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See detailTatou pour un débat connecté
Schafer, Valerie UL

Presentation (2021, June 25)

Cette intervention explore les dispositifs télématiques et notamment le 3617 Tatou mis en place au moment de la réforme des PTT pour permettre information, communication et participation au débat.

See detailInternational Round Table: “Different Cultures in Digital History”
Schafer, Valerie UL

Presentation (2021, June 08)

The aim of the round table is to bring together specialists in digital history and experts who use digital tools in historical research and education. History as an academic field is undergoing major ... [more ▼]

The aim of the round table is to bring together specialists in digital history and experts who use digital tools in historical research and education. History as an academic field is undergoing major changes as a result of the transformative impact of digital technologies. These technologies affect the very nature of sources, the practice of data collection and processing, and also the way in which historical knowledge is acquired and disseminated. The task of defining “digital history” has given rise to much debate and discussion, but developing an understanding of the field and the wide-ranging potential for interaction between history and digital technologies can offer insights into the future development of historical research and education. Analysing the challenges and opportunities of this interdisciplinary union can inform and enrich the various cultures within digital history and beyond. A number of prominent speakers from different cultures of digital history and related disciplines will participate in the round table: Prof. Leonid Borodkin is a Professor of the History Faculty of Lomonosov Moscow State University, the Chair of the Department for Historical Information Science, Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Science (Russia). Prof. Hannu Salmi is a Professor of Cultural History at the University of Turku and has been Academy Professor since 2017 (Finland). Prof. Peter Gautschi is a Professor of History Education, Head of the Lucerne Institute of History Education and Memory Cultures, UTE Lucerne (Switzerland). Prof. Valérie Schafer has been a Professor in Contemporary European History at the C²DH (Luxembourg Centre for Contemporary and Digital History) at the University of Luxembourg since February 2018. Dr Mareike König is deputy director of the German Historical Institute in Paris. She is also director of its library and its digital humanities department. The round table will be organised and moderated by Nadezhda Povroznik (Center for Digital Humanities) and Frédéric Clavert (C²DH). [less ▲]

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See detail4rth RESAW conference
Schafer, Valerie UL; Clavert, Frédéric UL

Presentation (2021, June)

The 4th RESAW conference, organised by the C²DH (Luxembourg Centre for Contemporary and Digital History) at the University of Luxembourg, is part of a remote Web archiving week starting on 14 June 2021 ... [more ▼]

The 4th RESAW conference, organised by the C²DH (Luxembourg Centre for Contemporary and Digital History) at the University of Luxembourg, is part of a remote Web archiving week starting on 14 June 2021, which will involved a series of RESAW pre-conference workshops in parallel to the IIPC General Assembly, followed by the IIPC conference organised by the BnL (Bibliothèque nationale du Luxembourg) on 15-16 June 2021 (all details about the programme and registrations are available at https://netpreserve.org/ga2021/), then the RESAW conference. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Web Archives Long View
Schafer, Valerie UL; Winters, Jane

Presentation (2021, May 26)

This research seminar aims to explicitly consider that research happens in context. This presentation proposes to address the topic of born-digital heritage and in particular of web archives in context ... [more ▼]

This research seminar aims to explicitly consider that research happens in context. This presentation proposes to address the topic of born-digital heritage and in particular of web archives in context. It aims to question the past, present and future paths of research based on the plethora of born-digital sources that developed from the mid-1990s. Analysis of web archives requires both taking into account the very shaping of these archives - e.g. web archiving in context - and placing research on these web archives in context, from the early studies of the 2000s which focused on the nature of web archives themselves and the methods for studying them to current research that takes them as sources for exploring digital cultures. Thus, the first two parts of our presentation, devoted respectively to the history of web archiving and of web archives in research, will explore the multiple contextual elements at work. These may be related to the Web itself and its evolution, to institutional policies, or to crawling and analysis tools, and understanding them is crucial for addressing the current and future challenges that will arise for researchers, whether they concern transnational approaches, ethical issues or a claim for enhanced contextualization. In conclusion we will broaden the question to digital humanities, and consider why web archive studies have remained relatively marginalised in digital humanities discourse. [less ▲]

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See detailTable ronde : comment faire réseau autour des archives du web ?
Schafer, Valerie UL

Scientific Conference (2021, May 17)

Table ronde : comment faire réseau autour des archives du web ? Intervenants : Emmanuelle Bermès (Bibliothèque nationale de France), Dominique Cardon (medialab, Sciences Po), Stéphanie Groudiev (Campus ... [more ▼]

