References of "Schiltz, Christine 50003015"
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See detailIdentifying Math and Reading Difficulties of Multilingual Children: Effects of Different Cut-offs and Reference Groups
Martini, Sophie Frédérique UL; Schiltz, Christine UL; Fischbach, Antoine UL et al

in Herzog, Moritz; Gürsoy, Erkan; Fritz-Stratmann, Annemarie (Eds.) Diversity Dimensions in Mathematics and Language Learning (in press)

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See detailLernstörungen im multilingualen Kontext: Diagnose und Hilfestellungen.
Ugen, Sonja UL; Schiltz, Christine UL; Fischbach, Antoine UL et al

Book published by Melusina Press (2021)

Um Kinder mit einer Lernstörung durch möglichst angepasste Hilfsmaßnahmen unterstützen zu können, ist eine umfassende Diagnostik maßgeblich. Die Diagnostik von Lernstörungen stellt vor allem in ... [more ▼]

Um Kinder mit einer Lernstörung durch möglichst angepasste Hilfsmaßnahmen unterstützen zu können, ist eine umfassende Diagnostik maßgeblich. Die Diagnostik von Lernstörungen stellt vor allem in multilingualen Kontexten - wie in Luxemburg - eine Herausforderung dar. Auch werden derzeit vorwiegend im Ausland entwickelte diagnostische Tests durchgeführt, welche die luxemburgischen Besonderheiten, wie etwa das Erlernen der schriftsprachlichen und mathematischen Kompetenzen in einer Zweit- oder Drittsprache, nicht berücksichtigen. Ausgehend vom aktuellen Forschungs- und Wissensstand wird ein vertieftes Verständnis im Hinblick auf Lese- und Rechtschreibstörungen und Rechenstörungen dargelegt. Darauf aufbauend werden diagnostische Vorgehensweisen sowie pädagogische Hilfsmaßnahmen mithilfe von Erfahrungswerten praktizierender Fachkräfte aus dem luxemburgischen Förderbereich vorgestellt. [less ▲]

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See detailEinleitung: Lernstörungen im multilingualen Kontext – Eine Herausforderung
Ugen, Sonja UL; Schiltz, Christine UL; Fischbach, Antoine UL et al

in Ugen, Sonja; Schiltz, Christine; Fischbach, Antoine (Eds.) et al Lernstörungen im multilingualen Kontext: Diagnose und Hilfestellungen (2021)

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See detailHarmonic amplitude summation for frequency-tagging analysis
Retter, Talia UL; Rossion, Bruno; Schiltz, Christine UL

E-print/Working paper (2021)

In the approach of frequency tagging, stimuli that are presented periodically generate periodic responses of the brain. Following a transformation into the frequency domain, the brain’s response is ... [more ▼]

In the approach of frequency tagging, stimuli that are presented periodically generate periodic responses of the brain. Following a transformation into the frequency domain, the brain’s response is evident often at the frequency of stimulation, F, and its higher harmonics (2F, 3F, etc.). This approach is increasingly used in neuroscience, as it affords objective measures to characterize brain function. However, whether these specific harmonic frequency responses should be combined for analysis, and if so, how, remains an outstanding issue. In most studies, higher harmonic responses have not been described or were described only individually; in other studies, harmonics have been combined with various approaches, e.g., averaging and root mean squared summation. A rationale for these approaches in the context of frequency-based analysis principles, and understanding of how they relate to the brain’s response amplitudes in the time domain, has been missing. Here, with these elements addressed, the summation of (baseline-corrected) harmonic amplitude is recommended. [less ▲]

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See detailCognitive cost of two- and single digit transcoding in the second language of math learning in bilinguals of different ages
Lachelin, Remy UL; Van Rinsveld, Amandine; Poncin, Alexandre et al

Scientific Conference (2020, June)

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See detailImpact of learning to read in a mixed approach on neural tuning to words in beginning readers
van de Walle de Ghelcke, Alice; Rossion, Bruno; Schiltz, Christine UL et al

in Frontiers in Psychology (2020), 10

The impact of learning to read in a mixed approach using both the global and phonics teaching methods on the emergence of left hemisphere neural specialization for word recognition is yet unknown in ... [more ▼]

