References of "Schafer, Valerie 50030545"
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See detailInternet histories second early career researcher award
Milligan, Ian; Brügger, Niels; Goggin, Gerard et al

in Internet Histories: Digital Technology, Culture and Society (2022)

This special issue is the result of our second call for the Internet Histories Early Career Researcher Award. For the second time, in 2021, the journal Internet Histories has invited any interested early ... [more ▼]

This special issue is the result of our second call for the Internet Histories Early Career Researcher Award. For the second time, in 2021, the journal Internet Histories has invited any interested early career researchers (masters students, doctoral students, and post-doctoral researchers) whose research focuses on the history of the Internet and/or the Web, and histories of digital cultures — or any historical topic within the scope of the Internet Histories journal, to apply for the award and to submit an original article. [less ▲]

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See detailRoundtable : (Digital) Cultural Heritage at risk. Lessons learned for future preservation strategies
Schafer, Valerie UL

Presentation (2022, November 23)

www.c2dh.uni.lu The Russian invasion of Ukraine on the 24th of February 2022 shattered long held beliefs and certainties including the idea that all things digital exist in an ephemeral sphere outside of ... [more ▼]

www.c2dh.uni.lu The Russian invasion of Ukraine on the 24th of February 2022 shattered long held beliefs and certainties including the idea that all things digital exist in an ephemeral sphere outside of the grim realities of the physical world. Instead, the war emphasized the fragility of servers,data and critical infrastructure to physical threats and their exposure to online attacks. At the same time and thanks to social networks and digital communication tools, new forms of ad-hoc support emerged that gave rise to the agency of individuals in supporting and safeguarding Ukrainian (digital) Cultural Heritage. This round table aims to reflect upon the challenges imposed on these efforts from multiple perspectives – be it from the technical point of view on providing backups and fallback infrastructures up to the impact of data protection regulations and coordination strategies for volunteers. In a discussion between internationally renowned experts we want to take stock in the lessons learned and to understand how to make (digital) cultural heritage more resilient. [less ▲]

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See detail“Small is impactful”. Memes and Politics
Pailler, Fred UL; Schafer, Valerie UL

Scientific Conference (2022, October 20)

From the Hampster Dance and the Dancing Baby in the second half of the 1990s to the hijacking meme of Bernie and his mittens at the US presidential inauguration or the images of the Evergreen blocked in ... [more ▼]

From the Hampster Dance and the Dancing Baby in the second half of the 1990s to the hijacking meme of Bernie and his mittens at the US presidential inauguration or the images of the Evergreen blocked in the Suez Canal, memes have become in the last twenty years an important part of our digital cultures (Shifman, 2014), whose often absurd, playful, corrosive and viral character cannot hide also multiple political dimensions. To the question "Do Memes have politics", to paraphrase Langdon Winner (1980), the answer is undoubtedly yes and this presentation aims to analyse the many levels of politics and agencies at stake when studying memes and their impact, in terms of digital cultures, governance, curation, sharing (John, 2017), appropriation by several communities, but also writing of their history. The first part of the presentation unfolded several levels of politics, starting with the most obvious (memes address political aspects, see for example Denisova, 2019 or Askanius and Keller, 2021) to the more hidden levels (politics of meme generators, of heritagization platform like Know your Meme (Pettis, 2021), of curation …). Relying on a diachronic approach, from the Godwin Law to Distracted Boyfriend, through Leave Britney Alone, this part aimed to address both complementary sides of these Internet phenomena: memes as political forms and politics of memes, while underlying some economic, gendered, affective dimensions which are part of their impact. We then examined the consequences of the notion of “impact” and “politics” for the shaping of an history of memes, which is at stake in the Hivi (A history of online virality) project, we are currently conducting, may it be in terms of sources, methods (“scalable” and “medium” reading), or topics (notably claiming for a study of circulation and flow (Jenkins, 2009), of processes, of participation (Milner, 2018) and appropriation, beyond a sole semiotic approach of memes). References Tina Askanius, Nadine Keller, “Murder fantasies in memes: fascist aesthetics of death threats and the banalization of white supremacist violence”, Information, Communication & Society, 2021, vol. 0, n° 0, p. 1 18. Anastasia Denisova, Internet memes and society: social, cultural, and political contexts, New York, Routledge, 2019. Nicholas A. John, The age of sharing, Cambridge, Polity Press, 2017. Henry Jenkins, If It Doesn’t Spread, It’s Dead (Part One): Media Viruses and Memes, 2009 (http://henryjenkins.org/blog/2009/02/if_it_doesnt_spread_its_dead_p.html). Ryan Milner, The world made meme: Public conversations and participatory media, Cambridge MA, The MIT Press, 2018. Ben Tadayoshi Pettis, “Know your Meme and the Homogeneization of Web History”, Internet Histories, 2021 (to be soon published). Limor Shifman, Memes in digital culture, Cambridge MA, The MIT Press, 2014. Langdon Winner, “Do artifacts have politics ?”, Daedalus, vol. 109, n°1, 1980, p. 121-136. [less ▲]

