References of "Schäfer, Markus 50002991"
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See detailEurpean Mandate M515, CEN/TC250/SC4.T6 - Background Documents for prEN 1994-1-1
Schäfer, Markus UL; Hicks, Stephen; Kurz, Wolfgang et al

Report (2022)

Background Documents for prEN 1994-1-1

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See detailBridge damage assessment based on static and dynamic flexibility matrices
Dakhili, Khatereh UL; Kebig, Tanja; Schäfer, Markus UL et al

in Bridge Safety, Maintenance, Management, Life-Cycle, Resilience and Sustainability (2022)

Being an indispensable part of transportation systems, Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) of bridges has been increasingly studied. Various SHM techniques not only enhance reliability and safety but also ... [more ▼]

Being an indispensable part of transportation systems, Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) of bridges has been increasingly studied. Various SHM techniques not only enhance reliability and safety but also reduce maintenance costs. Various bridge deteriorations change the structural properties, such as flexibility and stiffness. Therefore, damage assessment can be achieved by monitoring the structural matrices of bridges and tracking the deviations from the healthy-state or reference data. This paper focuses on damage detection of a prestressed concrete beam from a demolished bridge based on the flexibility matrix. The dynamic and static flexibility matrices are calculated numerically and experimentally when the beam is undamaged. The simulated and measured static flexibility matrices differ by only about 5 %. Additionally, the numerical dynamic flexibility matrix is strongly correlated with static results. The findings of this study can be employed as a basis for future damage detection applications when artificial damage is introduced. [less ▲]

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See detailBemessung von Verbundstützen – Update prEN 1994-1-1
Schäfer, Markus UL; Zhang, Qingjie UL; Bergmann, Marco

in Stahlbau (2021), 90(12), 903-912

The design of composite columns follows the rules in accordance to EN 1994-1-1 providing simplified design methods and the general method. Whereby the general method requires an advanced comprehensive FE ... [more ▼]

The design of composite columns follows the rules in accordance to EN 1994-1-1 providing simplified design methods and the general method. Whereby the general method requires an advanced comprehensive FE-Analysis. However, the recent Eurocode 4 does not provide sufficient guidance for the application of the general method and there is not a harmony in the literature on how to conduct it. This often leads to uncertainty among users and discussions on the validation and assessment of the analysis results. Actually, the draft of the second generation of Eurocode 4 (prEN 1994-1-1) is available, including more guidance but also introduces additional safety parameters and extends the application scope in regard to the martial strengths. This paper points out the procedure for the design of composite column with focus on the general method and changes provided by the draft of prEN 1994-1-1:2021. [less ▲]

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See detailDraft for second generation of prEN 1994-1-1, November 2021
Schäfer, Markus UL; Hicks, Stephen; Kurz, Wolfgang et al

Report (2021)

Development of second generation for Eurocode 4, part 1: prEN 1994-1-1: November 2021- Draft + Respons on comments

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See detailPost-Urban Mining Automation and Digitalisation for a Closed- Loop Circular Construction
Akbarieh, Arghavan UL; Schäfer, Markus UL; Waldmann, Daniele UL et al

Poster (2021, October 13)

The large volume of in- and out-flow of raw materials to construction projects has a huge potential to be optimised for resource efficiency and waste reduction. With the recent awareness of the importance ... [more ▼]

The large volume of in- and out-flow of raw materials to construction projects has a huge potential to be optimised for resource efficiency and waste reduction. With the recent awareness of the importance of the circular economy, construction actors are aligning their practices to be more circular and sustainable. The concept of material banks is born out of this awareness in order to document the lifecycle information of materials and facilitate re-using them. The introduction of new cycles before individual materials reach their final lifecycle stages results in reduced negative environmental impacts. This paper presents a workflow by positioning different digital technologies to automate the procedures for reuse assessment: from the deconstructed building to M/C bank to new construction projects. This automation supports a practical material and component reuse, while it provides the necessary infrastructure to digitise and digitalise the post-deconstruction materials to be visualised, selected and used by future designers in Building Information Modelling (BIM)-based design and management environments. To this aim, the coupling of BIM, reality capturing technologies, additive manufacturing techniques, IoT and RFID sensors is also anticipated. [less ▲]

