with increasing levels of distributed and renewable energy sources. The recommendation is the outcome of an intense debate about advantages and downsides of different policy alternatives. However, such a transition to locational, marginal prices is not without challenges, and it is a call to arms for the research community, policymak- ers, and practitioners to develop concepts on how to best facilitate the transition and ensure a reliable and efficient electricity market of the future. We’d like to thank all the project partners and are grateful for the financial support from the Federal Ministry of Education and Research as well as the Project Management Jülich. Hans Ulrich Buhl (Cluster Lead) Martin Bichler (Work Package Lead) [less ▲]

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See detailHow did the German and other European electricity systems react to the COVID-19 pandemic?
Halbrügge, Stephanie; Schott, Paul; Weibelzahl, Martin et al

in Applied Energy (2021), 285

The first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic led to decreases in electricity demand and a rising share of Renewable Energy Sources in various countries. In Germany, the average proportion of net electricity ... [more ▼]

The first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic led to decreases in electricity demand and a rising share of Renewable Energy Sources in various countries. In Germany, the average proportion of net electricity generation via Renewable Energy Sources rose above 55% in the first half of 2020, as compared to 47% for the same period in 2019. Given these altered circumstances, in this paper we analyze how the German and other European electricity systems behaved during the COVID-19 pandemic. We use data visualization and descriptive statistics to evaluate common figures for electricity systems and markets, comparing developments during the COVID-19 pandemic with those of previous years. Our evaluation reveals noticeable changes in electricity consumption, generation, prices, and imports/exports. However, concerning grid stability and ancillary services, we do not observe any irregularities. Discussing the role of various flexibility options during the COVID-19 pandemic, a relatively higher grid capacity resulting from a decreased electricity consumption, in particular, may have contributed to grid stability. [less ▲]

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See detailStrukturierte Analyse von Nachfrageflexibilität im Stromsystem und Ableitung eines generischen Geschäftsmodells für (stromintensive) Unternehmen
Haupt, Leon; Körner, Marc-Fabian; Schoepf, Michael UL et al

in Zeitschrift für Energiewirtschaft (2020)

The expansion of renewable energy requires appropriate flexibility in the electricity system in order to maintain the balance between electricity generation and consumption at all times. The industrial ... [more ▼]

The expansion of renewable energy requires appropriate flexibility in the electricity system in order to maintain the balance between electricity generation and consumption at all times. The industrial sector plays a central role for a successful energy transition due to the power-intensive processes and the resulting high electricity demand. Industrial demand response may be a cost-effective alternative to other flexibility options. At the same time, companies can reduce electricity procurement costs by providing demand response. Nevertheless, due to a complex decision-making environment and a lack of planning security, only a few companies are currently exploiting the existing potential. To reach the goals of the energy transition, the potential used must still be raised significantly, i.e., companies must align their demand for electricity more closely to the existing supply of electricity. This article supports companies in this transformation process by illustrating dimensions and characteristics of a business model for demand response. Through a literature study and subsequent expert workshops, a generic business model for companies is derived that provides transparency regarding the necessary activities and resources for enabling and implementing demand response. The results were developed using the established Business Model Canvas. This supports companies that have not yet started to use demand response in their business model development and thus reduces barriers to entry. The results presented contribute to an increase in the demand response potential of the industry. [less ▲]

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See detailIndustrielle Energieflexibilität im Energiesystem
Buhl, Hans Ulrich; Fridgen, Gilbert UL; Dufter, Christa et al

in Energieflexibilität in der deutschen Industrie : Ergebnisse aus dem Kopernikus-Projekt - Synchronisierte und energieadaptive Produktionstechnik zur flexiblen Ausrichtung von Industrieprozessen auf eine fluktuierende Energieversorgung (SynErgie) (2019)

Energy from renewable resources is not always readily available. Depending on the season and the weather, the power made available by solar parks or wind turbines varies, for example. Due to the ... [more ▼]

Energy from renewable resources is not always readily available. Depending on the season and the weather, the power made available by solar parks or wind turbines varies, for example. Due to the continuous expansion of renewable energies, the volatility in the energy system will become more and more pronounced in the future. Preparing and adapting the industry to the changing supply structures is a major challenge for the next few decades. In the future, companies must be able to design their processes and operational organization in such a way that energy consumption can at least partially adapt flexibly to the volatile energy supply. In addition to developing technologies, Concepts and measures to make industrial processes more energetic, a second focus of future work is the development of a consistent IT infrastructure with which companies and energy providers can provide and exchange information from the production machine to the energy markets in the future. This leads to a paradigm shift in the operation of industrial processes - away from continuous and purely demand-driven energy consumption towards the adaptable, energy-flexible operation of industrial plants. This reference work presents the most important results of the research in the context of the Kopernikus project Synergy and clarifies trend-setting findings for further developments in the still young field of industrial energy flexibility. [less ▲]

