References of "Schafer, Valerie 50030545"
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See detailFrom the history of Internet to Internet and Web histories
Schafer, Valerie UL

Presentation (2020, November 18)

This presentation aims to describe the shift from the history of the Internet to Internet histories by analysing several factors (e.g. influence of media history, web sources, maintenance or platform ... [more ▼]

This presentation aims to describe the shift from the history of the Internet to Internet histories by analysing several factors (e.g. influence of media history, web sources, maintenance or platform studies, etc.). [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysing transnational Events through Web archives
Schafer, Valerie UL

Scientific Conference (2020, November 04)

As a co-PI of the WARCnet project, programme chair of this second WARCnet meeting and head of WG2 dedicated to "Analysing transnational Events", Valérie Schafer will give an overview of the challenges ... [more ▼]

As a co-PI of the WARCnet project, programme chair of this second WARCnet meeting and head of WG2 dedicated to "Analysing transnational Events", Valérie Schafer will give an overview of the challenges, issues, achievements, results, case studies, next steps of WG2 since the launch of the WARCnet project. [less ▲]

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See detailARPANET, toute une histoire...
Schafer, Valerie UL

in 1024 : Bulletin de la Société Informatique de France (2020), (30),

Le lecteur pourra non seulement suivre l’évolution du traitement de l’histoire d’ARPANET − et en filigrane la manière dont celle de l’informatique et du numérique a connu des tournants, mais aussi peut ... [more ▼]

Le lecteur pourra non seulement suivre l’évolution du traitement de l’histoire d’ARPANET − et en filigrane la manière dont celle de l’informatique et du numérique a connu des tournants, mais aussi peut-être poursuivre par la lecture des auteurs cités un parcours qui sort des narrations linéaires et témoigne de la complexité de l’histoire d’ARPANET et de son actualité. [less ▲]

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See detailLes héritages des débuts d’Internet et du Web
Schafer, Valerie UL

Presentation (2020, October 23)

Alors que l’an dernier étaient célébrés les 50 ans du réseau ARPANET et les 30 ans du World Wide Web, ces anniversaires étaient l’occasion de revenir largement sur les fondements du « réseau des réseaux » ... [more ▼]

Alors que l’an dernier étaient célébrés les 50 ans du réseau ARPANET et les 30 ans du World Wide Web, ces anniversaires étaient l’occasion de revenir largement sur les fondements du « réseau des réseaux ». Ce retour aux sources permettait de prendre la mesure des changements intervenus, mais aussi de continuités certaines, ainsi que de valeurs séminales qui sont régulièrement convoquées dans les débats contemporains. Cette intervention se propose de revisiter les héritages des débuts d’Internet et du Web en trois temps : celui de la mémoire, de la nostalgie et de la reconstruction d’un âge d’or d’abord. Ensuite nous aborderons les héritages et patrimoines matériels et immatériels de ces premières communications en réseaux, notamment le patrimoine nativement numérique (Born-Digital Heritage) que sont les archives du Web et les newsgroups de la communauté Usenet. Enfin nous nous intéresserons à la réactualisation récurrente de controverses nées dès les premiers âges du Web, voire en amont (en termes d’anonymisation, régulation, rôle des intermédiaires, neutralité, etc.). [less ▲]

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See detailNetworked Governance and Multistakeholder Cooperation
Bouillard, Maxime; van Weyenbergh, Gaël; Schafer, Valerie UL et al

Presentation (2020, September 08)

At the crossroads of three topics of the workshop (Critical testimonies on the implementation or experiments with new modes of governance; Presentation and analysis of online decision-making tools ... [more ▼]

At the crossroads of three topics of the workshop (Critical testimonies on the implementation or experiments with new modes of governance; Presentation and analysis of online decision-making tools; Prospective outlook on the governance of knowledge and research infrastructures), this presentation allows us to discuss how to increase multistakeholder cooperation between scientists and other stakeholders in practice and to gather perspectives from different cultural backgrounds into the discussion. [less ▲]

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See detailPerspectives on web archive studies: Taking stock, new ideas, next steps
Brügger, Niels; Schafer, Valerie UL; Winters, Jane

