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See detailThe role of the inhibitors of interleukin-6 signal transduction SHP2 and SOCS3 for desensitization of interleukin-6 signalling
Fischer, P.; Lehmann, U.; Sobota, R. M. et al

in Biochemical Journal (2004), 378(Pt 2), 449-60

The immediate early response of cells treated with IL-6 (interleukin-6) is the activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3. The Src homology domain 2 (SH2)-containing ... [more ▼]

The immediate early response of cells treated with IL-6 (interleukin-6) is the activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3. The Src homology domain 2 (SH2)-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 and the feedback inhibitor SOCS3 (suppressor of cytokine signalling) are potent inhibitors of IL-6 signal transduction. Impaired function of SOCS3 or SHP2 leads to enhanced and prolonged IL-6 signalling. The inhibitory function of both proteins depends on their recruitment to the tyrosine motif 759 within glycoprotein gp130. In contrast to inactivation, desensitization of signal transduction is regarded as impaired responsiveness due to prestimulation. Usually, after activation the sensing receptor becomes inactivated by modifications such as phosphorylation, internalization or degradation. We designed an experimental approach which allows discrimination between desensitization and inactivation of IL-6 signal transduction. We observed that pre-stimulation with IL-6 renders cells less sensitive to further stimulation with IL-6. After several hours, the cells become sensitive again. We show that not only signal transduction through previously activated receptors is affected by desensitization but signalling through receptors which were not targeted by the first stimulation was also attenuated ( trans -desensitization). Interestingly, in contrast to inhibition, desensitization does not depend on the presence of functional SHP2. Furthermore, cells lacking SOCS3 show constitutive STAT3 activation which is not affected by pre-stimulation with IL-6. All these observations suggest that desensitization and inhibition of signalling are mechanistically distinct. [less ▲]

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See detailPrinciples of interleukin (IL)-6-type cytokine signalling and its regulation
Heinrich, P. C.; Behrmann, Iris UL; Haan, Serge UL et al

in Biochemical Journal (2003), 374(Pt 1), 1-20

The IL (interleukin)-6-type cytokines IL-6, IL-11, LIF (leukaemia inhibitory factor), OSM (oncostatin M), ciliary neurotrophic factor, cardiotrophin-1 and cardiotrophin-like cytokine are an important ... [more ▼]

The IL (interleukin)-6-type cytokines IL-6, IL-11, LIF (leukaemia inhibitory factor), OSM (oncostatin M), ciliary neurotrophic factor, cardiotrophin-1 and cardiotrophin-like cytokine are an important family of mediators involved in the regulation of the acute-phase response to injury and infection. Besides their functions in inflammation and the immune response, these cytokines play also a crucial role in haematopoiesis, liver and neuronal regeneration, embryonal development and fertility. Dysregulation of IL-6-type cytokine signalling contributes to the onset and maintenance of several diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, osteoporosis, multiple sclerosis and various types of cancer (e.g. multiple myeloma and prostate cancer). IL-6-type cytokines exert their action via the signal transducers gp (glycoprotein) 130, LIF receptor and OSM receptor leading to the activation of the JAK/STAT (Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription) and MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) cascades. This review focuses on recent progress in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of IL-6-type cytokine signal transduction. Emphasis is put on the termination and modulation of the JAK/STAT signalling pathway mediated by tyrosine phosphatases, the SOCS (suppressor of cytokine signalling) feedback inhibitors and PIAS (protein inhibitor of activated STAT) proteins. Also the cross-talk between the JAK/STAT pathway with other signalling cascades is discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailSHP2 and SOCS3 contribute to Tyr-759-dependent attenuation of interleukin-6 signaling through gp130
Lehmann, U.; Schmitz, J.; Weissenbach, M. et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2002), 278(1), 661-71

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) activates the Jak/STAT pathway as well as the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade. Tyrosine 759 of the IL-6 signal-transducing receptor subunit gp130 has been identified as being ... [more ▼]