The impact of learning to read in a mixed approach using both the global and phonics teaching methods on the emergence of left hemisphere neural specialization for word recognition is yet unknown in children. Taking advantage of a natural school context with such a mixed approach, we tested 42 first graders behaviorally and with Fast Periodic Visual Stimulation using electroencephalographic recordings (FPVS-EEG) to measure selective neural responses to letter strings. Letter strings were inserted periodically (1/5) in pseudofonts in 40 s sequences displayed at 6 Hz and were either words globally taught at school, that could therefore be processed by visual whole-word form recognition (global method), or control words/pseudowords eliciting graphemephoneme (GP) mappings (phonics method). Results show that selective responses (F/5, 1.2 Hz) were left lateralized for control stimuli that triggered GP mappings but bilateral for globally taught words. It implies that neural mechanisms recruited during visual word processing are influenced by the nature of the mapping between written and spoken word forms. GP mappings induce left hemisphere discrimination responses, and visual recognition of whole-word forms induce bilateral responses, probably because the right hemisphere is relatively more involved in holistic visual object recognition. Splitting the group as a function of the mastery of GP mappings into “good” and “poor” readers strongly suggests that good readers actually processed all stimuli (including global words) predominantly with their left hemisphere, while poor readers showed bilateral responses for global words. These results show that in a mixed approach of teaching to read, global method instruction may induce neural processes that differ from those specialized for reading in the left hemisphere. Furthermore, given their difficulties in automatizing GP mappings, poor readers are especially prone to rely on this alternative visual strategy. A preprint of this paper has been released on Biorxiv (van de Walle de Ghelcke et al., 2018). [less ▲]

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See detailThe neural signature of numerosity by separating numerical and continuous magnitude extraction in visual cortex with frequency-tagged EEG.
Van Rinsveld, Amandine; Guillaume, Mathieu; Kohler, Peter J. et al

in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2020), 117(11), 5726-5732

The ability to handle approximate quantities, or number sense, has been recurrently linked to mathematical skills, although the nature of the mechanism allowing to extract numerical information (i.e ... [more ▼]

The ability to handle approximate quantities, or number sense, has been recurrently linked to mathematical skills, although the nature of the mechanism allowing to extract numerical information (i.e., numerosity) from environmental stimuli is still debated. A set of objects is indeed not only characterized by its numerosity but also by other features, such as the summed area occupied by the elements, which often covary with numerosity. These intrinsic relations between numerosity and nonnumerical magnitudes led some authors to argue that numerosity is not independently processed but extracted through a weighting of continuous magnitudes. This view cannot be properly tested through classic behavioral and neuroimaging approaches due to these intrinsic correlations. The current study used a frequency-tagging EEG approach to separately measure responses to numerosity as well as to continuous magnitudes. We recorded occipital responses to numerosity, total area, and convex hull changes but not to density and dot size. We additionally applied a model predicting primary visual cortex responses to the set of stimuli. The model output was closely aligned with our electrophysiological data, since it predicted discrimination only for numerosity, total area, and convex hull. Our findings thus demonstrate that numerosity can be independently processed at an early stage in the visual cortex, even when completely isolated from other magnitude changes. The similar implicit discrimination for numerosity as for some continuous magnitudes, which correspond to basic visual percepts, shows that both can be extracted independently, hence substantiating the nature of numerosity as a primary feature of the visual scene. [less ▲]

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See detailWhen one-two-three beats two-one-three: Tracking the acquisition of the verbal number sequence.
Van Rinsveld, Amandine; Schiltz, Christine UL; Majerus, Steve et al

in Psychonomic bulletin & review (2020), 27(1), 122-129

Learning how to count is a crucial step in cognitive development, which progressively allows for more elaborate numerical processing. The existing body of research consistently reports how children ... [more ▼]

