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See detailWeb archives of the COVID-crisis : challenges related to short-term and long-term readability
Schafer, Valerie UL

Scientific Conference (2022, June 29)

During the COVID-19 crisis many institutions have started live and special collections related to web archives of the pandemic. Many libraries have also been involved in an initiative led by the IIPC ... [more ▼]

During the COVID-19 crisis many institutions have started live and special collections related to web archives of the pandemic. Many libraries have also been involved in an initiative led by the IIPC (International Internet Preservation Consortium) to gather a huge international collection of web archives available through Archive-It. Taking as a starting point two research projects related to the analysis of the web archiving of the COVID crisis, that we conducted within WARCnet and through the AWAC2 cohort program, this presentation will focus on issues related to scalable reading, contextualization of datasets, FAIR data, sustainability, inclusiveness, etc., in order to unfold the challenges of these collections and of their analysis in a short and in a long term perspective. [less ▲]

See detailKeep calm and stay focused. Historicising and intertwining scales and temporalities of online virality
Schafer, Valerie UL; Pailler, Fred UL

Presentation (2022, June 22)

This presentation takes online virality as its starting point, specifically that of memes and the question of their historicisation , in order to question how they may be resituated in a context of ... [more ▼]

This presentation takes online virality as its starting point, specifically that of memes and the question of their historicisation , in order to question how they may be resituated in a context of production and circulation, taking social, spatial and temporal logics into account. After a discussion of the scalable reading as applied to virality, with specific emphasis on the importance of the spatial and temporal aspects, we propose a case study based on the Harlem Shake. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (0 UL)
See detailStudying transnational events through web archives
Schafer, Valerie UL

Scientific Conference (2022, June 13)

This presentation was an update of the work of WG2 related to web archives and transnational events I'm leading within the WARCnet project.

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Peer Reviewed
See detailUnlocking web archives through metadata, seed lists and derived data
Clavert, Frédéric UL; Schafer, Valerie UL

Scientific Conference (2022, June 01)

This presentation addresses the use, re-use, access and dissemination of data related to web archives. Web archives (Brügger, 2018) have been for several years in a hybrid position regarding access ... [more ▼]

This presentation addresses the use, re-use, access and dissemination of data related to web archives. Web archives (Brügger, 2018) have been for several years in a hybrid position regarding access, depending on the institutions that were preserving them. While Internet Archive has made its collections available online since 2001 through the Wayback Machine (but with limited features for scholars willing to conduct a distant reading based on data, WARC files, etc.), most national libraries only allowed an onsite access due to authors rights restrictions (and in some cases the frame of legal deposits), while starting to provide interesting metadata for research projects willing to explore them. However, the situation is currently evolving in the frame of several research projects that allow to access a vast amount of (international) metadata and datasets. Taking two research projects in progress as case studies, WARCnet and AWAC2, this paper aims to present the move towards the use of metadata and derived data related to huge collections of web archives of the COVID crisis. WARCnet (Web ARChive studies network researching web domains and events) is a network whose activities (funded by the Independent Research Fund Denmark | Humanities (grant no 9055-00005B)) run in 2020-2023. The networking activities are guided by overarching research questions, one of them being “How transnational events developed on the European web?” (and notably the COVID crisis which is explored in WG2 (https://cc.au.dk/en/warcnet/working-groups)). AWAC2 (Analysing Web Archives of the COVID Crisis through the IIPC Novel Coronavirus dataset) is a project part of the Archives Unleashed Cohort Program, that supports and facilitates research engagement with web archives. It aims to explore a unique collection of web material (https://archive-it.org/collections/13529) related to the pandemic, with contributions from over 30 members of IIPC (International Internet Preservation Consortium) as well as public nominations from over 100 individuals/institutions. May it be in terms of access or tools, both projects are currently exploring new methodologies based on broad datasets (i.e. 5,3 TB for the IIPC collection related to the COVID crisis; 9.4 GB and 8,738,751 lines for the CSV related to plain text webpages). Starting with the WARCnet project, the presentation will explain how its WG2 gathered and accessed several national European datasets of COVID web archives, their specificities as well as their heterogeneity, the first analysis conducted through a datathon on January- February 2021 (Aasman et al. 2021) and the limits and assets of such access. Within the AWAC2 project (2021-2022) the access to the international IIPC COVID collection, through Archive-It and through the cohort program developed by the Archives Unleashed Team (Netpreserve, 2021; Ruest et al., 2021), is then a new opportunity to access data through mediated interfaces (ARCH) and to go further into them. Here again the presentation will demonstrate new opportunities and show a few examples of the analysis conducted by the team. Both examples aim to present the way web archiving institutions, libraries and researchers are developing new ways of accessing and exploring web archives, while also increasing their value(s) (Schafer and Winters, 2021). References Aasman, S., Bingham, N., Brügger, N., de Wild, K., Gebeil S. & Schafer V. (2021). Chicken and Egg: Reporting from a Datathon Exploring Datasets of the COVID- 19 Special Collections, WARCnet paper, Aarhus, https://cc.au.dk/fileadmin/dac/Projekter/WARCnet/Aasman_et_al_Chicken_and_Egg.pdf Brügger, N. (2018). The Archived Web. Doing History in the Digital Age. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. IIPC (2021), A Retrospective with the Archives Unleashed Project, netpreserve blog, https://netpreserveblog.wordpress.com/2021/04/01/a-retrospective-with-the-archives-unleashed-project/ Ruest, N., Fritz, S., Deschamps, R. Lin, J. & Milligan, I. (2021) From archive to analysis: accessing web archives at scale through a cloud-based interface. International Journal of Digital Humanities, https://paperity.org/p/260049927/from-archive-to-analysis-accessing-web-archives-at-scale-through-a-cloud-based-interface Schafer V. & Winters J. (2021). The values of web archives, International Journal of Digital Humanities, 1-10, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8190571/ [less ▲]

