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See detailWeb Materialities
Schafer, Valerie UL

Scientific Conference (2021, December 03)

Although Web development was driven by a conceptual repertoire of dematerialisation, of eliminating borders between “Netizens” and ensuring the independence of cyberspace (John Perry Barlow), in the 1990s ... [more ▼]

Although Web development was driven by a conceptual repertoire of dematerialisation, of eliminating borders between “Netizens” and ensuring the independence of cyberspace (John Perry Barlow), in the 1990s the accessibility of the Web was largely subject to material challenges associated with infrastructures, equipment, Internet billing and regulation. They were also linked with groups of technicians and communities of practice, the development of ISPs, the acquisition of equipment or the use of cyber cafés. Taking the example of France in the 90s as a starting point, this contribution will shed light on the agencies at work in a bid to demonstrate why digital materiality matters in Web histories. [less ▲]

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See detailChicken and Egg: Reporting from a Datathon Exploring Datasets of the COVID-19 Special Collections
Aasman, Susan; Bingham, Nicola; Brügger, Niels et al

Report (2021)

This report is the first in a short series of WARCnet papers which aim to provide feedback on an internal datathon conducted by Working Group 2 of the WARCnet project. It explores the creation of ... [more ▼]

This report is the first in a short series of WARCnet papers which aim to provide feedback on an internal datathon conducted by Working Group 2 of the WARCnet project. It explores the creation of transnational merged datasets and corpora, based on seed lists, derived data and metadata provided by several web archiving institutions. The report highlights our first explorations of specially curated COVID web archives, in order to prepare an in-depth exploration of the issues, challenges, limitations and opportunities afforded by these heterogeneous datasets. [less ▲]

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See detailComprendre les archives du Web. Un défi évolutif et permanent.
Schafer, Valerie UL

Presentation (2021, November 26)

"Organisé dans le cadre d’un projet soutenu par le GIS CollEx-Persée et porté par le Service Commun de Documentation de l’Université de Lille et la Bibliothèque nationale de France, le cycle d’ateliers du ... [more ▼]

"Organisé dans le cadre d’un projet soutenu par le GIS CollEx-Persée et porté par le Service Commun de Documentation de l’Université de Lille et la Bibliothèque nationale de France, le cycle d’ateliers du Réseau de Partenaires pour l’exploration et l’analyse de données numériques (ResPaDon) propose de développer sur 8 séances un programme qui se fixe pour objectif d’échanger et de consolider les savoir faire et l’expertise des professionnels de l’information scientifique et technique (IST) autour de la patrimonialisation des archives du dépôt légal du web. Le cycle d’ateliers, par la diversité des thématiques abordées et le domaine d’intérêts communs qu’il couvre, a vocation à réunir à un rythme régulier, un groupe de réflexion qui associe les établissements membres du réseau et leurs partenaires. Pendant deux années, les rendez-vous trimestriels du groupe de réflexion ouvrent un espace de dialogue et offrent aux participants l’opportunité de mettre en évidence des pratiques et des savoir-faire professionnels afin de consolider leur expertise et de mutualiser leurs expériences afin de favoriser une montée en compétence des professionnels et in fine, encourager et faciliter l’usage des archives web et des données par les chercheurs". [less ▲]

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See detailWARCnet WG2 activities: a report
Schafer, Valerie UL

Scientific Conference (2021, November 03)

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See detailThe Past Web as Heritage: Practices, Challenges and Uses of Web Archives
Schafer, Valerie UL

Scientific Conference (2021, October 20)

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See detailSix provocations for 6G
Schafer, Valerie UL

Scientific Conference (2021, October 06)

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See detailIntertwining distant reading of web archives and oral histories of the COVID crisis
Schafer, Valerie UL

Scientific Conference (2021, September 22)

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See detailWeb Archives of the COVID Crisis: Digital Voices, Preservation and Loss
Schafer, Valerie UL

Presentation (2021, September 16)

This roundtable, which is organized by the WARCnet network and chaired by Valérie Schafer (C2DH, University of Luxembourg), aims to shed light on the issues, challenges, values and limits of web archiving ... [more ▼]