Diverse speeches and writings (2020)

A round doc discussion about studying web archives to understand the history of (trans)national web domains and of transnational events on the web. What do we know, are there any new ideas, and what could ... [more ▼]

A round doc discussion about studying web archives to understand the history of (trans)national web domains and of transnational events on the web. What do we know, are there any new ideas, and what could be the next steps? [less ▲]

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See detailExploring special web archives collections related to COVID-19: The case of BnL
Schafer, Valerie UL; Els, Ben

in WARCnet papers (2020)

This WARCnet paper is the second in a series of interviews with Eu- ropean web archivists who have been involved in special collections related to COVID-19. The aim of the series is to provide a general ... [more ▼]

This WARCnet paper is the second in a series of interviews with Eu- ropean web archivists who have been involved in special collections related to COVID-19. The aim of the series is to provide a general overview of COVID-19 web archives. [less ▲]

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See detailVaria
Schafer, Valerie UL; Bahers, Jean-Baptiste

in Flux: Cahiers Scientifiques Internationaux Réseaux et Territoires (2020), 121

Coordination d'un numéro spécial Varia avec JB Bahers en tant que responsables de la rubrique Varia de Flux

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See detailFading Away... The challenge of sustainability in digital studies
Barats, Christine; Schafer, Valerie UL; Fickers, Andreas UL

in Digital Humanities Quarterly (2020), 14(3),

This paper emphasizes the need to think about sustainability as a key element of digital studies and digital hermeneutics. It addresses the inherent tensions between the long-term needs of data ... [more ▼]

This paper emphasizes the need to think about sustainability as a key element of digital studies and digital hermeneutics. It addresses the inherent tensions between the long-term needs of data preservation and maintenance on the one side, and the short life cycles of the data formats, platforms and infrastructures on the other side. Challenges are not limited to the technical maintenance of software, tools and data, but also apply to the wider institutional contexts, epistemic traditions and social practices in which the doing of research in social sciences and humanities are embedded. We explore these tensions at several levels, temporalities and key stages in research – namely data access and building a corpus, establishing a research framework and analysis, and finally the use/dissemination of results. [less ▲]

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See detailExploring special web archives collections related to COVID-19: The case of INA
Schafer, Valerie UL; Thièvre, Jérôme; Banckemane, Boris

in WARCnet Papers (2020)

This WARCnet paper is the first in a series of interviews with Euro- pean web archivists who have been involved in special collections related to COVID-19. The aim of the series is to provide a general ... [more ▼]

This WARCnet paper is the first in a series of interviews with Euro- pean web archivists who have been involved in special collections related to COVID-19. The aim of the series is to provide a general overview of COVID-19 web archives. [less ▲]

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See detailExploring the 20-year evolution of a research community: web-archives as essential sources for historical research
Brügger, Niels; Schafer, Valerie UL; Geeraert, Friedel et al

in Cahiers de la documentation (2020), 2

Le projet PROMISE ne pouvait se concevoir sans aborder la question de l’accès aux archives du web belge. En effet, s’il est important de les sauvegarder, c’est en raison de leur importance comme sources ... [more ▼]

Le projet PROMISE ne pouvait se concevoir sans aborder la question de l’accès aux archives du web belge. En effet, s’il est important de les sauvegarder, c’est en raison de leur importance comme sources d’information pour la recherche. Par conséquent, lors du colloque “Saving the Web: the Promise of a Belgian Web Archive”, l’accès et l’utilisation de ces archives spécifiques ont été largement abordés. Deux des intervenants lors de ce colloque, Valérie Schafer et Niels Brügger, ont accepté de partager leurs expériences respectives quant à l’utilisation d’archives web, celles-ci remontant parfois au début des années 2000. [less ▲]

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See detailNetworked Governance, Enabling Multistakeholder Cooperation
Van Weyenbergh, Gael; Bouillard, Maxime; Wieneke, Lars UL et al

Scientific Conference (2020, June 12)

This workshop gathering 10 participants focused on finding the root cause for the need and purpose for multistakeholder cooperation between social scientists and civil society.