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See detailIndustrie 4.0 als Befähiger für Energieflexibilität
Bauernhansl, Thomas; Bauer, Dennis; Abele, Eberhard et al

in Energieflexibilität in der deutschen Industrie : Ergebnisse aus dem Kopernikus-Projekt - Synchronisierte und energieadaptive Produktionstechnik zur flexiblen Ausrichtung von Industrieprozessen auf eine fluktuierende Energieversorgung (SynErgie) (2019)

Energy from renewable resources is not always readily available. Depending on the season and the weather, the power made available by solar parks or wind turbines varies, for example. Due to the ... [more ▼]

Energy from renewable resources is not always readily available. Depending on the season and the weather, the power made available by solar parks or wind turbines varies, for example. Due to the continuous expansion of renewable energies, the volatility in the energy system will become more and more pronounced in the future. Preparing and adapting the industry to the changing supply structures is a major challenge for the next few decades. In the future, companies must be able to design their processes and operational organization in such a way that energy consumption can at least partially adapt flexibly to the volatile energy supply. In addition to developing technologies, Concepts and measures to make industrial processes more energetic, a second focus of future work is the development of a consistent IT infrastructure with which companies and energy providers can provide and exchange information from the production machine to the energy markets in the future. This leads to a paradigm shift in the operation of industrial processes - away from continuous and purely demand-driven energy consumption towards the adaptable, energy-flexible operation of industrial plants. This reference work presents the most important results of the research in the context of the Kopernikus project Synergy and clarifies trend-setting findings for further developments in the still young field of industrial energy flexibility. [less ▲]

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See detailInitial conditions for the marketing of demand flexibility: status quo analysis and meta study. 2 version
Buhl, Hans Ulrich; Fridgen, Gilbert UL; rner, Marc-Fabian K. O et al

Report (2019)

The present work is part of the research project "Synchronized and energy-adaptive production technology for the flexible alignment of industrial processes to a fluctuating energy supply (SynErgie ... [more ▼]

The present work is part of the research project "Synchronized and energy-adaptive production technology for the flexible alignment of industrial processes to a fluctuating energy supply (SynErgie)" funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research. As one of the "Kopernikus projects for the energy transition", the SynErgie research project aims to enable energy-intensive industries in Germany to adapt their electricity demand to the increasingly fluctuating electricity supply. In the past, electricity systems were usually designed so that the generation side of the market was adapted to the temporal behavior of consumption. However, due to the increased expansion of volatile renewable energies, power generation is subject to uncontrollable, weather-dependent fluctuations, which is why making the overall system more flexible is becoming increasingly important. Because the producer side can only offer the required flexibility in the form of a reduction in feed-in, there is a so-called flexibility gap. As became clear on December 14, 2018 and January 10, 2019, this flexibility gap is already pushing the power system to its limits of stability. Only through the use of many compensation mechanisms or With options for flexibility, the security of supply could just be maintained on these days. The industrial processes considered in SynErgie represent a subset of potential flexibility options and can contribute to load adjustment to fluctuating generation as well as to the provision of system services and relief of the grids. In a liberalized, competitive electricity market, the market and regulatory framework conditions are of great relevance with regard to the development of the potential for flexibility in demand. This study therefore first describes the basics of the electricity market design and the constituent legal framework. Current discussions about the basic price system (unit price system vs. zonal system vs. nodal system) are not dealt with. The processing of these discussions as well as the specific analysis of the effects of the price system on demand flexibility is the content of the work packages of the Cluster IV “Market and Electricity System” pending in SynErgie II. The present study therefore rather works on potential obstacles to the participation of flexible demand processes and always refers to the application to industrial processes. The analysis forms the basis for future work in Cluster IV and provides cross-cluster information about the status quo of market structures and regulatory framework conditions. In addition to the systematic processing of the market framework, the scientific literature and already published studies on the subject of demand flexibility (demand side management and demand response) are analyzed and summarized in a meta study. The analysis forms the basis for future work in Cluster IV and provides cross-cluster information about the status quo of market structures and regulatory framework conditions. In addition to the systematic processing of the market framework, the scientific literature and already published studies on the subject of demand flexibility (demand side management and demand response) are analyzed and summarized in a meta study. The analysis forms the basis for future work in Cluster IV and provides cross-cluster information about the status quo of market structures and regulatory framework conditions. In addition to the systematic processing of the market framework, the scientific literature and already published studies on the subject of demand flexibility (demand side management and demand response) are analyzed and summarized in a meta study. [less ▲]