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Peer Reviewed
See detail“Use”: When personas become real users…
Clavert, Frédéric UL; Schafer, Valerie UL

Scientific Conference (2022, May 24)

Building upon our experience with ARCH, our study related to the IIPC Novel Coronavirus collection, as well as upon the first months of research we conducted as a cohort team in the Archives Unleashed ... [more ▼]

Building upon our experience with ARCH, our study related to the IIPC Novel Coronavirus collection, as well as upon the first months of research we conducted as a cohort team in the Archives Unleashed Project, we will provide feedback related to users’ needs and achievements. Ian Milligan distinguished in his paper “You shouldn’t Need to be a Web Historian to Use Web Archives: Lowering Barriers to Access Through Community and Infrastructure” (WARCnet paper, Aarhus, 2020), three personas: a computational humanist, a digital humanist, and a conventional historian. As an heterogeneous team, mirroring in some ways the personas distinguished by Ian Milligan, we will underline the successes and failures we experienced, the technical layers and levels we unfolded, our experience of collective work which also needs to take interdisciplinarity and heterogeneity (of technical skills, interests, availability, digital literacy) into account, the value of mentorship and our iterative process with data and research questions. We will finally shortly discuss the many pros and few cons in lowering barriers to access web archives (e.g. How to make access easiest without hiding the complexity of web archives?). [less ▲]

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See detailLes archives du Web, des sources aux données
Schafer, Valerie UL

Scientific Conference (2022, May 20)

This keynote during Humanistica 2022 aimed to retrace 15 years of evolution of web archiving and web archives' studies. It also presented some research projects like the current Hivi, WARCnet and AWAC2 ... [more ▼]

This keynote during Humanistica 2022 aimed to retrace 15 years of evolution of web archiving and web archives' studies. It also presented some research projects like the current Hivi, WARCnet and AWAC2 projects. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 33 (0 UL)
See detailDigging into web archives of the COVID crisis
Schafer, Valerie UL; Joshgun, Sirajzade; Susan, Aasman

Presentation (2022, May 11)

This presentation aimed at presenting the challenges, methodologies and issues related to the analysis of the IIPC COVID collection of web archives through a collaboration with the Archive Unleashed Team.

Detailed reference viewed: 39 (2 UL)
See detailKeep calm and carry on. Historicizing online virality
Schafer, Valerie UL; Pailler, Fred UL

Presentation (2022, May 04)

The purpose of our Hivi research project (https://hivi.uni.lu) is to historicise and to contextualise online virality through the different ages of the Web. This allows to grasp the evolution of digital ... [more ▼]