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See detailGlobal technologies, glocal approach: a false paradox
Schafer, Valerie UL

in Esboços: histórias em contextos globais (2020), 27(45), 286-305

This article seeks to identify the factors that have led researchers to root their historical approach in a national or regional context, rather than a global one. This may seem paradoxical when the ... [more ▼]

This article seeks to identify the factors that have led researchers to root their historical approach in a national or regional context, rather than a global one. This may seem paradoxical when the Internet is thought to be global, and digital content and cultures at least partially cross-borders. These approaches are determined by reactions to a history of the Internet that has been far too focused on the United States from the outset, by a desire to consider this history in a given context, and by the historical sources. However, the use of national and regional approaches does not preclude the stimulating comparative or transnational perspectives that may renew this history in terms of infrastructure, missing narratives and user participation, as well as technical and human networks. We even suggest that studying the history of the places, people and communities that remain outside networks (whether by choice or by necessity) could tell us a lot about the global and asymmetric reality of the Internet. [less ▲]

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See detailThe ITU Facing the Emergence of the Internet, 1960s–Early 2000s
Schafer, Valerie UL

in Fickers, Andreas; Balbi, Gabriele (Eds.) History of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) (2020)

The development of data networks was based on the technical convergence of two worlds in the 1960s: telecommunications and computing. The ITU was thereby involved early on through the Consultative ... [more ▼]

The development of data networks was based on the technical convergence of two worlds in the 1960s: telecommunications and computing. The ITU was thereby involved early on through the Consultative Committee for International Telephony and Telegraphy (CCITT, now known as ITU- T) in the debates concerning transport protocols that arose from the 1970s. At the CCITT, telecommunications’ representatives decided in favour of virtual circuits, which enjoyed a long lifespan. Nevertheless, this choice diverged from the one made by the Arpanet’s researchers, and later the Internet’s community. Faced by the success of Internet and a new model of technical decisions and governance arising within the Internet community, which was openly divergent from the standardization previously at work, the ITU generated strong criticism at the end of the 1990s and at the beginning of the 2000s when it tried to enter the Internet field. The ITU then sought to restore its techno-diplomatic role through multi-stakeholderism, of which the World Summit on the Information Society (2003 and 2005) marked a crucial step. By crossing organizational archives, CCITT and ITU reports, oral history, press materials and web archives, this chapter will show how the ITU dealt with the transition from a well-recognized and salient techno-diplomatic role - partly due to the telecommunications’ monopolies- to a more peripheral position during the deregulation and the growth of the Internet. [less ▲]

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See detailInternet histories early career researcher award
Schafer, Valerie UL; Brugger, Niels; Goggin, Gerard et al

in Internet Histories: Digital Technology, Culture and Society (2020), (3),

The five papers of this special issue were candidates for the first Internet Histories Early Career Researcher Award. They represent the next generation of scholarship and show creative, original ... [more ▼]

The five papers of this special issue were candidates for the first Internet Histories Early Career Researcher Award. They represent the next generation of scholarship and show creative, original approaches to the study of internet history. These papers all help enrich our perspectives and broaden them in many ways, from Brazil to China, from Cyberactivitst to Civil Society at large, from Gender Studies to Platform Studies, from Emails to Interfaces, while demonstrating again that there is no unique path to write “Internet Histories.” [less ▲]

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See detailInternet histories early career researcher award
Brügger, Niels; Goggin, Gerard; Milligan, Ian et al

in Internet Histories: Digital Technology, Culture and Society (2020)

The five papers of this special issue were candidates for the first Internet Histories Early Career Researcher Award. They represent the next generation of scholarship and show creative, original ... [more ▼]

The five papers of this special issue were candidates for the first Internet Histories Early Career Researcher Award. They represent the next generation of scholarship and show creative, original approaches to the study of internet history. These papers all help enrich our perspectives and broaden them in many ways, from Brazil to China, from Cyberactivitst to Civil Society at large, from Gender Studies to Platform Studies, from Emails to Interfaces, while demonstrating again that there is no unique path to write “Internet Histories.” [less ▲]