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See detailSpecial ECREA panel : Rethinking digital sources — making web archives useful for future scholars
Schafer, Valerie UL

Scientific Conference (2022, October 20)

The aim of this panel was to draw attention to the large number of archived web collections, and to rethink the challenges and possibilities that they constitute for studies of past and present mediated ... [more ▼]

The aim of this panel was to draw attention to the large number of archived web collections, and to rethink the challenges and possibilities that they constitute for studies of past and present mediated communication. The point of departure is the international network WARCnet, Web ARChive studies net- work researching web domains and events (warcnet.eu), that is composed of humanities scholars, IT-developers, and web archivists, and that aims at promoting national and transnational research that will help us to understand the history of (trans)national web domains and of transnational events on the web, drawing on the increasingly important digital cultural heritage held in national web archives. [less ▲]

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See detail“Challenge accepted”. The many sources to catch the history of virality and memes
Schafer, Valerie UL

Scientific Conference (2022, October 20)

Gifs and memes (Kaplan and Nova, 2016), “buzz” on the Web and social networks are inherent to digital cultures since the very first steps of the Web (i.e., Godwin’s Law, Dancing babies, Hamster Dance, cf ... [more ▼]

Gifs and memes (Kaplan and Nova, 2016), “buzz” on the Web and social networks are inherent to digital cultures since the very first steps of the Web (i.e., Godwin’s Law, Dancing babies, Hamster Dance, cf. McGrath, 2019). Virality has developed and changed over time, may it be related to forms (macro images, videos, etc.) and platforms (YouTube, 4Chan, Twitter, TikTok, etc.), audiences, curation and dissemination (with features encouraging spreadability within social platforms), etc., while relying on some patterns that were identified by Shifman (2014), Milner (2018), Jenkins (2009) and others. However, history and diachronic approaches still remain underrepresented in studies of online virality, although Finn Brunton’s Spam, Jason Eppink’s visual history of gifs (2014), or the Memes entry in The Sage Handbook of Web History (McGrath, 2019) can be mentioned. Historicizing virality through times, spaces and platforms is at the heart of the Hivi project at C2DH, University of Luxembourg (https://hivi.uni.lu). While starting to historicize these “Internet phenomena”, may it be Numa Numa Guy, Leave Britney Alone, Grumpy Cat, the Harlem Shake, Distracted Boyfriends, etc., challenges related to sources become more and more obvious: researchers have to deal with ephemerality as well as data overload, with several spaces of heritagization on the live and archived web, with gaps, silences and noises, issues of searchability in web archives, etc. This presentation focused on a case study, the Harlem Shake, to first demonstrate the variety of sources and spaces (physical and digital) that may be used to retrieve and rebuild this phenomenon (i.e., press, audiovisual content, archived web in several institutions, live web and platforms, etc.). It then presented the challenges related to this kind of reconstruction that is also strongly intertwining vernacular and commercial cultures; sound, video, textual contents; local as well as international spaces, etc. [less ▲]

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See detailLet’s talk about web archiving … three institutions, many possibilities
Schafer, Valerie UL

Scientific Conference (2022, October 18)

This presentation focused on three oral interviews I conducted during the COVID crisis, respectively with the BnL (Bibliothèque nationale du Luxembourg, Els, 2020) in Luxembourg and with INA (Institut ... [more ▼]