The purpose of our Hivi research project (https://hivi.uni.lu) is to historicise and to contextualise online virality through the different ages of the Web. This allows to grasp the evolution of digital cultures, as well as the changes of platforms, audience, formats, and the cross-platform, transnational and transmedia circulations of Internet phenomena (memes, online challenges, etc.). There are also continuities of practices to be retrieved, such as trolling, participation and remix. Even in the short time of the history of the Web, viral phenomena have undergone rapid and constant changes, due to the evolution of the Web (appearance or disappearance of platforms and web sites, changes of interfaces, etc.), of digital practices (may it be related to content production or consumption), and of the phenomena themselves, which are flexible, adaptable and versatile. To reflect on the temporalities and spatialities of these ephemeral and changing phenomena, this talk will present the sources and tools we are currently using, the methodological challenges we are also facing while exploring a large amount of data and sources (may it be on the living or archived web). [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 31 (1 UL)
See detail“Put it back”. Issues and challenges of historicising online virality
Schafer, Valerie UL

Presentation (2022, April 21)

From the Hampster Dance, All your Base are belong to us and the Dancing Baby in the second half of the 1990s to Bernie’s mittens at the US presidential inauguration and the image macros of the Evergreen ... [more ▼]

From the Hampster Dance, All your Base are belong to us and the Dancing Baby in the second half of the 1990s to Bernie’s mittens at the US presidential inauguration and the image macros of the Evergreen blocked in the Suez Canal, through Disaster Girl or Distracted Boyfriend to name but a few, memes and Internet phenomena have become in the last twenty years an important part of our digital cultures (Shifman, 2014). After presenting why historicising virality matters (which is the purpose of our Hivi research project supported by the Luxembourg National Research Fund and conducted at the University of Luxembourg, https://hivi.uni.lu), this talk will focus on the challenges related to sources. Historicising online virality requires to first acknowledge how difficult it is to build corpora and develop chronological views in the vast and heterogeneous amount of data lakes and sources available on the live web and in web archives. All these repositories preserve viral content in a very different manner, covering different frames and periods, while the actors who come into play have different size and motivations, from giant platforms (Twitter, YouTube - see Burgess and Green 2018, etc.) to small communities, through heritagisation platform (i.e. Know Your Meme - see Pettis, 2021) and web archives. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the many levels of politics, curation and agencies at stake when studying the history and heritagisation of memes and Internet phenomena and their impact. Finally, temporalities and scales are also challenging, and scalability is key for studying the spreadability of digital contents, notably in a long-term perspective. There is a constant need for balancing between several scales to study circulation and flow (Jenkins, 2009), processes, participation (Milner, 2018) and appropriation, while recontextualizing memes and Internet phenomena in their complex and changing environments (changes of platforms, of participation, of audience, of meaning...). [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 62 (0 UL)
See detailHistoricising online virality
Schafer, Valerie UL

Presentation (2022, April 08)

This presentation aims to questions the methodologies and challenges related to an historical study of European online virality.

Detailed reference viewed: 73 (0 UL)
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See detailDigital Personal Memories: The Archiving of the Self and Public History
Schafer, Valerie UL

in Noiret, Serge; Zaagsma, Gerben; Tebeau, Mark (Eds.) Handbook of Digital Public History (2022)

By providing a facilitated access to data storage, digital technologies seem to make expression and preservation of the self more straightforward. They reconfigure the means and forms of access to data ... [more ▼]

By providing a facilitated access to data storage, digital technologies seem to make expression and preservation of the self more straightforward. They reconfigure the means and forms of access to data, thus also affecting the relationships and participation of individuals in heritagization and history, and potentially impacting historians. This renews questions that scholars already know well, such as the place of memories in the making of history, and that of self-narratives. Examining how “ordinary voices” can/could archive digital/digitized data and documents, this chapter aims at investigating this increased interest in preserving the self and memories, the heritagization of these data, and finally the role played by user-generated contributions in Digital Public History projects and in historical research in general. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 52 (0 UL)
See detailWeb Archiving of crisis
Schafer, Valerie UL

Presentation (2022, March 31)

Roundtable and short presentation on Web Archives of Crisis and Conspiracy

Detailed reference viewed: 36 (0 UL)
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See detailVaria
Schafer, Valerie UL; Henriot, Carine

in Flux: Cahiers Scientifiques Internationaux Réseaux et Territoires (2022), 127

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See detailClosing Keynote: Networks, governance and design. A journey through some historical case studies
Schafer, Valerie UL

Presentation (2022, March 18)

As famous as the quotation by Lawrence Lessing “Code is law”, the sentence by David Clark at a meeting at the IETF in 1992 “We reject kings, presidents and voting, we believe in rough consensus and ... [more ▼]