Table ronde : comment faire réseau autour des archives du web ? Intervenants : Emmanuelle Bermès (Bibliothèque nationale de France), Dominique Cardon (medialab, Sciences Po), Stéphanie Groudiev (Campus Condorcet), Valérie Schafer (Université du Luxembourg) [less ▲]

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See detailX25, une norme pour le transport de données
Schafer, Valerie UL

in Encyclopédie d'histoire numérique EHNE (2021)

L’avis X25, adopté en 1976 par le Comité consultatif international téléphonique et télégraphique (CCITT) dans le domaine des réseaux de données permet d’explorer des enjeux nationaux et internationaux de ... [more ▼]

L’avis X25, adopté en 1976 par le Comité consultatif international téléphonique et télégraphique (CCITT) dans le domaine des réseaux de données permet d’explorer des enjeux nationaux et internationaux de normalisation. Son histoire témoigne de la convergence entre télécommunications et informatique dans les années 1970, des débats liés au développement des réseaux de données, en particulier autour de la commutation de paquets, mais aussi de choix techniques, industriels et politiques complexes, et ce à plusieurs échelles. En revenant sur le passage du projet de norme à l’avis X25, à valeur non contraignante, son implémentation et développement dans des réseaux, puis sa postérité, cette étude permet d’explorer les acteurs, motivations et choix effectués à plusieurs moments charnières de l’histoire des réseaux de données. [less ▲]

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See detailThe values of web archives
Schafer, Valerie UL; Winters, Jane

in International Journal of Digital Humanities (2021)

This article considers how the development, promotion and adoption of a set of core values for web archives, linked to principles of “good governance”, will help them to tackle the challenges of ... [more ▼]

This article considers how the development, promotion and adoption of a set of core values for web archives, linked to principles of “good governance”, will help them to tackle the challenges of sustainability, accountability and inclusiveness that are central to their long-term societal and cultural worth. It outlines the work that has already been done to address these questions, as web archiving begins to move out of its establishment phase, and then discusses seven key principles of good governance that might be adapted by and embedded within web archives: participation, consensus, accountability, transparency, effectiveness and efficiency, inclusivity and legality. The article concludes with a call to action for researchers and archivists to co-create the core values for web archives that will be required if they are to remain a vital part of our cultural heritage infrastructure. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 60 (1 UL)
See detailStudying transnational events through web archives
Schafer, Valerie UL

Scientific Conference (2021, April 20)

This short presentation was a mid-term feedback on the collective work of WG2 that I lead within the WARCnet project. I especially underlined the research we conducted through an internal datathon we ... [more ▼]

This short presentation was a mid-term feedback on the collective work of WG2 that I lead within the WARCnet project. I especially underlined the research we conducted through an internal datathon we organised in January 2021 and which used seed lists, derived data and metadata. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 32 (1 UL)
See detailWomen and ICT: A Time Travel
Schafer, Valerie UL

Presentation (2021, March 08)

Presentation of the workshop : To mark the International Day of Women Rights, the University of Luxembourg is organizing an online workshop on Women in Computing. ICT is today one of the most gendered ... [more ▼]

Presentation of the workshop : To mark the International Day of Women Rights, the University of Luxembourg is organizing an online workshop on Women in Computing. ICT is today one of the most gendered-divided fields. Gendered stereotypes suggesting that men are more interested in ICT are still active in shaping attitudes. However, this inequality has only started in the 80s. For instance, by 1943, in the USA, almost all people employed in computing were women. It is was common to believe that "programming requires lots of patience, persistence and a capacity for detail and those are traits that many girls have". The speakers of this workshop will shed light on the historical role of women in computing to help us understand how to improve gender inequality in ICT. [less ▲]

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See detailVaria
Schafer, Valerie UL; Henriot, Carine

in Flux: Cahiers Scientifiques Internationaux Réseaux et Territoires (2021), 123

Numéro Varia de Flux coordonné par C. Henriot et V. Schafer

Detailed reference viewed: 22 (0 UL)
See detailInnovative Models of Governance
Schafer, Valerie UL; Wieneke, Lars UL

Presentation (2021, February 24)

Over the course of three days (24–26 February 2021) we hold two panels a day, during which the research team of OPERAS-P (WG 6) presented their findings to gather feedback from invited experts and the ... [more ▼]