This presentation focused on three oral interviews I conducted during the COVID crisis, respectively with the BnL (Bibliothèque nationale du Luxembourg, Els, 2020) in Luxembourg and with INA (Institut national de l’audiovisuel, Schafer, 2020b) and BnF (Bibliothèque nationale de France, Gebeil et al., 2020) in France, to document their web archiving practices and choices during the pandemic. Oral histories not only document the collections and often hidden practices of crawling, selecting, curating and preserving data. They also provide a lot of information on living collections, on the challenges at stake and on human participation in this process. It also enlightens values and governance of web archives and web archiving practices (Schafer and Winters, 2021). Moreover, documenting web archiving is necessary for the current and future work of researchers and may help them to better understand their datasets, the representativeness of collections, bias and limits as well as the strengths of these web archives. Our presentation first compared the practices in the three institutions we selected as case studies for this presentation, in terms of perimeters, curation, stakeholders, targets - INA being a specific case as it focused more precisely on Twitter and retrieved data from the Twitter API, while the BnL and BnF targeted websites more widely (and some social networks but in a less systematic way). We also explained how these oral histories may help to better understand the shaping of web archives. We finally gave several concrete examples of the usefulness of this material for researchers who conduct research on web archives, and more specifically on the COVID crisis, in terms of transnational approaches, and silences and noises in web archives (Brügger, 2018), etc. [less ▲]

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See detailRetrieve me if you can... Women and COVID through Web archives
Schafer, Valerie UL

Scientific Conference (2022, October 18)

The COVID crisis has been a shared worldwide and collective experience from March 2020 and lot of voices have echoed each other, may it be related to grief, lockdown, masks and vaccines, homeschooling ... [more ▼]

The COVID crisis has been a shared worldwide and collective experience from March 2020 and lot of voices have echoed each other, may it be related to grief, lockdown, masks and vaccines, homeschooling, etc. However, this unprecedented crisis has also deepened asymmetries and failures within societies, in terms of occupational fields, economic inequalities, health and sanitary access, and we could extend the inventory of these hidden and more visible gaps that were reinforced during the crisis. Women and gender were also at stake when it came to this sanitary crisis, may it be to discuss the better management of the crisis by female politicians, domestic violence during the lockdown, decreasing production of papers by female research scientists, homeschooling and mental load of women, etc. In December 2021, our AWAC2 team submitted several topics to the IIPC (International Internet Preservation Consortium) community and invited the international organization to select one of them that the team would investigate in depth, based on the unique IIPC Covid collection of web archives. Women, gender and COVID was the winning topic. As a cohort team within the AUT (Archives Unleashed Team) program, the AWAC2 team benefited from a privileged access to this collection, thanks to Archive-It and through ARCH, and from regular mentorship by the AUT team. It allowed us to investigate and analyse this huge collection of 5.3 TB, 161 757 lines for the CSV on domain frequency CSV, 8,738,751 lines for the CSV related to plain text of web pages. Accepting the challenge, the AWAC2 team organized a datathon in March 2022 in Luxembourg to investigate and retrieve the many traces of women, gender and COVID in web archives, while mixing close and distant reading. This panel, chaired by Valérie Schafer, aimed to present this research, entwining technical, epistemological, and methodological issues and challenges with our results. Valérie Schafer began the panel by presenting an overview of the project, including a presentation of the IIPC corpus, of the AUT cohort program and of the research topic. Karin de Wild and Joshgun Sirajzade presented the AUT tools and interfaces, the technical challenges of the corpus, the choices we made (and notably with regards to multilingualism) as well as the tools and methodologies that were used. Finally, Susan Aasman and Sophie Gebeil presented some results and challenges of this research. [less ▲]

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See detailLes Influenceurs. Une plongée dans les pratiques et cultures numériques
Schafer, Valerie UL

Speeches/Talks (2022)

Le jeudi 13 octobre 2022 de 17.00 à 18.30, une table ronde co-organisée par la BnL et le C²DH réunissait Natascha Bintz, Luca de Michele, Anne Faber et Ben Olinger sur le thème «Les Influenceurs. Une ... [more ▼]

Le jeudi 13 octobre 2022 de 17.00 à 18.30, une table ronde co-organisée par la BnL et le C²DH réunissait Natascha Bintz, Luca de Michele, Anne Faber et Ben Olinger sur le thème «Les Influenceurs. Une plongée dans les pratiques et cultures numériques». Nous avons abordé avec eux leur parcours, leur ligne éditoriale, leur lien avec leur audience, mais aussi les enjeux culturels, économiques, professionnels, genrés ou encore technologiques de leur activité. [less ▲]

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See detailA discussion on international interdisciplinary collaborations. Working at the European level
Schafer, Valerie UL

Presentation (2022, October 06)

Roundtable related to interdisciplinary and international collaborations

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See detailCombiner lecture proche et distante: l’exemple de la viralité en ligne
Schafer, Valerie UL