Learning how to count is a crucial step in cognitive development, which progressively allows for more elaborate numerical processing. The existing body of research consistently reports how children associate the verbal code with exact quantity. However, the early acquisition of this code, when the verbal numbers are encoded in long-term memory as a sequence of words, has rarely been examined. Using an incidental assessment method based on serial recall of number words presented in ordered versus non-ordered sequences (e.g., one-two-three vs. two-one-three), we tracked the progressive acquisition of the verbal number sequence in children aged 3-6 years. Results revealed evidence for verbal number sequence knowledge in the youngest children even before counting is fully mastered. Verbal numerical knowledge thus starts to be organized as a sequence in long-term memory already at the age of 3 years, and this numerical sequence knowledge is assessed in a sensitive manner by incidental rather than explicit measures of number knowledge. [less ▲]

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See detailNASCO: A New Method and Program to Generate Dot Arrays for Non-Symbolic Number Comparison Tasks
Guillaume, Mathieu; Schiltz, Christine UL; Rinsveld, Amandine Van

in Journal of Numerical Cognition (2020), 6(1), 129--147

Basic numerical abilities are generally assumed to influence more complex cognitive processes involving numbers, such as mathematics. Yet measuring non-symbolic number abilities remains challenging due to ... [more ▼]

Basic numerical abilities are generally assumed to influence more complex cognitive processes involving numbers, such as mathematics. Yet measuring non-symbolic number abilities remains challenging due to the intrinsic correlation between numerical and non-numerical dimensions of any visual scene. Several methods have been developed to generate non-symbolic stimuli controlling for the latter aspects but they tend to be difficult to replicate or implement. In this study, we describe the NASCO method, which is an extension to the method popularized by Dehaene, Izard, and Piazza (2005). Their procedure originally controlled for two visual dimensions that are mediated by Number: Total Area and Item Size (i.e., N = TA/IS). Here, we additionally propose to control for another twofold dimension related to the array extent, which is also mediated by Number: Convex Hull Area and Mean Occupancy (i.e., N = CH/MO). We illustrate the NASCO method with a MATLAB app—NASCO app—that allows easy generation of dot arrays for a visually controlled assessment of non-symbolic numerical abilities. Results from a numerical comparison task revealed that the introduction of this twofold dimension manipulation substantially affected young adults’ performance. In particular, we did not replicate the relation between non-symbolic number abilities and arithmetic skills. Our findings open the debate about the reliability of previous results that did not take into account visual features related to the array extent. We then discuss the strengths of NASCO method to assess numerical ability, as well as the benefits of its straightforward implementation in NASCO app for researchers. [less ▲]

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See detailUnits-first or tens-first: Does language matter when processing visually presented two-digit numbers?
Poncin, Alexandre; Van Rinsveld, Amandine; Schiltz, Christine UL

in Quarterly journal of experimental psychology (2006) (2020), 73(5), 726-738

The linguistic structure of number words can influence performance in basic numerical tasks such as mental calculation, magnitude comparison, and transcoding. Especially the presence of ten-unit inversion ... [more ▼]

The linguistic structure of number words can influence performance in basic numerical tasks such as mental calculation, magnitude comparison, and transcoding. Especially the presence of ten-unit inversion in number words seems to affect number processing. Thus, at the beginning of formal math education, young children speaking inverted languages tend to make relatively more errors in transcoding. However, it remains unknown whether and how inversion affects transcoding in older children and adults. Here we addressed this question by assessing two-digit number transcoding in adults and fourth graders speaking French and German, that is, using non-inverted and inverted number words, respectively. We developed a novel transcoding paradigm during which participants listened to two-digit numbers and identified the heard number among four Arabic numbers. Critically, the order of appearance of units and tens in Arabic numbers was manipulated mimicking the "units-first" and "tens-first" order of German and French. In a third "simultaneous" condition, tens and units appeared at the same time in an ecological manner. Although language did not affect overall transcoding speed in adults, we observed that German-speaking fourth graders were globally slower than their French-speaking peers, including in the "simultaneous" condition. Moreover, French-speaking children were faster in transcoding when the order of digit appearance was congruent with their number-word system (i.e., "tens-first" condition) while German-speaking children appeared to be similarly fast in the "units-first" and "tens-first" conditions. These findings indicate that inverted languages still impose a cognitive cost on number transcoding in fourth graders, which seems to disappear by adulthood. They underline the importance of language in numerical cognition and suggest that language should be taken into account during mathematics education. [less ▲]