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See detailIT-based Architecture for Power Market Oriented Optimization at Multiple Levels in Production Processes
Seitz, Philipp; Abele, Eberhard; Bank, Lukas et al

in Procedia CIRP (2019), 81

Given the increasingly volatile prices on the power markets, it becomes economically more and more important for companies to develop and realize flexible strategies for energy consumption. A steady ... [more ▼]

Given the increasingly volatile prices on the power markets, it becomes economically more and more important for companies to develop and realize flexible strategies for energy consumption. A steady adaption of production processes which considers current power prices can take place on several levels of the automation pyramid, where each level has its own characteristics and requirements. In this paper, we present an optimization architecture based on an IT-platform which meets the challenges of complex multilayered production processes. We introduce layer-specific optimization strategies as well as an associated information flow, which facilitates creating holistic and well-coordinated optimizations. [less ▲]

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See detailA Generic Data Model for Describing Flexibility in Power Markets
Schott, Paul; Sedlmeir, Johannes; Strobel, Nina et al

in Energies (2019), 12(10),

In this article, we present a new descriptive model for industrial flexibility with respect to power consumption. The advancing digitization in the energy sector opens up new possibilities for utilizing ... [more ▼]

In this article, we present a new descriptive model for industrial flexibility with respect to power consumption. The advancing digitization in the energy sector opens up new possibilities for utilizing and automatizing the marketing of flexibility potentials and therefore facilitates a more advanced energy management. This requires a standardized description and modeling of power-related flexibility. The data model in this work has been developed in close collaboration with several partners from different industries in the context of a major German research project. A suitable set of key figures allows for also describing complex production processes that exhibit interdependencies and storage-like properties. The data model can be applied to other areas as well, e.g., power plants, plug-in electric vehicles, or power-related flexibility of households. [less ▲]

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See detailFlexible IT platform for synchronizing energy demands with volatile markets
Schott, Paul; Ahrens, Raphael; Bauer, Dennis et al

in Information Technology (2018), 60(3), 155--164

Abandoning fossil and nuclear energy sources in the long run and increasing amount of renewable energies in electricity production causes a more volatile power supply. Depending on external realities ... [more ▼]

Abandoning fossil and nuclear energy sources in the long run and increasing amount of renewable energies in electricity production causes a more volatile power supply. Depending on external realities, renewable energy production emphasizes the need for measures to guarantee the necessary balance of demand and supply in the electricity system at all times. Energy intensive industry processes theoretically include high Demand Response potentials suitable to tackle this increasing supply volatility. Nevertheless, most companies do not operate their production in a flexible manner due to multiple reasons: among others, the companies lack know-how, technologies and a clear business case to introduce an additional level of flexibility into their production processes, they are concerned about possible impacts on their processes by varying the electricity demand and need assistance in exploiting their flexibility. Aside from fostering knowledge in industry companies, an IT-solution that supports companies to use their processes’ Demand Response potential has become necessary. Its concept must support companies in managing companies’ energy-flexible production processes and monetarize those potentials at flexibility markets. This paper presents a concept, which integrates both companies and energy markets. It enables automated trading of companies’ Demand Response potential on different flexibility markets. [less ▲]

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See detailGeneric Data Model for Describing Real-Time Data-Supported Power Flexibility
Weber, Thomas; Schel, Daniel; Schott, Paul et al

in SmartER Europe (2018)

In the course of the German Energiewende, the share of controllable power generation is decreasing, while renewable, volatile generation resources (wind turbines and pho-tovoltaics), are being expanded ... [more ▼]

In the course of the German Energiewende, the share of controllable power generation is decreasing, while renewable, volatile generation resources (wind turbines and pho-tovoltaics), are being expanded. Therefore, the need for flexibility on the consumer side to compensate for this volatile generation is growing, because the balance of power production and power consumption needs to be guaranteed [1]. The German industrial sector consumes the largest share by 43.7 % of electricity [2] and also holds enormous potential for load flexibility in Germany [3]. However, many potentials cannot be ex-ploited because the necessary information technology connections are missing. The ge-neric data structure presented in this paper offers an approach to describe power flexi-bility potentials in a standardized way for a prevailing situation. This state-dependent flexibility potential can thus be made available to a higher-level instance for optimizing the operation strategy. As digitization progresses, the degree of automation increases, and so does the flexibility potential of the system. To this end, the basic characteristics of flexibility are first of all worked out and the corresponding degrees of freedom are explained in more detail. The existing approaches for describing flexibility of conven-tional power plants, such as the transmission code [4], will also be discussed. There are two classes of power flexibility - time-restricted and time-independent flexibility. Sep-arate sets of flexibility indicators are created for both classes, which are then transferred to a data structure. Finally, an information architecture to process the data model is presented. [less ▲]

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