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See detailNumerical investigation for the design of rectangular concrete encased steel composite columns
Ergun, Ozgun UL; Schäfer, Markus UL

in Burgess, Ian (Ed.) Special Issue: Proceedings of Eurosteel 2021: Sheffield - Steel's coming home (2021, September)

Advanced design methods are becoming more important for the structural analysis. However, their results depend strongly on the quality of the numerical model and its underlying assumptions. Current ... [more ▼]

Advanced design methods are becoming more important for the structural analysis. However, their results depend strongly on the quality of the numerical model and its underlying assumptions. Current Eurocode 4 does not provide clear guidance for this analysis type. A literature review on the compression tests conducted on concrete encased steel composite columns is presented. It was found out that there is a lack in the literature when it comes to the testing of slender composite columns as opposed to numerous tests done on stub columns. A selection of existing specimen tests are then simulated using finite element analysis software ABAQUS. Nonlinearity in the model was defined through materials and geometry. The interface modelling between steel and concrete as well as the modelling of load introduction are discussed. The finite element model was intended to be as generic as possible so that it can be taken as a basis for future parameter studies. Moreover, the column resistance check using interaction curves was discussed. Different approaches to form interaction curves namely strain limitation and plastic section capacity were compared. [less ▲]

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See detailNon-linear Analysis of Circular Composite Columns
Anwaar, Omer; Schäfer, Markus UL; Zhang, Qingjie UL

in Burgess, Ian (Ed.) Special Issue: Proceedings of Eurosteel 2021: Sheffield - Steel's coming home (2021, September)

Composite columns provide many advantages for the application in multi-story and high-rise buildings. However, EN 1994-1-1 does not provide rules for the design of circular concrete sections with fully ... [more ▼]

Composite columns provide many advantages for the application in multi-story and high-rise buildings. However, EN 1994-1-1 does not provide rules for the design of circular concrete sections with fully encased steel profiles according to the simplified methods. Normally, the simplified method for the design of composite columns is based on a normal force-moment interaction diagram which assumes plastic cross-section resistance. However, the moment resistance is to be reduced by a reduction factor M, considering among other the difference between strain-limited and plastic moment resistance. This reduction factor is developed and calibrated for composite compression members with concrete encased sections, partially encased sections and concrete filled rectangular and circular tubes. Comparison of plastic moment resistance to results based on strain limitation show that the application for circular section with encased steel section but without a steel tube may lead to unsafe results. The paper discusses different approaches for the determination of the N-M Interaction curve and the design on cross-section level. The results obtained from these methods are then compared to each other for different dimensions of cross-sections of circular columns; and for different ratios of reinforcements, various steel grades and for normal and high strength concretes. Furthermore, the investigation focuses on the validation of the reduction factor alfa_M and shows for which section types the values according to Eurocode 4 cannot be applied. [less ▲]

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See detailBehavior of downstand simply supported steel-concrete composite beam applying friction based demountable shear connection
Fodor, Jovan UL; Schäfer, Markus UL

in Burgess, Ian (Ed.) Special Issue: Proceedings of Eurosteel 2021: Sheffield - Steel's coming home (2021, September)

In order to improve sustainability of composite structures and promote the principles of circular economy in construction industry, novel demountable shear connector based on the frictional behavior was ... [more ▼]

In order to improve sustainability of composite structures and promote the principles of circular economy in construction industry, novel demountable shear connector based on the frictional behavior was developed within the framework of Work package 2 of parent project ECON4SD (Eco Construction for Sustainable Development) at the University of Luxembourg. The demountable composite floor system is composed out of modular concrete one-way solid slabs with equidistantly embedded Halfen HTA-CE rail channels, double symmetric steel I section and demountable connector device assembly based on HV high strength structural bolts for preloading that provides the demountable shear connection. In this paper trilinear behavior model is proposed for the force-slip behavior of aforementioned connector device complying to the results of the push test experimental campaign and the results of FEA simulations. Afterwards, parametric study is performed on the range of simply supported composite beams in propped and unpropped condition under uniformly distributed load applying the aforementioned shear connection validating the predictability of the composite beam bending behavior in accordance with the rules of EN 1994-1-1. [less ▲]