This roundtable, which is organized by the WARCnet network and chaired by Valérie Schafer (C2DH, University of Luxembourg), aims to shed light on the issues, challenges, values and limits of web archiving during the COVID crisis. It will combine analysis by web archivists and scholars and entwine analysis of web archiving practices and preserved web content, in order to address several key issues related to the conference, such as the “silences” and “noises” of these archives. The first part of the roundtable will focus on web archives collections that have been created during the COVID-19 crisis by many institutions throughout Europe. Friedel Geeraert (The State Archives of Belgium and the Royal Library of Belgium) will provide a short comparative overview of the strategies of web archiving institutions in Europe, that the team documented through an oral history campaign, while Nicola Bingham (The British Library, UK) will offer more precise overviews of the collections that were gathered respectively by the UK Web Archive and the IIPC (International Internet Preservation Consortium). Claude Mussou (Ina THEQUE, France) will explore the archiving of Twitter at the Institut national de l’audiovisuel (France). Niels Brügger (Aarhus University, Denmark) and Jane Winters (SAS, University of London) will then discuss memories and heritage of the COVID-crisis through the lens of these web archives. Finally the last part will focus on research approaches, notably close and distant reading, and the collective and individual traces, social and political expressions at stake in these web archives: Valérie Schafer will comment on the distant reading approach within these archives. Sophie Gebeil (Aix-Marseille University, France) will underline issues related to “carers” and social struggles. Valérie Schafer will also briefly mention the gendered approach of the COVID crisis that the working group is currently conducting. This roundtable will be followed by a discussion with the audience in order to deepen the topics that are at the core of the conference, whether it be loss, preservation, the political “we”, feelings, etc. [less ▲]

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See detailDigital Roots. Historicizing Media and Communication Concepts of the Digital Age
Balbi, Gabriele; Ribeiro, Nelson; Schafer, Valerie UL et al

Book published by De Gruyter (2021)

As media environments and communication practices evolve over time, so do theoretical concepts. This book analyzes some of the most well-known and fiercely discussed concepts of the digital age from a ... [more ▼]

As media environments and communication practices evolve over time, so do theoretical concepts. This book analyzes some of the most well-known and fiercely discussed concepts of the digital age from a historical perspective, showing how many of them have pre-digital roots and how they have changed and still are constantly changing in the digital era. Written by leading authors in media and communication studies, the chapters historicize 16 concepts that have become central in the digital media literature, focusing on three main areas. The first part, Technologies and Connections, historicises concepts like network, media convergence, multimedia, interactivity and artificial intelligence. The second one is related to Agency and Politics and explores global governance, datafication, fake news, echo chambers, digital media activism. The last one, Users and Practices, is finally devoted to telepresence, digital loneliness, amateurism, user generated content, fandom and authenticity. The book aims to shed light on how concepts emerge and are co-shaped, circulated, used and reappropriated in different contexts. It argues for the need for a conceptual media and communication history that will reveal new developments without concealing continuities and it demonstrates how the analogue/digital dichotomy is often a misleading one. [less ▲]

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See detailDigital Roots. Historicizing Media and Communication Concepts of the Digital Age
Schwarzenegger, Christian; Balbi, Gabriele; Ribeiro, Nelson et al

in Musiani, Francesca; Schafer, Valerie (Eds.) Chapter Global Governance (2021)

Scholars have successfully attempted to historicize global governance, comparing the Internet to telephone and broadcasting, from a primarily legal standpoint. Among these scholars, historians have also ... [more ▼]

Scholars have successfully attempted to historicize global governance, comparing the Internet to telephone and broadcasting, from a primarily legal standpoint. Among these scholars, historians have also studied particular issues that are relevant to Internet governance, e.g. openness and net neutrality. History is relevant for the concept of global governance for atleast two reasons: to historicize the concept in itself through the Internet/digital age (the evolution and enrichment of the notion in the past 30 years, with key turning points such as the creation of ICANN and WSIS) and to flesh out continuities through time with other “global media” or “global issues,” such as international standardization, multi-stakeholderism, and communication rights. This chapter addresses these issues at three levels: periodization of the key concept of “global governance” since the 90s; evolution of the state of the art/research on global (Internet) governance; analysis of global governance in the broader field of media and communication. [less ▲]

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See detailGlobal Governance. A Short History of Debates Born with the Telegraph and Popularized by the Internet
Musiani, Francesca; Schafer, Valerie UL

in Musiani, Francesca; Schafer, Valerie (Eds.) Global Governance. A Short History of Debates Born with the Telegraph and Popularized by the Internet (2021, September)

Scholars have successfully attempted to historicize global governance, comparing the Internet to telephone and broadcasting, from a primarily legal standpoint. Among these scholars, historians have also ... [more ▼]