As famous as the quotation by Lawrence Lessing “Code is law”, the sentence by David Clark at a meeting at the IETF in 1992 “We reject kings, presidents and voting, we believe in rough consensus and running code” became a “motto for Internet standardization” (Russell, 2006) that invites us to have a look at the past relationships and intertwinements between networks design and governance. From the 1970s topics related to distribution and openness have become key in networks infrastructures, while complementary issues related to asymmetries and multi-stakeholderism (Raymond and DeNardis 2015) have been emphasized in the 1990s and 2000s, and notably during the WSIS in Tunis and Geneva. Research related to Internet governance (Mueller and Badiei, 2020; Musiani, Schafer, 2021) has also brought to the table strong issues related to agencies, privacy, and many others that have strongly followed the development of networks and their uses as well as controversies related to net neutrality or information flows for example (DeNardis, 2020). This presentation will go through several historical case studies and rethink them through the lens of infrastructure design and governance, from Arpanet in the 1970s, XNS and then the OSI (Russell, 2014), to web archives (Schafer, Winters 2021) and research infrastructures today, through past designs and attempts, related to the Web and Xanadu, the Minitel (Schafer, Thierry, 2012; Mailland, Driscoll, 2017), platforms like Wuala (Musiani, 2022) and Wikipedia (Cardon and Levrel, 2009). This will allow us to explore some notions and approach related to closure, secret, incentives, empowerment, while finally moving from “governance” to “good governance” and its challenges. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 59 (1 UL)
See detailAWAC2 — Analysing Web Archives of the COVID Crisis through the IIPC Novel Coronavirus dataset
Schafer, Valerie UL

Speeches/Talks (2022)

Launched in 2020, the Cohort program is engaging with researchers in a year-long collaboration and mentorship with the Archives Unleashed Project and the Internet Archive, to support web archival research ... [more ▼]

Launched in 2020, the Cohort program is engaging with researchers in a year-long collaboration and mentorship with the Archives Unleashed Project and the Internet Archive, to support web archival research. Web archives provide a rich resource for exploration and discovery! As such, this session will feature the program’s inaugural research teams, who will discuss the innovative ways they are exploring web archival collections to tackle interdisciplinary topics and methodologies. Projects from the Cohort program include: AWAC2 — Analysing Web Archives of the COVID Crisis through the IIPC Novel Coronavirus dataset—Valérie Schafer (University of Luxembourg) Everything Old is New Again: A Comparative Analysis of Feminist Media Tactics between the 2nd- to 4th Waves—Shana MacDonald (University of Waterloo) Mapping and tracking the development of online commenting systems on news websites between 1996–2021—Robert Jansma (University of Siegen) Crisis Communication in the Niagara Region during the COVID-19 Pandemic—Tim Ribaric (Brock University) Viral health misinformation from Geocities to COVID-19—Shawn Walker (Arizona State University) UPDATE: Quinn Dombrowski from Saving Ukrainian Cultural Heritage Online (SUCHO) will give an introductory presentation about the team of volunteers racing to archive Ukrainian digital cultural heritage. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 57 (3 UL)
See detailHistoriciser la viralité en ligne : les défis des archives
Schafer, Valerie UL

Presentation (2022, March 11)

Les phénomènes viraux et en particulier les gifs et les mèmes ont donné lieu à des études (par H. Jenkins, L. Shifman, R. Milner, D. Kaplan et N. Nova, J. Eppink, A. Wagener et bien d’autres) qui ... [more ▼]

Les phénomènes viraux et en particulier les gifs et les mèmes ont donné lieu à des études (par H. Jenkins, L. Shifman, R. Milner, D. Kaplan et N. Nova, J. Eppink, A. Wagener et bien d’autres) qui éclairent les phénomènes de circulation, participation, partage (cf. également les recherches de N. John) et transformation au sein des cultures numériques. Les phénomènes viraux sont bien sûr présents dès les débuts du Web et certains voient dans les émoticones ou la loi de Godwin leurs premières occurrences (J. McGrath). La fin des années 1990 marque par ailleurs le succès du Dancing Baby, de la Hampster Dance ou de All Your Base Are Belong To Us. Les réseaux socio-numériques ont accéléré ces circulations, par ailleurs transplateformes, tout en mettant au défi le chercheur qui souhaite appréhender et historiciser la viralité. C’est notamment l’ambition du projet HIVI (A history of Online Virality) à l’université du Luxembourg (2021-2024). Sans surprise un premier défi est celui des archives et de la constitution de corpus. La présentation les abordera autour de trois axes: tout d’abord le défi de la masse et de l’hétérogénéité des sources, de leur périmètre, mais aussi l’inégale préservation des phénomènes Internet, ainsi que la pluralité des espaces de patrimonialisation et modes de curation seront présentés; ensuite nous nous intéresserons plus particulièrement aux sources nativement numériques conservées dans les archives du Web, et leurs défis en termes de préservation, recherchabilité, contextualisation. Enfin des enjeux méthodologiques, notamment liés aux temporalités et spatialités seront soulevés, pour engager la discussion sur les apports mais aussi les limites des sources nativement numériques. [less ▲]