Over the course of three days (24–26 February 2021) we hold two panels a day, during which the research team of OPERAS-P (WG 6) presented their findings to gather feedback from invited experts and the audience. The different panels addressed specific scholarly communication topics: innovative governance models in social sciences and humanities (SSH), business models for open access books, multilingualism and bibliodiversity in SSH, opportunities and challenges of FAIRification of SSH data, the future of scholarly writing, and quality assessment of novel research and innovative publications in the SSH research. Wednesday, 24 February 2021 10:00–11:30 CET Innovative models of governance The discussion focused on a critical review of modes of governance in distributed organisations and in the digital area, and recommendations for a governance model that can help manage smoothly the wide diversity of cultural backgrounds, expertise, level of commitment within its community, which is typical of SSH communities. Coordinator: Valérie Schafer (C2DH, University of Luxembourg), Lars Wieneke (C2DH, University of Luxembourg) Panelists: Lionel Maurel (INSHS, CNRS), Francesca Musiani (The Center for Internet and Society, CNRS), Jane Winters (University of London) [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 49 (3 UL)
See detailReusing oral histories: challenges, issues, limits
Schafer, Valerie UL

Presentation (2021, February 18)

This short presentation, which is part of a roundtable, will analyse the reuse in oral history, the way Digital Humanities may provide new ways to apply close and distant reading to interviews and the ... [more ▼]

This short presentation, which is part of a roundtable, will analyse the reuse in oral history, the way Digital Humanities may provide new ways to apply close and distant reading to interviews and the challenges of contextualisation, FAIR Data, etc. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 47 (4 UL)
See detailLe développement du numérique nous rend-il de plus en plus proches ?
Schafer, Valerie UL

Conference given outside the academic context (2021)

Préprogramme Traduction simultanée en français et en hongrois Jeudi 28 Janvier 2021 – EN LIGNE 17h00 – 17h20 Ouverture : Anna Sándor, Journaliste à nőklapja.hu et à HVG.hu 17h20 – 18h00 Table ronde : Le ... [more ▼]

Préprogramme Traduction simultanée en français et en hongrois Jeudi 28 Janvier 2021 – EN LIGNE 17h00 – 17h20 Ouverture : Anna Sándor, Journaliste à nőklapja.hu et à HVG.hu 17h20 – 18h00 Table ronde : Le développement du numérique nous rend-il de plus en plus proches ? Modération réalisée par Anna Sándor, ancienne journaliste à nőklapja.hu et à HVG.hu Participants : Ágnes Zsila, chercheur à l’Institut de Biologie de l’Université ELTE TTK ; (Chercheuse en psychologie, en théorie des jeux, impact des nouvelles technologies en particulier sur les jeunes) György Csepeli, sociologue, professeur émérite (ELTE) chercheur (FTI-iASK) ; (Chercheur en sociologie et psychologie sociale, ancien sous-secrétaire d’Etat hongrois à l’information) Valérie Schafer, Historienne et Professeure d’histoire contemporaine européenne, Université du Luxembourg 18h00 – 18h25 Questions et réponses 18h25 – 18h30 Conclusions [less ▲]

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See detailJeopardizing Democracy throughout History
Krakovsky, Christina; Seethaler, Josef; Schwarzenegger, Christian et al

in Medien & zeit (2021)

It is the goal of this issue of Medien & Zeit to provide a glimpse on the long history of how media in their many different forms and variations, served as either and amplifier or even accomplice (for ... [more ▼]

It is the goal of this issue of Medien & Zeit to provide a glimpse on the long history of how media in their many different forms and variations, served as either and amplifier or even accomplice (for reasons of profit, influence, power or ideology), or in the contrary acted as an adversary to populist and radical politics. The goal of this issue hence is to contribute to an understanding of the role media played as potential accomplices or carriers of populist agitation (e.g. in autocratic regimes and in absence of free media or out of commercial crookedness) or as amplifiers of extreme political positions or groups and populist sentiment (e.g. sensationalist and simplistic reporting or excessive coverage for populist tropes). Media and mediated communication can however also act as countering forces and adversaries of radical politics and aim to tame blatant populism or maintain forums for civilized debate (i.e., governance or self-regulation measures that may evolve through time). [less ▲]

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See detailSous les pavés, l’archive ! Luttes sociales et archives du Web
Schafer, Valerie UL

in Le Temps des Médias (2020), 35

The archiving of the Web since 1996, thanks to Internet Archive, prior to the multiplication of institutional initiatives, notably in Europe, has created a massive born-digital heritage of social ... [more ▼]