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See detailPartial shear diagram of slim-floor beams
Zhang, Qingjie UL; Schäfer, Markus UL

in Burgess, Ian (Ed.) Special Issue: Proceedings of Eurosteel 2021: Sheffield - Steel's coming home (2021, September)

Slim-floor beams which have the steel sections fully or partially integrated into the concrete slab lead to a significant reduction of the construction height. Due to its flat lower surface, it provides ... [more ▼]

Slim-floor beams which have the steel sections fully or partially integrated into the concrete slab lead to a significant reduction of the construction height. Due to its flat lower surface, it provides favourable solution for technical installation. According to EN1994-1-1, for composite beams plastic moment resistance is assumed. In the case of slim-floor sections, due to the reduced construction height by the integration of the steel beam in the concrete and its extended bottom flange, a large compression zone height may be expected, thus concrete failure in the compression zone may happen before reaching the plastic moment resistance Mpl,Rd. Here, strain limit resistance becomes decisive. For design with partial shear connection, EN1994-1-1 provides the partial shear diagram based on the plastic bending resistance Mpl,Rd which is not always suitable for slim-floor beams. Based on strain limited method, the more suitable partial shear diagram of different slim-floor beams can be developed. From parametric studies of different types of slimfloor beams, the impacts of critical parameters on the design are highlighted, and the limitations of the current plastic resistance based partial shear diagram are suggested. A simplified calculation method for situation beyond the limitation are also proposed to guarantee an economical design of those beams. [less ▲]

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See detailNon-linear design for composite structures in steel and concrete in reference to Eurocode 4, Part 1-1
Schäfer, Markus UL; Zhang, Qingjie UL; Zogu, Pellumb UL et al

Learning material (2021)

The design of composite structures in steel and concrete for buildings follows the rules according to Eurocode 4: EN 1994-1-1. In the last years more and more individual composite members and cross ... [more ▼]

The design of composite structures in steel and concrete for buildings follows the rules according to Eurocode 4: EN 1994-1-1. In the last years more and more individual composite members and cross-section types have been developed. Those sections are not always fulfilling the requirements for the application of simplified design methods given by EN 1994-1-1 and therefore plastic resistance cannot always be applied. Furthermore there is an increasing demand for optimization in the design by using more advanced design methods. This optimization is concentrating on the use of individual shaped cross-sections and their efficiency, the composite shear connectors and consideration of their ductility and flexibility, investigation in the sequence of loading, time effects as well as concrete cracking and yielding of steel within the analysis. In addition it is to be mentioned that the draft for the second generation of Eurocode 4 provides more opportunities for advanced numerical methods. At least, the demand for more advanced numerical design methods is permanently increasing also due to the availability of powerful hardware and software applications. The target of this chapter is to introduce the advanced numerical design for composite structural members in steel and concrete and to explain the boundary conditions given by Eurocode 4 and related Eurocodes. Thereby the focus is more on the member and not on the global analysis. The computer-aided global analyses for the determination of action effects are well-known for years while the possibilities for nonlinear analysis based on shell and volume elements considering physical and geometrical nonlinearity becoming more important and will be further developed in future. However, there is not so much information available explaining the application of e.g. the general method in detail and guidance is missing by the code. Therefore the general method acc. to EN 1994-1-1/prEN1994-1-1 is the main focus of this contribution. In the following, some principles for the design according to EN 1994-1-1 are explained. Thereby the basics for the classification of cross-sections as well as the determination of inner forces for continuous beams will be pointed out. However, the focus is on the general method for the design of composite compression members. While in the case studies additional information for the structural analysis and the numerical investigation in composite beams is provided. This chapter will not repeat well-known explanations from the literature, which have been published many times but limits itself to the most important normative fundamentals, rather concentrate on the application of numerical methods for the design of composite structures. More details for global structural analysis and the design according to EN 1994-1-1 [1] are provided by the literature, e.g. [8], [40] and will not be further commented here. It should be noted that the here referred methods according to prEN 1994-1-1, prEN 1993-1-14 and prEN 1992-1-1 do not represent officially introduced design standards, until the introduction of the second generation of Eurocodes modification is not finalized. Therefore this references are to be understood as informative. Until the introduction of the second generation of Eurocodes further changes and adjustments may also to be expected. [less ▲]