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See detailDIGITAL HUMANITIES – A SCIENCE UNTO ITSELF? A CONVERSATION WITH VALÉRIE SCHAFER
Schafer, Valerie UL

Speeches/Talks (2022)

What does it mean to be a digital scholar? The answers to this seemingly simple question are probably as diverse as the interdisciplinary field of digital humanities itself. To learn more about the ins ... [more ▼]

What does it mean to be a digital scholar? The answers to this seemingly simple question are probably as diverse as the interdisciplinary field of digital humanities itself. To learn more about the ins and outs of the emerging research area, we invited Prof. Valérie Schafer from the Luxembourg Centre for Contemporary and Digital History (C2DH) for an interview. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Memes Challenges. Virality, Mediatic Dimensions and Heritagization 
Schafer, Valerie UL

Presentation (2022, February 17)

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Peer Reviewed
See detail“Spread or die”. Online Virality as a Transmedia Phenomenon
Schafer, Valerie UL; Pailler, Fred UL

Scientific Conference (2022, February 03)

Memes (Kaplan and Nova, 2016; McGrath, 2019), gifs (Eppink, 2014), buzz on the Web and social networks are inherent to digital cultures since the very first steps of the Web (i.e., Dancing babies, Hamster ... [more ▼]

Memes (Kaplan and Nova, 2016; McGrath, 2019), gifs (Eppink, 2014), buzz on the Web and social networks are inherent to digital cultures since the very first steps of the Web (i.e., Dancing babies, Hamster Dance). Virality has developed and changed over time through several platforms (YouTube, 4Chan, Twitter, TikTok, etc.), while relying on some patterns identified by Shifman (2014), Milner (2018), Jenkins (2009) and others. Historicizing virality through times, spaces and platforms is at the heart of the Hivi project1 (https://hivi.uni.lu). While starting to historicize these phenomena, may it be Numa Numa Guy, Leave Britney Alone, Grumpy Cat, the Harlem Shake, online challenges (Ice Bucket Challenge, Fire challenge, etc.) and many others, the transmedia circulations and the role played by “traditional media” in the life cycles and virality of such practices have become more and more obvious. This proposal aims therefore to demonstrate and analyze how Internet phenomena are transmedia. Building upon several case studies, this presentation will first remind us how virality occurred before the digital (Pinker, 2020) and how previous historical forms were also reused in the digital. We will then analyse the circulation between online viral phenomena and other media, may it be Internet phenomena that are echoed in other media (press, cinema, video games...) or on the contrary the use of media phenomena by digital cultures (see for example memes related to Chuck Norris or Sad Keanu). Finally, the last part will specifically focus on the relationship between online virality and the general press, relying on a vast corpus gathered through Europresse, on which we conducted a diachronic distant reading. This intertwinement of Media cultures and Digital Cultures aim at highlightening several topics of the call and notably Temporalities of media through digital technologies; Persistence and discontinuities in communication; and finally Digital sources, new practices, tools and narratives in media history. References Eppink, J., “A brief history of the GIF”, Journal of Visual Culture, 2014, 13(3), p. 298- 306. Jenkins, H., « If it doesn’t spread, it’s dead (Part One) : Media Viruses and Memes”, Confessions of an Aca-Fan, 2009. http://henryjenkins.org/blog/2009/02/if_it_doesnt_spread_its_dead_p.html Kaplan, D., Nova, N., La culture Internet des Mèmes, Lausanne, PPUR, 2016. MacGrath, J., “Memes”, in Brügger, N., Milligan, I. (ed.), The Sage handbook of Web History, Los Angeles, London, Sage, 2019. Milner, R., The Word Mad Meme. Public Conversations and Participatory Media, Cambridge, MA, MIT Press, 2018. Shifman, L., Memes in Digital Culture, Cambridge MA, Mit Press, 2014. Pinker, R., Fake News & Viralité avant Internet. Les lapins du Père-Lachaise et autres légendes médiatiques, Paris, CNRS Éditions, 2020. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 122 (14 UL)