The archiving of the Web since 1996, thanks to Internet Archive, prior to the multiplication of institutional initiatives, notably in Europe, has created a massive born-digital heritage of social movements. Evolutionary in time, in space and according to digital platforms, this heritage invites us to think about the notion of living archive, the relationship between memory and history, the writing of the history of social struggles, the potentialities and methodological as well as ethical risks it raises. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom Print to Digital, from Document to Data: Digitalisation at the Publications Office of the European Union
Schafer, Valerie UL

in Open Information Science (2020), (4), 204-217

Since the 1970s, the Publications Office of the European Union, the official publisher of all the institutions and bodies of the EU, has had to adapt to a fast-changing situation as the number of EU ... [more ▼]

Since the 1970s, the Publications Office of the European Union, the official publisher of all the institutions and bodies of the EU, has had to adapt to a fast-changing situation as the number of EU Member States has grown and the number and nature of publications has evolved (including publishing public tenders of EU institutions and Member States in 1978 through a supplement to the Official Journal of the European Union and handling CELEX, an interinstitutional and multilingual automated documentation system for community law, in 1992). These changes occurred over several ages of computing. The computerisation of the Publications Office was primarily a response to the need for rationalisation and productivity, but the aim was also to gradually adapt to new types of document publication and consultation. These different stages of digitalisation required the constant transfer of information to a multitude of media. Supports, such as punched cards, optical discs and CD-ROMs, had varying life expectancies and are all evidence of attempts to digitise information before the Web. This evolution not only illustrates the need to constantly harmonise a large amount of information, it also highlights some continuities. It affects the management of information systems but also meets regularly updated standardisation, interoperability and sustainability needs within a complex ecosystem. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 80 (5 UL)
See detailFrom the history of Internet to Internet and Web histories
Schafer, Valerie UL

Presentation (2020, November 18)

This presentation aims to describe the shift from the history of the Internet to Internet histories by analysing several factors (e.g. influence of media history, web sources, maintenance or platform ... [more ▼]

This presentation aims to describe the shift from the history of the Internet to Internet histories by analysing several factors (e.g. influence of media history, web sources, maintenance or platform studies, etc.). [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysing transnational Events through Web archives
Schafer, Valerie UL

Scientific Conference (2020, November 04)

As a co-PI of the WARCnet project, programme chair of this second WARCnet meeting and head of WG2 dedicated to "Analysing transnational Events", Valérie Schafer will give an overview of the challenges ... [more ▼]

As a co-PI of the WARCnet project, programme chair of this second WARCnet meeting and head of WG2 dedicated to "Analysing transnational Events", Valérie Schafer will give an overview of the challenges, issues, achievements, results, case studies, next steps of WG2 since the launch of the WARCnet project. [less ▲]

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See detailARPANET, toute une histoire...
Schafer, Valerie UL

in 1024 : Bulletin de la Société Informatique de France (2020), (30),

Le lecteur pourra non seulement suivre l’évolution du traitement de l’histoire d’ARPANET − et en filigrane la manière dont celle de l’informatique et du numérique a connu des tournants, mais aussi peut ... [more ▼]

Le lecteur pourra non seulement suivre l’évolution du traitement de l’histoire d’ARPANET − et en filigrane la manière dont celle de l’informatique et du numérique a connu des tournants, mais aussi peut-être poursuivre par la lecture des auteurs cités un parcours qui sort des narrations linéaires et témoigne de la complexité de l’histoire d’ARPANET et de son actualité. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 49 (1 UL)
See detailLes héritages des débuts d’Internet et du Web
Schafer, Valerie UL

Presentation (2020, October 23)

Alors que l’an dernier étaient célébrés les 50 ans du réseau ARPANET et les 30 ans du World Wide Web, ces anniversaires étaient l’occasion de revenir largement sur les fondements du « réseau des réseaux » ... [more ▼]

Alors que l’an dernier étaient célébrés les 50 ans du réseau ARPANET et les 30 ans du World Wide Web, ces anniversaires étaient l’occasion de revenir largement sur les fondements du « réseau des réseaux ». Ce retour aux sources permettait de prendre la mesure des changements intervenus, mais aussi de continuités certaines, ainsi que de valeurs séminales qui sont régulièrement convoquées dans les débats contemporains. Cette intervention se propose de revisiter les héritages des débuts d’Internet et du Web en trois temps : celui de la mémoire, de la nostalgie et de la reconstruction d’un âge d’or d’abord. Ensuite nous aborderons les héritages et patrimoines matériels et immatériels de ces premières communications en réseaux, notamment le patrimoine nativement numérique (Born-Digital Heritage) que sont les archives du Web et les newsgroups de la communauté Usenet. Enfin nous nous intéresserons à la réactualisation récurrente de controverses nées dès les premiers âges du Web, voire en amont (en termes d’anonymisation, régulation, rôle des intermédiaires, neutralité, etc.). [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 76 (1 UL)