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See detailDigitalization in Construction, Computer-based Design for Structural Elements, PArt 2: Analyses and Validation of Compliance to EuroCodes
Schäfer, Markus UL; Bender, Michel; Zahlten, Wolfhard et al

Learning material (2021)

A classic structural analysis is characterized by the usage of a wide spectrum of manual, specialized analysis methods. An engineer has to break down the complex problem into small manageable sub-problems ... [more ▼]

A classic structural analysis is characterized by the usage of a wide spectrum of manual, specialized analysis methods. An engineer has to break down the complex problem into small manageable sub-problems. This procedure will be completely superseded by the advent of numerical methods. A full model of the spatial structure will be built up. A similar revolution has already begun by the introduction of finite shell and volume elements into commercially available FE software. The idea is that these models are closer to reality and allow us to capture both global and local effects in one single comprehensive model. This, however, introduces modelling questions and numerical effects, which are explicitly excluded from simplified theory, and questions arise regarding the trustworthiness of these results. Shell elements have already been fairly well established in practical engineering. The next step could be the use of volume elements to overcome certain restriction inherent in shell formulations. One driving force for this tendency is BIM (Building Information Modelling). Here the geometrical model is, like nature itself, fully 3D. It can be directly translated into the Finite Element Method (FEM). However, structural design in the 27 EU member states and 4 EFTA countries has to be performed according to the Eurocodes (EC), representing harmonized European Standards (EN) for the structural design. These design codes regulate essential requirements regarding mechanical resistance and stability as well as safety aspects. The current Eurocodes essentially stipulate engineering design models which can easily be transferred to classical structural analyses, but often do not give comprehensive references to the application and evaluation of advanced numerical simulations. The application of associated software products is not regulated by norms. This situation often results in discussions and different interpretations of the design results. Ultimately, false computational assumptions and misinterpretations can lead to damages and unsafe designs. Guidance for the verification of the software results is required and the link to the current and upcoming second generation of Eurocodes is also presented by the project. In parallel the possibilities by digitalization in construction by Building Information Modelling and the transfer of data from the architectural model to the structural model have been investigated [less ▲]

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See detailDigitalization in Construction, Computer-based Design for Structural Elements - BIM and structural engineering - Part 1: Impact of digitalization on structural engineering in the future
Schäfer, Markus UL; Bender, Michel; Zahlten, Wolfhard et al

Learning material (2021)

To better understand the background and complexity of BIM and digitalization within structural engineering, the theoretical approach will highlight the underlying basics first. To draw the line from this ... [more ▼]

To better understand the background and complexity of BIM and digitalization within structural engineering, the theoretical approach will highlight the underlying basics first. To draw the line from this theory driven basics to real live application, the thesis will give multiple examples of how BIM is currently used in practice. In addition to the detailed explanation, these examples will serve as a base to analyze the current situation and problems which still need to be overcome. As far as possible for the respective research scope, potential areas of improvements will be outlined. To gain a better understanding of the current importance of BIM and digitalization within the German construction industry, engineers and companies will be surveyed. [less ▲]

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See detailRepeatability and precision of different static deflection measurements on a real bridge-part under outdoor conditions in view of damage detection
Kebig, Tanja UL; Nguyen, Viet Ha UL; Bender, Michél et al

in Cunha, A.; Caetano, E. (Eds.) Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Structural Health Monitoring of Intelligent Infrastructure, SHMII 10 (2021, July)

A large number of concrete bridges show increasing damage due to corrosion and fatigue. The traditional visual inspection and subsequent assessment of concrete bridges is carried out regularly by an ... [more ▼]