Presentation (2022, September 13)

Cette intervention s’intéressera à la combinaison de la lecture proche et distante, des échelles micro et macro, en proposant de réfléchir aux enjeux, outils, défis et parfois limites de ce qui est ... [more ▼]

Cette intervention s’intéressera à la combinaison de la lecture proche et distante, des échelles micro et macro, en proposant de réfléchir aux enjeux, outils, défis et parfois limites de ce qui est qualifié de scalable reading . Des recherches en cours sur la viralité en ligne et les mèmes, et notamment le cas du Harlem Shake, seront pris pour cas d'étude, avant d’inviter les participants à penser à leur tour leur sujet en terme de scalable reading . [less ▲]

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See detailViralité
Schafer, Valerie UL; Pailler, Fred UL

in Walter, Jacques (Ed.) Publictionnaire. Dictionnaire encyclopédique et critique des publics (2022)

Entry related to virality in this online dictionary on public and audience

Detailed reference viewed: 44 (1 UL)
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See detailPublic Engagement with Web Archives
Brügger, Niels; Schafer, Valerie UL

Scientific Conference (2022, August 17)

With a view to ensuring future access to digital cultural heritage, the first Web collections were established in the mid-1990s. To date there exist for example some 25 national Web archives in Europe ... [more ▼]

With a view to ensuring future access to digital cultural heritage, the first Web collections were established in the mid-1990s. To date there exist for example some 25 national Web archives in Europe that collect and preserve Web material and the Internet Archive has saved 651 billion pages since 1996. However, research projects based on the archived Web rarely engage with or include the general public. There are several reasons for this limited use of Web archives: there is a lack of awareness and a lack of examples demonstrating their value; to use them requires skills that many people do not have; and no quick and easy access is available (Winters, 2017). However, several research projects were developed which are of interest for the general public: some of them have studied national Web ('Probing a nation’s Web sphere — the historical development of the Danish Web' (DK, 2013-), 'Big UK Domain Data for the Arts and Humanities' (UK, 2014-15), etc.), others have focused on the web activity in relation to an event, for instance the terrorist attacks in France (‘Archives sauvegarde attentats Paris' (FR, 2016)). In 2020, a nationally funded researcher network has been established (WARCnet, DK). Web archiving initiatives have also been very reactive during the COVID crisis (and sometimes invited the public to nominate URLs). This resulted in huge national collections and a unique collection of international web archives gathered by the IIPC thanks to the collaboration of more than 30 web archiving institutions (https://archive-it.org/collections/13529). As leaders of and/or participants in several of these initiatives, the proposers aim to stimulate greater involvement of the public with the treasure trove to be found in Web archives. Web archives contain their histories, but these important stories are largely hidden from view. The proposers want to create a frame for developing an ambitious relationship with the public, by identifying the challenges and limits to their involvement in Digital Public History at the level of: - Web archiving How/why could we better include publics in the selection of archived content? What is the added value? What are the constraints (i.e legal deposit)? How can we make information about access to Web archives available and raise public awareness of Web archiving? - Selection and analysis of archives Web archives require good knowledge of the Web archiving process if they are to be used effectively. The identification of scarce existing resources for the general public will be coupled with a perspective on needs and tools. - Dissemination Legal and ethical issues (author rights, gender bias, etc.) must be taken into account and the very notion of what is public must be refined. All these elements advocate for an in-depth reflection and this working group is the starting point for a better inclusion of audiences in the creation/selection, use and enhancement of Web archives. [less ▲]

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See detailPanels at "Rethinking and Rebuilding Grand Narratives in the History of Computing"
Schafer, Valerie UL

Presentation (2022, July 04)

Participation at two roundtables : Could we structure a big story around the materialities of data, computation and networks? Roundtable discussion featuring Cyrus Mody (Maastricht University), Moritz ... [more ▼]

Participation at two roundtables : Could we structure a big story around the materialities of data, computation and networks? Roundtable discussion featuring Cyrus Mody (Maastricht University), Moritz Feichtinger (Universität Bern), Axel Volmar (Siegen University) & Valérie Schafer (C2DH, University of Luxembourg, moderator) / Can we integrate issues of gender, justice and embodiment into the story of the computer itself or must these narratives remain separate and particular? Roundtable discussion featuring Valérie Schafer (C2DH, University of Luxembourg), Jeffrey Yost (Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota) and Elizabeth Petrick (Rice University, moderator). [less ▲]