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See detailA robust electrophysiological marker of spontaneous numerical discrimination
Georges, Carrie UL; Guillaume, Mathieu; Schiltz, Christine UL

in Scientific Reports (2020)

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See detailThe Relationship Between the Benton Face Recognition Test and Electrophysiological Unfamiliar Face Individuation Response as Revealed by Fast Periodic Stimulation.
Dzhelyova, Milena; Schiltz, Christine UL; Rossion, Bruno

in Perception (2020), 49(2), 210-221

A recent approach to implicitly study face recognition skills has been the fast periodic visual stimulation (FPVS) coupled with electroencephalography (EEG). Its relationship with explicit behavioral ... [more ▼]

A recent approach to implicitly study face recognition skills has been the fast periodic visual stimulation (FPVS) coupled with electroencephalography (EEG). Its relationship with explicit behavioral measures of face individuation remains largely undocumented. We evaluated the relationship of the FPVS–EEG measure of individuation and performance at a computer version of the Benton Face Recognition Test. High-density EEG was recorded in 32 participants presented with an unfamiliar face at a rate of 6Hz (F) for 60 s. Every five faces, new identities were inserted. The resulting 1.2 Hz (F/5) EEG response and its harmonics objectively indexed rapid individuation of unfamiliar faces. The robust individuation response, observed over occipitotemporal sites, was significantly correlated with speed, but not accuracy rate of the computer version of the Benton Face Recognition Test. This effect was driven by a few individuals who were particularly slow at the behavioral test and also showed the lowest face individuation response. These results highlight the importance of considering the time taken to recognize a face, as a complementary to accuracy rate variable, providing valuable information about one’s recognition skills. Overall, these observations strengthen the diagnostic value of FPVS–EEG as an objective and rapid flag for specific difficulties at individual face recognition in the human population. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopmental changes in neural letter-selectivity: A 1-year follow-up of beginning readers.
van de Walle de Ghelcke, Alice; Rossion, Bruno; Schiltz, Christine UL et al

in Developmental science (2020)

The developmental course of neural tuning to visual letter strings is unclear. Here we tested 39 children longitudinally, at the beginning of grade 1 (6.45 ± 0.33 years old) and 1 year after, with fast ... [more ▼]

The developmental course of neural tuning to visual letter strings is unclear. Here we tested 39 children longitudinally, at the beginning of grade 1 (6.45 ± 0.33 years old) and 1 year after, with fast periodic visual stimulation in electroencephalography to assess the evolution of selective neural responses to letter strings and their relationship with emerging reading abilities. At both grades, frequency-tagged letter strings were discriminated from pseudofont strings (i.e. letter-selectivity) over the left occipito-temporal cortex, with effects observed at the individual level in 62% of children. However, visual words were not discriminated from pseudowords (lexical access) at either grade. Following 1 year of schooling, letter-selective responses showed a specific increase in amplitude, a more complex pattern of harmonics, and were located more anteriorly over the left occipito-temporal cortex. Remarkably, at both grades, neural responses were highly significant at the individual level and correlated with individual reading scores. The amplitude increase in letter-selective responses between grades was not found for discrimination responses of familiar keyboard symbols from pseudosymbols, and was not related to a general increase in visual stimulation responses. These findings demonstrate a rapid onset of left hemispheric letter selectivity, with 1 year of reading instruction resulting in increased emerging reading abilities and a clear quantitative and qualitative evolution within left hemispheric neural circuits for reading. [less ▲]

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See detailThe effect of grade retention on reading skills of immigrant children in multilingual elementary school. A longitudinal study.
Ertel Silva, Cintia UL; Alieva, Aigul; Hornung, Caroline UL et al

Presentation (2019, November 06)

In a longitudinal study the effect of grade retention on reading skills of immigrant children in multilingual elementary school was investigated. The study was conducted between 2013 and 2017 and thirty ... [more ▼]