A large number of concrete bridges show increasing damage due to corrosion and fatigue. The traditional visual inspection and subsequent assessment of concrete bridges is carried out regularly by an experienced engineer. This type of inspection can be time-consuming, costly and leading to errors. Hence, there is a great interest in complementary, alternative and easy-to-implement methods for condition monitoring of bridges. The University of Luxembourg tested different approaches on a part of a real bridge. Various tests were performed in the healthy reference state, e.g. loading tests with a movable test load according to today’s standards. The measurements in the reference state were repeated several times under outdoor conditions to monitor and document the real temperature influence. Displacement transducers were set up in the vertical and horizontal directions. Simultaneously, a new approach was used for determining the deflection with a laser-based system, that measured the displacements in the bridge’s longitudinal direction by an oblique reflector panel under a well-defined angle. The data gained from the laser-based measurement system were compared to the data from classical displacement transducers. In general, the comparison of the two measuring systems shows quite similar results. [less ▲]

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See detailLimitations of plastic bending resistance for composite beams deviated from strain-limitation
Schäfer, Markus UL; Zhang, Qingjie UL; Braun, Matthias et al

in Journal of Constructional Steel Research (2021), 180(106562),

Due to the demand for sustainable constructions, composite structures have become more important and lead to slim and economic solutions with a low structural self-weight. EN 1994-1-1 distinguishes ... [more ▼]

Due to the demand for sustainable constructions, composite structures have become more important and lead to slim and economic solutions with a low structural self-weight. EN 1994-1-1 distinguishes between four different cross-section classes for the determination of moment resistance. For the plastic moment resistance, it is assumed, that each cross-sectional fibre can plastify without any limit on the strain. For standard composite beams with sagging moments and a high plastic neutral axis, plastic resistance and strain-limited resistance give similar results. For sections with a large compression zone height xpl and limited rotation capacity, concrete failure in the compression zone can occur before the plastic moment resistance Mpl,Rd, is reached. The strain limit design becomes critical. This paper points out the impact of the concrete part on the design of composite beams. A parametric study comparing plastic and strain limited moment resistance of a considerable variety of cross-sections has been carried out to develop the beam design methods considering compression zone height for the next generation of Eurocodes. [less ▲]

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See detailExtended Producer Responsibility in the Construction Sector through Blockchain, BIM and Smart Contract Technologies
Akbarieh, Arghavan UL; Carbone, William; Schäfer, Markus UL et al

Poster (2020, December 09)

Despite the enormous amount of raw or secondary materials flowing within the construction industry, the actual available volume of materials and their respective End-of-Lifecycle (EoL) treatment is not ... [more ▼]

Despite the enormous amount of raw or secondary materials flowing within the construction industry, the actual available volume of materials and their respective End-of-Lifecycle (EoL) treatment is not regulated nor uniform. On top of that, the EoL responsibility of different stakeholders after the future building deconstruction is confusing and disputable. Consequently, different sustainability policies and metrics suffer from inaccurately reported volumes of circulating materials in the economy. Hence, this article aims to find a new way to improve and regulate the EoL treatment of recyclable materials and to create value for them. The ultimate goal of the proposed framework is to make original manufacturers responsible for the EoL treatment of their recyclable construction materials and products under the Extended Producers Responsibility (EPR) policy that is enacted in the European Union for sustainable management of waste streams. Adhering to the EPR is difficult for buildings as they are long-term and complex assets. A high degree of transparency, accuracy and security is required to correctly track the lifecycle information of building parts and their respective manufacturers for the EPR implementation. For this purpose, a framework is conceptualised based on the immutability and transparency of blockchain technology to remove trust and trace barriers in the current supply chain. The proposed conceptual model results from the synergy of Building Information Modelling (BIM) technology, material and component banks, blockchain technology and smart contracts for the EoL treatment of recyclable materials. As a result, a data-driven and closed-loop material cycle will be accomplished. This paper demonstrates that through self-executing smart contracts, a clear line of responsibility and ownership could be defined while manufacturers could be made accountable in the post-consumer phase of their construction products. [less ▲]