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See detailContextualising and engaging with Web domains
Schafer, Valerie UL

Presentation (2020, May 05)

This presentation suggests concrete avenues both to contextualize research on web domains and domain names (e.g. collaboration with the Afnic in France and use of its web archives to retrieve the price of ... [more ▼]

This presentation suggests concrete avenues both to contextualize research on web domains and domain names (e.g. collaboration with the Afnic in France and use of its web archives to retrieve the price of a domain name, its policy for allocating domain names, the number of domain names it allocated with regards to the domain names retrieved in web archives, etc.) but also to create public engagement with this topic (identifying the first web page in each country, the most represented twitter accounts in web archives, etc.). [less ▲]

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See detailStudying Events: Feedback on a Pedagogical Experiment
Schafer, Valerie UL

Presentation (2020, May 05)

Based on the experience of the Winter School I conducted for 2 years on Web archives at the university of Luxembourg and which involved research on European events and Europan history by Master’s students ... [more ▼]

Based on the experience of the Winter School I conducted for 2 years on Web archives at the university of Luxembourg and which involved research on European events and Europan history by Master’s students, I will draw some methodological conclusions (interesting topics, difficulties in grasping participation, typology of transnational events with regard to Web archives, issues of visual studies and transmedia studies...). [less ▲]

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See detailNaissance et extension du réseau Internet
Schafer, Valerie UL

Learning material (2020)

Du réseau ARPANET né dans le contexte de la guerre froide aux réseaux socio-numériques d’aujourd’hui, le développement des communications numériques en réseau a entraîné en cinquante ans des changements ... [more ▼]

Du réseau ARPANET né dans le contexte de la guerre froide aux réseaux socio-numériques d’aujourd’hui, le développement des communications numériques en réseau a entraîné en cinquante ans des changements majeurs, que ce soit en termes d’usages et de services mais aussi d’utilisateurs, passés d’un public plutôt restreint et universitaire au grand public. Le développement mondial d’Internet à partir de la décennie 1990 a eu un impact sur l’organisation de l’information et des communications numériques, ce qui n’est pas sans poser des défis techniques, mais aussi politiques, économiques et sociétaux. Il s’agit ici d’étudier Internet de sa naissance à la fin des années 1960 au World Wide Web de la fin des années 1980. Quelques tournants majeurs ont contribué à faire du « réseau des réseaux » et de ses services le vecteur d’une information à la fois de plus en plus mondialisée, mais aussi de plus en plus individualisée sous l’effet des moteurs de recherche, des filtres, des applications fermées développées par de grandes entreprises comme Google et des réseaux socio-numériques. [less ▲]

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See detail“The internet and the European market” from a multidisciplinary perspective: a “round-doc” discussion
Schafer, Valerie UL; Fickers, Andreas UL; Howarth, David UL et al

in Internet Histories: Digital Technology, Culture and Society (2020), (2),

Received 24 February 2020 Accepted 28 February 2020 KEYWORDS EU Market; Internet; Digital Market; Governance; Digital Europe; Regulation ABSTRACT David Howarth, Francesca Musiani, Julia Pohle and Dwayne ... [more ▼]

Received 24 February 2020 Accepted 28 February 2020 KEYWORDS EU Market; Internet; Digital Market; Governance; Digital Europe; Regulation ABSTRACT David Howarth, Francesca Musiani, Julia Pohle and Dwayne Winseck were invited to discuss the main topic of this special issue, “The internet and the EU market.” This conversation at the crossroads of several research areas (communication studies, soci- ology, science and technology studies and political science) brought together leading experts who shared their experience, research and expertise on the internet, European integration, gov- ernance issues, etc. They referred to several topics that are addressed in the papers in this issue, such as the taxation of digital services, net neutrality and the openness of networks, as they discussed questions related to the realities and limits of the notion of “Digital Europe”, changing discourses on the EU’s digital economy, the concept of European governance and the turning points and key events in the relationship between the internet and the EU market since the 1990s. [less ▲]

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