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) activates the Jak/STAT pathway as well as the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade. Tyrosine 759 of the IL-6 signal-transducing receptor subunit gp130 has been identified as being involved in negative regulation of IL-6-induced gene induction and activation of the Jak/STAT pathway. Because this site is known to be a recruitment motif for the protein-tyrosine phosphatase SHP2, it has been suggested that SHP2 is the mediator of tyrosine 759-dependent signal attenuation. We recently observed that the suppressor of cytokine-signaling SOCS3 also acts through the tyrosine motif 759 of gp130. However, the relative contributions of SHP2 and SOCS3 to the repression of IL-6 signaling are not understood. Therefore, we designed experiments allowing the independent recruitment of each of these proteins to the IL-6-receptor complex. We show that receptor- and membrane-targeted SHP2 counteracts IL-6 signaling independent of SOCS3 binding to gp130. On the other hand, SOCS3 inhibits signaling in cells expressing a truncated SHP2 protein, which is not recruited to gp130. These data suggest, that there are two, largely distinct modes of negative regulation of gp130 activity, despite the fact that both SOCS3 and SHP2 are recruited to the same site within gp130. [less ▲]

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See detailA completely foreign receptor can mediate an interferon-gamma-like response
Strobl, B.; Arulampalam, V.; Isharc, H. et al

in EMBO Journal (2001), 20(19), 5431-42

A tripartite receptor comprising the external region of the erythropoietin (Epo) receptor, the transmembrane and JAK-binding domains of the gp130 subunit of the interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor, and a seven ... [more ▼]

A tripartite receptor comprising the external region of the erythropoietin (Epo) receptor, the transmembrane and JAK-binding domains of the gp130 subunit of the interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor, and a seven amino acid STAT1 recruitment motif (Y440) from the interferon (IFN)-gamma receptor, efficiently mediates an IFN-gamma-like response. An analogous completely foreign chimeric receptor in which the Y440 motif is replaced with the Y905 motif from gp130 also mediates an IFN-gamma-like response, but less efficiently. The IFNGR1 signal-transducing subunit of the IFN-gamma receptor is tyrosine phosphorylated through the chimeric receptors and the endogenous IL-6 and OSM receptors. Cross phosphorylation of IFNGR1 is not, however, required for the IFN-gamma-like response through the chimeric receptors, nor does it mediate an IFN-gamma-like response to IL-6 or OSM. The data argue strongly for modular JAK/STAT signalling and against any rigid structural organization for the "pathways" involved. They emphasize the likely high degree of overlap between the signals generated from disparate JAK-receptor complexes and show that relatively minor changes in such complexes can profoundly affect the response. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 138 (0 UL)
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See detailNon-redundant signal transduction of interleukin-6-type cytokines. The adapter protein Shc is specifically recruited to rhe oncostatin M receptor
Hermanns, H. M.; Radtke, S.; Schaper, F. et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2001), 275(52), 40742-8

The common use of the cytokine receptor gp130 has served as an explanation for the extremely redundant biological activities exerted by interleukin (IL)-6-type cytokines. Indeed, hardly any differences in ... [more ▼]

The common use of the cytokine receptor gp130 has served as an explanation for the extremely redundant biological activities exerted by interleukin (IL)-6-type cytokines. Indeed, hardly any differences in signal transduction initiated by these cytokines are known. In the present study, we demonstrate that oncostatin M (OSM), but not IL-6 or leukemia inhibitory factor, induces tyrosine phosphorylation of the Shc isoforms p52 and p66 and their association with Grb2. Concomitantly, OSM turns out to be a stronger activator of ERK1/2 MAPKs. Shc is recruited to the OSM receptor (OSMR), but not to gp130. Binding involves Tyr(861) of the OSMR, located within a consensus binding sequence for the Shc PTB domain. Moreover, Tyr(861) is essential for activation of ERK1/2 and for full activation of the alpha(2)-macroglobulin promoter, but not for an exclusively STAT-responsive promoter. This study therefore provides evidence for qualitative differential signaling mechanisms exerted by IL-6-type cytokines. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (0 UL)
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See detailSignal transduction of IL-6, leukemia-inhibitory factor, and oncostatin M: structural receptor requirements for signal attenuation
Anhuf, D.; Weissenbach, M.; Schmitz, J. et al

in Journal of Immunology (2000), 165(5), 2535-43

Stimulation of the IL-6R complex leads to Src homology domain containing tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP2) recruitment to the receptor subunit gp130 and its subsequent tyrosine phosphorylation. SHP2 is a two ... [more ▼]