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See detailPréserve-moi ! Des journaux intimes à ceux de confinement dans les archives du Web
Schafer, Valerie UL

in Le Temps des Médias (2022)

Souvent éphémères, les pages personnelles, les blogs et aujourd’hui les écritures de soi et intimes sur les réseaux socio-numériques, jusqu’aux journaux de confinement nés lors de la crise COVID, sont ... [more ▼]

Souvent éphémères, les pages personnelles, les blogs et aujourd’hui les écritures de soi et intimes sur les réseaux socio-numériques, jusqu’aux journaux de confinement nés lors de la crise COVID, sont toutefois partiellement préservés dans les archives du Web. En explorant leur conservation, notamment au sein de la Bibliothèque nationale de France, et les limites et défis que posent ces sources nativement numériques, il s’agit de saisir les enjeux de préservation de ces contenus personnels, intimes, littéraires, vernaculaires, multimédias, mais aussi les possibilités de recherche qu’ils offrent pour l’histoire du numérique et de ses cultures. [less ▲]

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See detailCompte-rendu de l'ouvrage: Fake News & viralité avant Internet. Les lapins du Père- Lachaise et autres légendes médiatiques
Schafer, Valerie UL

in Le Temps des Médias (2022), 38

Recension de l'ouvrage : Roy Pinker, Fake News & viralité avant Internet. Les lapins du Père- Lachaise et autres légendes média- tiques, Paris, CNRS Éditions, 2020, 231 pages.

Detailed reference viewed: 255 (2 UL)
See detailWeb archives of the COVID-crisis : challenges related to short-term and long-term readability
Schafer, Valerie UL

Scientific Conference (2022, June 29)

During the COVID-19 crisis many institutions have started live and special collections related to web archives of the pandemic. Many libraries have also been involved in an initiative led by the IIPC ... [more ▼]

During the COVID-19 crisis many institutions have started live and special collections related to web archives of the pandemic. Many libraries have also been involved in an initiative led by the IIPC (International Internet Preservation Consortium) to gather a huge international collection of web archives available through Archive-It. Taking as a starting point two research projects related to the analysis of the web archiving of the COVID crisis, that we conducted within WARCnet and through the AWAC2 cohort program, this presentation will focus on issues related to scalable reading, contextualization of datasets, FAIR data, sustainability, inclusiveness, etc., in order to unfold the challenges of these collections and of their analysis in a short and in a long term perspective. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 20 (0 UL)
See detailKeep calm and stay focused. Historicising and intertwining scales and temporalities of online virality
Schafer, Valerie UL; Pailler, Fred UL

Presentation (2022, June 22)

This presentation takes online virality as its starting point, specifically that of memes and the question of their historicisation , in order to question how they may be resituated in a context of ... [more ▼]

This presentation takes online virality as its starting point, specifically that of memes and the question of their historicisation , in order to question how they may be resituated in a context of production and circulation, taking social, spatial and temporal logics into account. After a discussion of the scalable reading as applied to virality, with specific emphasis on the importance of the spatial and temporal aspects, we propose a case study based on the Harlem Shake. [less ▲]

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See detailStudying transnational events through web archives
Schafer, Valerie UL

Scientific Conference (2022, June 13)

This presentation was an update of the work of WG2 related to web archives and transnational events I'm leading within the WARCnet project.

Detailed reference viewed: 35 (1 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailUnlocking web archives through metadata, seed lists and derived data
Clavert, Frédéric UL; Schafer, Valerie UL

Scientific Conference (2022, June 01)

This presentation addresses the use, re-use, access and dissemination of data related to web archives. Web archives (Brügger, 2018) have been for several years in a hybrid position regarding access ... [more ▼]

