References of "Scharf, Jan 50002999"
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See detailThe value of education among immigrants and non-immigrants and how this translates into educational aspirations: a comparison of four European countries
Hadjar, Andreas UL; Scharf, Jan UL

in Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies (2019), 45(5), 711-734

Starting out from the frequent empirical finding that immigrants exhibit higher educational aspirations than non-immigrants, we analyse the role of immigrants’ value of education, i.e. the subjective ... [more ▼]

Starting out from the frequent empirical finding that immigrants exhibit higher educational aspirations than non-immigrants, we analyse the role of immigrants’ value of education, i.e. the subjective belief that education is beneficial for one’s life, in idealistic and realistic educational aspirations in four distinct institutional settings, comparing Sweden, Germany, the Netherlands and England. While the first part of the analyses relates to how immigrants differ from non-immigrants in the value they assign to education, the second part centres on country differences considering immigrant integration policies and education systems as crucial factors. A third part relates to the links between the value of education and educational aspirations to gain some insight into how the value of education may contribute to educational decisions. Analyses are based on longitudinal data of the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Survey in Four European Countries (CILS4EU). While results show that immigrants assign a higher value to education, the value of education does play a minor role in idealistic and realistic educational aspirations. The results of the country comparison are rather ambivalent, including very weak support for the argument that immigrants strive for education to a higher extent in countries with less favourable conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailBildungswerte und Schulentfremdung: Institutions- und Kompositionseffekte in den Bildungskontexten Luxemburgs und der Schweiz
Scharf, Jan UL

Doctoral thesis (2018)

Values and attitudes towards schooling – as the core concepts of this research – are increasingly recognized as important factors affecting educational achievement and attainment. Values of Education (VoE ... [more ▼]

Values and attitudes towards schooling – as the core concepts of this research – are increasingly recognized as important factors affecting educational achievement and attainment. Values of Education (VoE) are conceptualised along the five instrumental goals outlined in the social production function theory by Lindenberg (1991; Ormel et al., 1999). School alienation (SAL) is defined as negative attitudes towards academic domains of schooling, namely teachers and learning (Hascher & Hadjar, 2018: 179). Based on the assumption that SAL depicts a process intensified over the course of secondary education (Finn, 1989), this dissertation finds evidence for developmental trends between grade seven and grade eight comparatively across country settings and to show how educational contexts and the perceived VoE affect SAL. This sociological study provides an in-depth comparison of the stratified school systems of Luxembourg and of the Canton of Berne (Switzerland) based upon newly-collected panel data of the international research project School Alienation in Switzerland and Luxembourg (SASAL) (N = 465/508). Following the distinction of primary and secondary effects of social origin by Boudon (1974), these core concepts are discussed in the frames of Bourdieu’s (1982 [1979], 1992) habitus theory, emphasizing the transmission of cultural capital in families, and of rational choice approaches (e.g. Esser, 1999). Moreover, theoretical approaches on disparities structured by gender (e.g. Breen et al., 2010) and migration background (Kristen & Dollmann, 2010) as well as further axes of educational inequalities are considered to explain found differences in students’ educational values and attitudes towards schooling. The validation of the measurement instrument of VoE by means of factor analysis indicates four dimensions of VoE among school students in these contexts: stimulation as an intrinsic value, comfort and status related to standards of living and future career goals, behavioural confirmation in terms of expectations of significant others, and the social goal affection. Structural equation models demonstrate that the lower value of stimulation through education among boys mediates their higher level of SAL across country contexts. Yet, a higher value of comfort/status among students increases the development of negative attitudes. Whereas immigrant students’ higher behavioural confirmation in the Canton of Bern backs the immigrant optimism thesis (Kao & Tienda, 1995), immigrant students in Luxembourg reveal a general lower VoE and are more alienated from teachers. Contextual effects estimated in multilevel models explain the higher prevalence of alienation from learning in Luxembourgish classrooms. Within the stratified and segregated secondary schooling, students in the academic track are more alienated compared to students in technical secondary education. This result contradicts the differentiation–polarization theory (Van Houtte, 2006) in the context of Luxembourg. On the other hand, in Berne, alienation from learning does not differ between school tracks, but is overall lower in the less segregated, more permeable schools. Classroom composition effects, however, show no clear pattern. In line with prior research, alienation from learning is lower in Luxembourgish classrooms with a higher percentage of immigrant students. With regard to the consequences of SAL, the results show a negative impact of alienation from learning on school achievement in both country settings. Deriving implications, the findings provide some arguments in favour of comprehensive school models. [less ▲]

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See detailSchool Alienation: A Construct Validation Study
Morinaj, Julia; Scharf, Jan UL; Grecu, Alyssa Laureen UL et al

in Frontline Learning Research (2017), 5(2), 36-59

Early identification of school alienation is of great importance for students’ educational outcomes and successful participation in society. This study examined the psychometric characteristics of a newly ... [more ▼]

Early identification of school alienation is of great importance for students’ educational outcomes and successful participation in society. This study examined the psychometric characteristics of a newly developed assessment instrument, the School Alienation Scale (SALS), to measure school alienation among primary and secondary school students. The SALS consists of three school-related domains, namely, classmates, teachers, and learning. Based on the responses of Swiss (1) and Luxembourgish (2) students from two schoolspecific cohorts — primary (grade 4; n1=486, n2=503) and secondary schools (grade 7; n1=550, n2=534), we assessed instrument reliability, validity, and cross-cultural equivalence. The scale showed evidence of reliability and internal validity across two samples, confirming that the hypothesized first-order three-factor model fits the data better than several alternative models. The results of measurement invariance tests revealed that the measurement model operated equally well for primary and secondary school students in both countries. The construct validity of the SALS was additionally supported by demonstrated criterion-related validity. Specifically, school alienation domains were negatively associated with positive attitudes to and enjoyment in school; social problems in school were positively related to alienation from classmates and teachers. Our key contributions to the measurement of school alienation are the disclosure of the core domains of school alienation, development of a reliable and valid instrument, and justification for its use. Therefore, the results of this study have important implications for further theoretical work in alienation research and contribute to comparative research by examining the construct of school alienation in different educational settings. [less ▲]

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See detailEntwicklung bürgerschaftlicher Teilhabe in der Transitionsphase
Meyers, Christiane UL; Weis, Daniel UL; Scharf, Jan UL et al

in Willems, Helmut (Ed.) Übergänge vom Jugend- ins Erwachsenenalter: Verläufe, Perspektiven, Herausforderungen (2015)

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See detailÜbergänge vom Jugend- ins Erwachsenenalter: Verläufe, Perspektiven, Herausforderungen
Willems, Helmut UL; Weis, Daniel UL; Biewers, Sandra UL et al

in MENJE; UL (Eds.) Übergänge vom Jugend- ins Erwachsenenalter. Kurzfassung des nationalen Berichtes zur Situation der Jugend in Luxemburg 2015 (2015)

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See detailThe transition from youth into adulthood: processes, perspectives, challenges
Willems, Helmut UL; Weis, Daniel UL; Biewers, Sandra UL et al

in MENJE; UL (Eds.) The Transition from Youth into Adulthood. Summary of the National Report on the Situation of Young People in Luxembourg 2015 (2015)

Detailed reference viewed: 111 (18 UL)