In a longitudinal study the effect of grade retention on reading skills of immigrant children in multilingual elementary school was investigated. The study was conducted between 2013 and 2017 and thirty-four per cent of the sample was lost due to grade retention. These children had been followed from kindergarten to grade 3 of elementary school. To observe differences among promoted and retained students, we assessed them using various language and socioeconomic measures. We also compared a subgroup of promoted students, scoring lower in grade 2 than the mean of retained students in reading comprehension. The current study revealed four main findings. Firstly, there were no significant differences between promoted and retained students in their first language vocabulary (Portuguese). Secondly, there was a significant difference in second and third language vocabularies (Luxembourgish and German) and in German reading tasks (the language of instruction) from kindergarten to grade 2, with promoted students scoring higher than retained students. Thirdly, and most importantly, retained students did not catch up with promoted students in the language of instruction (German) measures even after grade retention, but they did in language of socialisation (Luxembourgish). Fourthly, and in contrast to retained students, the low-achieving promoted students improved significantly in German reading comprehension by grade 3.The last two findings underline that grade retention does not lead to improvement in children’s reading comprehension. As vocabulary is one of the main predictors of reading comprehension, programs that improve poor readers’ vocabulary knowledge may be more efficient than grade retention. The present findings corroborate previous studies reporting that grade retention is not beneficial and that low-achieving students promoted to the next grade show better academic outcomes later than retained students. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of teaching methods for reading on neural tuning to words in young poor readers
Lochy, Aliette UL; van de Walle de Ghelcke, Alice; Schiltz, Christine UL

Poster (2019, September)

The impact of teaching methods on the left hemispheric (LH) specialization for reading in children remains unknown. We tested 42 first graders (mean age: 6.08 years) from schools using both a phonic and a ... [more ▼]

The impact of teaching methods on the left hemispheric (LH) specialization for reading in children remains unknown. We tested 42 first graders (mean age: 6.08 years) from schools using both a phonic and a global method in parallel, behaviorally and with Fast Periodic Visual Stimulation using electroencephalography. 40-sec strings of pseudofonts were displayed at 6Hz, in which were periodically displayed (1.2Hz) either words taught at school with whole-word form rote-learning (global method) or control pseudowords eliciting grapheme-phoneme mappings (phonic method). Control pseudowords elicited LH responses whatever the reading ability. For global words, a difference emerged as a function of group: in good and average readers, responses were stronger in the LH, while in poor readers, global words elicited an atypical bilateral neural pattern due to reduced response amplitude in the LH. These results suggest that difficulties in automatizing GP mappings induce reliance on an alternative visual strategy when available. [less ▲]

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See detailWeaker neural responses to lexicality and word frequency in dyslexic adults: an EEG study with Fast Periodic Visual Stimulation.
Lochy, Aliette UL; Collette, Emilie; Schelstraete, Marie-Anne et al

Scientific Conference (2019, September)

Dyslexia, a persistent reading disorder, is characterized by different brain activation patterns when reading. Here, we used a Fast Periodic Visual Stimulation paradigm during EEG recordings to assess the ... [more ▼]

Dyslexia, a persistent reading disorder, is characterized by different brain activation patterns when reading. Here, we used a Fast Periodic Visual Stimulation paradigm during EEG recordings to assess the sensitivity of dyslexics to fine-grained psycholinguistic variations of letter strings: lexicality, lexical frequency, and orthographic regularity. Dyslexic and non-dyslexic students watched 60-seconds streams of stimuli presented at 10Hz, in which deviant items are inserted periodically (1/8, at 1.25Hz). Results show discrimination responses at 1.25Hz over left posterior occipito-temporal regions, reduced in dyslexics. Group differences were significant for discrimination of word lexicality and frequency, but not for word regularity. These results show that FPVS response amplitude distinguishes normal from pathological population. Since explicit reading is prohibited by the fast rate, results suggest differences of automatic and implicit word processing in dyslexics. The lack of group difference for regular/irregular words is interpreted post-hoc as reflecting the life-long drill of dyslexics to irregular words. [less ▲]

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