Stimulation of the IL-6R complex leads to Src homology domain containing tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP2) recruitment to the receptor subunit gp130 and its subsequent tyrosine phosphorylation. SHP2 is a two-SH2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase that is activated by many cytokines and growth factors. SHP2 counteracts the activation of transcription factors of the STAT family and the induction of IL-6-responsive genes. Tyrosine 759 of gp130, the signal transducing subunit of the IL-6R complex, is essential for the phosphorylation of SHP2. Mutation of tyrosine 759 to phenylalanine leads to an enhanced inducibility of IL-6-dependent genes. Here we demonstrate that no further tyrosines in the cytoplasmic part of gp130 are required for the phosphorylation of SHP2. We also tested whether the tyrosine 759 motifs in both subunits of the gp130 dimer are required for SHP2 association and tyrosine phosphorylation. Interestingly, one SHP2-recruiting phosphotyrosine motif in a single chain of the gp130 dimer is sufficient to mediate SHP2 association to the gp130 receptor subunit and its tyrosine phosphorylation as well as to attenuate IL-6-dependent gene induction. Furthermore, we show that repression of gene induction via Y759 does not require the presence of the SHP2 and STAT recruitment sites within the same receptor subunit, but within the same receptor complex. The Y759 motif in gp130 also attenuates gene induction mediated by the oncostatin M and leukemia inhibitory factor receptor complexes, which both contain gp130 as the shared subunit. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 89 (1 UL)
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See detailSOCS3 exerts its inhibitory function on interleukin-6 signal transduction through the SHP2 recruitment site of gp130.
Schmitz, J.; Weissenbach, M.; Haan, Serge UL et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2000), 275(17), 12848-56

Interleukin-6 is involved in the regulation of many biological activities such as gene expression, cell proliferation, and differentiation. The control of the termination of cytokine signaling is as ... [more ▼]

Interleukin-6 is involved in the regulation of many biological activities such as gene expression, cell proliferation, and differentiation. The control of the termination of cytokine signaling is as important as the regulation of initiation of signal transduction pathways. Three families of proteins involved in the down-regulation of cytokine signaling have been described recently: (i) SH2 domain-containing protein-tyrosine phosphatases (SHP), (ii) suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS), and (iii) protein inhibitors of activated STATs (PIAS). We have analyzed the interplay of two inhibitors in the signal transduction pathway of interleukin-6 and demonstrate that the tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 and SOCS3 do not act independently but are functionally linked. The activation of one inhibitor modulates the activity of the other; Inhibition of SHP2 activation leads to increased SOCS3-mRNA levels, whereas increased expression of SOCS3 results in a reduction of SHP2 phosphorylation after activation of the interleukin-6 signal transduction pathway. Furthermore, we show that tyrosine 759 in gp130 is essential for both SHP2 and SOCS3 but not for SOCS1 to exert their inhibitory activities on interleukin-6 signal transduction. Besides SHP2, SOCS3 also interacts with the Tyr(P)-759 peptide of gp130. Taken together, our results suggest differences in the function of SOCS1 and SOCS3 and a link between SHP2 and SOCS3. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 81 (1 UL)
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See detailCytoplasmic STAT proteins associate prior to activation
Haan, Serge UL; Kortylewski, M.; Behrmann, Iris UL et al

in Biochemical Journal (2000), 345 Pt 3

The commonly accepted model of STAT factor activation at the cytoplasmic part of the receptor assumes that signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) are recruited from a cytoplasmic pool ... [more ▼]

The commonly accepted model of STAT factor activation at the cytoplasmic part of the receptor assumes that signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) are recruited from a cytoplasmic pool of monomeric STAT proteins. Based on a previous observation that non-phosphorylated STAT3-Src homology 2 domains dimerize in vitro, we investigated whether the observed dimerization is of physiological relevance within the cellular context. We show that STAT1 and STAT3 are pre-associated in non-stimulated cells. Apparently, these complexes are not able to translocate into the nucleus. We provide evidence that the event of STAT activation is more complex than previously assumed. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 78 (2 UL)
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See detailDifferential inhibition of IL-6-type cytokine-induced STAT activation by PMA
Terstegen, L.; Maassen, B. G.; Radtke, S. et al

in FEBS Letters (2000), 478(1-2), 100-4

Prior activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases by phorbol 13-myristate 12-acetate (PMA) results in an inhibition of interleukin (IL)-6-induced activation of the Janus kinase/signal transducer and ... [more ▼]

Prior activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases by phorbol 13-myristate 12-acetate (PMA) results in an inhibition of interleukin (IL)-6-induced activation of the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling pathway which is most likely mediated by the induction of suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 and requires the specific SHP2 binding site Y759 of the IL-6 signal transducer gp130. In this study, we demonstrate that PMA inhibits STAT activation by IL-6 and the related cytokine leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) but not by oncostatin M (OSM). Since the LIF receptor also contains an SHP2 recruitment site whereas the OSM receptor lacks such a module, we propose that two SHP2 binding modules within a homo- or heterodimeric receptor are necessary to mediate the PMA inhibitory effect. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 88 (0 UL)
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See detailCharacterization and binding specificity of the monomeric STAT3-SH2 domain.
Haan, Serge UL; Hemmann, U.; Hassiepen, U. et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (1999), 274(3), 1342-8

Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) are important mediators of cytokine signal transduction. STAT factors are recruited to phosphotyrosine-containing motifs of activated receptor ... [more ▼]

Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) are important mediators of cytokine signal transduction. STAT factors are recruited to phosphotyrosine-containing motifs of activated receptor chains via their SH2 domains. The subsequent tyrosine phosphorylation of the STATs leads to their dissociation from the receptor, dimerization, and translocation to the nucleus. Here we describe the expression, purification, and refolding of the STAT3-SH2 domain. Proper folding of the isolated protein was proven by circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy. The STAT3-SH2 domain undergoes a conformational change upon dimerization. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay we demonstrate that the monomeric domain binds to specific phosphotyrosine peptides. The specificity of binding to phosphotyrosine peptides was assayed with the tyrosine motif encompassing Tyr705 of STAT3 and with all tyrosine motifs present in the cytoplasmic tail of the signal transducer gp130. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 86 (5 UL)
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See detailIdentification of a Leu-lle internalization motif within the cytoplasmic domain of the leukaemia inhibitory factor receptor
Thiel, S.; Behrmann, Iris UL; Timmermann, A. et al

in Biochemical Journal (1999), 339 (Pt 1)

Leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) signals via a heterodimeric receptor complex comprised of the LIF receptor (LIFR) and the interleukin (IL)-6 signal transducer gp130. Upon binding to its cognate receptor ... [more ▼]

Leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) signals via a heterodimeric receptor complex comprised of the LIF receptor (LIFR) and the interleukin (IL)-6 signal transducer gp130. Upon binding to its cognate receptor LIF is internalized. In this study, we show that the LIFR is endocytosed independently of gp130. By using a heterochimaeric receptor system we identified a dileucine-based internalization motif within the cytoplasmic domain of the LIFR. Our findings suggest that a heterodimeric LIFR/gp130 complex and homodimeric gp130/gp130 complex are endocytosed via distinct internalization signals. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 46 (0 UL)
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See detailInterleukin-6-type cytokine signalling through the gp130/Jak/STAT pathway
Heinrich, P. C.; Behrmann, Iris UL; Müller-Newen, G. et al

in Biochemical Journal (1998), 334 (Pt 2)

The family of cytokines signalling through the common receptor subunit gp130 comprises interleukin (IL)-6, IL-11, leukaemia inhibitory factor, oncostatin M, ciliary neurotrophic factor and cardiotrophin-1 ... [more ▼]

The family of cytokines signalling through the common receptor subunit gp130 comprises interleukin (IL)-6, IL-11, leukaemia inhibitory factor, oncostatin M, ciliary neurotrophic factor and cardiotrophin-1. These so-called IL-6-type cytokines play an important role in the regulation of complex cellular processes such as gene activation, proliferation and differentiation. The current knowledge on the signal-transduction mechanisms of these cytokines from the plasma membrane to the nucleus is reviewed. In particular, we focus on the assembly of receptor complexes after ligand binding, the activation of receptor-associated kinases of the Janus family, and the recruitment and phosphorylation of transcription factors of the STAT family, which dimerize, translocate to the nucleus, and bind to enhancer elements of respective target genes leading to transcriptional activation. The important players in the signalling pathway, namely the cytokines and the receptor components, the Janus kinases Jak1, Jak2 and Tyk2, the signal transducers and activators of transcription STAT1 and STAT3 and the tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 [SH2 (Src homology 2) domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase] are introduced and their structural/functional properties are discussed. Furthermore, we review various mechanisms involved in the termination of the IL-6-type cytokine signalling, namely the action of tyrosine phosphatases, proteasome, Jak kinase inhibitors SOCS (suppressor of cytokine signalling), protein inhibitors of activated STATs (PIAS), and internalization of the cytokine receptors via gp130. Although all IL-6-type cytokines signal through the gp130/Jak/STAT pathway, the comparison of their physiological properties shows that they elicit not only similar, but also distinct, biological responses. This is reflected in the different phenotypes of IL-6-type-cytokine knock-out animals. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 102 (1 UL)