This presentation addresses the use, re-use, access and dissemination of data related to web archives. Web archives (Brügger, 2018) have been for several years in a hybrid position regarding access, depending on the institutions that were preserving them. While Internet Archive has made its collections available online since 2001 through the Wayback Machine (but with limited features for scholars willing to conduct a distant reading based on data, WARC files, etc.), most national libraries only allowed an onsite access due to authors rights restrictions (and in some cases the frame of legal deposits), while starting to provide interesting metadata for research projects willing to explore them. However, the situation is currently evolving in the frame of several research projects that allow to access a vast amount of (international) metadata and datasets. Taking two research projects in progress as case studies, WARCnet and AWAC2, this paper aims to present the move towards the use of metadata and derived data related to huge collections of web archives of the COVID crisis. WARCnet (Web ARChive studies network researching web domains and events) is a network whose activities (funded by the Independent Research Fund Denmark | Humanities (grant no 9055-00005B)) run in 2020-2023. The networking activities are guided by overarching research questions, one of them being “How transnational events developed on the European web?” (and notably the COVID crisis which is explored in WG2 (https://cc.au.dk/en/warcnet/working-groups)). AWAC2 (Analysing Web Archives of the COVID Crisis through the IIPC Novel Coronavirus dataset) is a project part of the Archives Unleashed Cohort Program, that supports and facilitates research engagement with web archives. It aims to explore a unique collection of web material (https://archive-it.org/collections/13529) related to the pandemic, with contributions from over 30 members of IIPC (International Internet Preservation Consortium) as well as public nominations from over 100 individuals/institutions. May it be in terms of access or tools, both projects are currently exploring new methodologies based on broad datasets (i.e. 5,3 TB for the IIPC collection related to the COVID crisis; 9.4 GB and 8,738,751 lines for the CSV related to plain text webpages). Starting with the WARCnet project, the presentation will explain how its WG2 gathered and accessed several national European datasets of COVID web archives, their specificities as well as their heterogeneity, the first analysis conducted through a datathon on January- February 2021 (Aasman et al. 2021) and the limits and assets of such access. Within the AWAC2 project (2021-2022) the access to the international IIPC COVID collection, through Archive-It and through the cohort program developed by the Archives Unleashed Team (Netpreserve, 2021; Ruest et al., 2021), is then a new opportunity to access data through mediated interfaces (ARCH) and to go further into them. Here again the presentation will demonstrate new opportunities and show a few examples of the analysis conducted by the team. Both examples aim to present the way web archiving institutions, libraries and researchers are developing new ways of accessing and exploring web archives, while also increasing their value(s) (Schafer and Winters, 2021). References Aasman, S., Bingham, N., Brügger, N., de Wild, K., Gebeil S. & Schafer V. (2021). Chicken and Egg: Reporting from a Datathon Exploring Datasets of the COVID- 19 Special Collections, WARCnet paper, Aarhus, https://cc.au.dk/fileadmin/dac/Projekter/WARCnet/Aasman_et_al_Chicken_and_Egg.pdf Brügger, N. (2018). The Archived Web. Doing History in the Digital Age. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. IIPC (2021), A Retrospective with the Archives Unleashed Project, netpreserve blog, https://netpreserveblog.wordpress.com/2021/04/01/a-retrospective-with-the-archives-unleashed-project/ Ruest, N., Fritz, S., Deschamps, R. Lin, J. & Milligan, I. (2021) From archive to analysis: accessing web archives at scale through a cloud-based interface. International Journal of Digital Humanities, https://paperity.org/p/260049927/from-archive-to-analysis-accessing-web-archives-at-scale-through-a-cloud-based-interface Schafer V. & Winters J. (2021). The values of web archives, International Journal of Digital Humanities, 1-10, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8190571/ [less ▲]

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See detail“Use”: When personas become real users…
Clavert, Frédéric UL; Schafer, Valerie UL

Scientific Conference (2022, May 24)

Building upon our experience with ARCH, our study related to the IIPC Novel Coronavirus collection, as well as upon the first months of research we conducted as a cohort team in the Archives Unleashed ... [more ▼]

Building upon our experience with ARCH, our study related to the IIPC Novel Coronavirus collection, as well as upon the first months of research we conducted as a cohort team in the Archives Unleashed Project, we will provide feedback related to users’ needs and achievements. Ian Milligan distinguished in his paper “You shouldn’t Need to be a Web Historian to Use Web Archives: Lowering Barriers to Access Through Community and Infrastructure” (WARCnet paper, Aarhus, 2020), three personas: a computational humanist, a digital humanist, and a conventional historian. As an heterogeneous team, mirroring in some ways the personas distinguished by Ian Milligan, we will underline the successes and failures we experienced, the technical layers and levels we unfolded, our experience of collective work which also needs to take interdisciplinarity and heterogeneity (of technical skills, interests, availability, digital literacy) into account, the value of mentorship and our iterative process with data and research questions. We will finally shortly discuss the many pros and few cons in lowering barriers to access web archives (e.g. How to make access easiest without hiding the complexity of web archives?). [less ▲]

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