Scholars have successfully attempted to historicize global governance, comparing the Internet to telephone and broadcasting, from a primarily legal standpoint. Among these scholars, historians have also studied particular issues that are relevant to Internet governance, e.g. openness and net neutrality. History is relevant for the concept of global governance for at least two reasons: to historicize the concept in itself through the Internet/digital age (the evolution and enrichment of the notion in the past 30 years, with key turning points such as the creation of ICANN and WSIS) and to flesh out continuities through time with other “global media” or “global issues,” such as international standardization, multi-stakeholderism, and communication rights. This chapter addresses these issues at three levels: periodization of the key concept of “global governance” since the 90s; evolution of the state of the art/research on global (Internet) governance; analysis of global governance in the broader field of media and communication. [less ▲]

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See detailInternet : voyage au bout du réseau
Schafer, Valerie UL

Diverse speeches and writings (2021)

Participation avec Camille Paloque-Bergès à l'émission Eurêka (58') d'A. Beauchamp sur l'histoire d'Internet.

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See detailWeb archiving of the COVID crisis in Europe : Close reading's challenges
Schafer, Valerie UL

Scientific Conference (2021, July 02)

The second part of this panel focuses on the methodologies and research approaches at stake when scholars face such rich but also heterogeneous collections: Susan Aasman (University of Groningen, The ... [more ▼]

The second part of this panel focuses on the methodologies and research approaches at stake when scholars face such rich but also heterogeneous collections: Susan Aasman (University of Groningen, The Netherlands), Karin de Wild (Leiden University, The Netherlands) and Nicola Bingham will provide feedback on a very concrete experiment that the working group is conducting through a Datathon based on metadata and derived data. This distant reading approach is complemented by a more qualitative approach, which also raises challenges, as Valérie Schafer will explain. The presentation of several concrete research topics will further demonstrate the methodological challenges at stake. [less ▲]

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See detailLes archives du Web luxembourgeois. Histoire, enjeux et perspectives
Els, Ben; Maurer, Yves; Schafer, Valerie UL

in Hemecht: Zeitschrift für Luxemburger Geschichte (2021), 73

Cet article entend contribuer à faire découvrir l’archivage du Web luxembourgeois, son histoire, sa continuité par rapport à d’autres initiatives européennes, ses atouts et ses spécificités, avant de ... [more ▼]

Cet article entend contribuer à faire découvrir l’archivage du Web luxembourgeois, son histoire, sa continuité par rapport à d’autres initiatives européennes, ses atouts et ses spécificités, avant de proposer des réflexions sur les usages scientifiques qui peuvent en âtre faits, et ce au-delà de la seule histoire du numérique. [less ▲]

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See detailHistoricizing Media and Communication Concepts of the Digital Age: Global Governance
Musiani, Francesca; Schafer, Valerie UL

Scientific Conference (2021, July 02)

History is relevant for the concept of global governance for at least two reasons: to historicize the concept in itself through the Internet/digital age (the evolution and enrichment of the notion in the ... [more ▼]

History is relevant for the concept of global governance for at least two reasons: to historicize the concept in itself through the Internet/digital age (the evolution and enrichment of the notion in the past 30 years, with key turning points such as the creation of ICANN and WSIS) and to flesh out continuities through time with other “global media” or “global issues,” such as international standardization, multi-stakeholderism and communication rights. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 67 (1 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailDigging into Digital Roots: introduction
Ribeiro, Nelson; Schafer, Valerie UL

Scientific Conference (2021, July)

Presentation of the project at stake (a collective book whose idea was born within the ECREA Communication History Section), its approach and theoretical framework.

Detailed reference viewed: 72 (2 UL)
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See detailWorkshop : Data as a new resource? Similarities and differences of data vs. material resources
Schafer, Valerie UL; Veraart, Frank; Niet, Irene

Scientific Conference (2021, June 29)

This exploratory workshop is dedicated to scholars interested in technological developments related to digital technologies and resource developments. The workshop focusses on three notions: (1 ... [more ▼]

This exploratory workshop is dedicated to scholars interested in technological developments related to digital technologies and resource developments. The workshop focusses on three notions: (1) historical parallels of digital data with the development of other key material resources, (2) data as a commodity and its infrastructure, and (3) sustainability issues and (big)data. [less ▲]

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See detailTatou pour un débat connecté
Schafer, Valerie UL

Presentation (2021, June 25)

Cette intervention explore les dispositifs télématiques et notamment le 3617 Tatou mis en place au moment de la réforme des PTT pour permettre information, communication et participation au débat.

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