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See detailEco-construction for sustainable development (Econ4SD) – Konzepte für Materialbanken
Zilian, Andreas UL; Waldmann, Daniele UL; Hertweck, Florian UL et al

in Kaliske, Michael (Ed.) 24. Dresdner Baustatik-Seminar: Reality - Modeling - Structural Design (2020, October)

This contribution presents the joint research project Econ4SD – Eco-construction for sustainable development which investigates at the University of Luxembourg various aspects of sustainable design ... [more ▼]

This contribution presents the joint research project Econ4SD – Eco-construction for sustainable development which investigates at the University of Luxembourg various aspects of sustainable design, construction and operation to support a resource-efficient circular economy in the construction sector. In this context the fundamental approach of Design for deconstruction assumes a central role and is being discussed together with the complementary concept of Material banks and their digital twinning at the level of components, buildings and markets. [less ▲]

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See detailEntwicklung der Europäischen Normung im Verbundbau
Schäfer, Markus UL; Hanswille, Gerhard

in Siebert, Gerald (Ed.) Festschrift zum 70. Geburtstag von Prof. Dr.-Ing. I. Mangerig (2020)

EN 1994-1- ist als Eurocode 4 für die Bemessung und Ausführung von Stahlverbundkonstruktionen in Deutschland als DIN EN 1994-1-1 seit 2012 bauaufsichtlich eingeführt. Im Rahmen des Europäischen Mandats ... [more ▼]

EN 1994-1- ist als Eurocode 4 für die Bemessung und Ausführung von Stahlverbundkonstruktionen in Deutschland als DIN EN 1994-1-1 seit 2012 bauaufsichtlich eingeführt. Im Rahmen des Europäischen Mandats M515 erfolgt aktuell eine Überarbeitung aller Eurocodes, mit dem Ziel, diese in die nächste Normungsgeneration zu überführen und die erforderlichen Anpassungen an den Stand der Technik sicherzustellen. Dieser Beitrag erläutert den derzeitigen Stand der Bearbeitung des Eurocode 4 und gibt einen Einblick in die damit verbundenen Diskussionen und die zu erwartenden Änderungen und Neuerungen. [less ▲]

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See detailEurocode 4 - DIN EN 1994-1-1 Bemessung und Konstruktion von Verbundtragwerken aus Stahl und Beton
Hanswille, Gerhard; Schäfer, Markus UL; Bergmann, Marco

Book published by Beuth - 1. Edition (2020)

Der Kommentar zu DIN EN 1994-1-1 richtet sich an alle Fachleute, die sich planend, bauend, prüfend oder überwachend mit der Bemessung, Konstruktion und Ausführung von Verbundtragwerken aus Stahl und Beton ... [more ▼]

Der Kommentar zu DIN EN 1994-1-1 richtet sich an alle Fachleute, die sich planend, bauend, prüfend oder überwachend mit der Bemessung, Konstruktion und Ausführung von Verbundtragwerken aus Stahl und Beton befassen. Er bietet eine Unterstützung bei der Auslegung und Anwendung der Norm in der Ingenieurpraxis. Besonderer Wert wird auf die Erläuterung der den Bemessungsregeln zugrunde liegenden mechanischen Modelle gelegt, um auch bei praktischen Fragestellungen, die nicht durch spezielle Anwendungsregeln im Eurocode 4 abgedeckt sind, eine sachgerechte Anwendung der Norm zu ermöglichen. Ergänzt wird das Buch durch eine Reihe typischer Beispiele aus dem Hochbau, sodass der Praktiker sich einfach und schnell in das Regelwerk einarbeiten kann. Darüber hinaus wird ein Einblick in den derzeitigen Diskussionsstand bei der Erarbeitung der Regelungen für die nächste Generation des Eurocode 4 gegeben und es wird auf wichtige, zu erwartende Änderungen und Ergänzungen hingewiesen. [less ▲]

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See detailDraft prEN 1994-1-1: 042020 + comments, Document
Schäfer, Markus UL; Hicks, Stephen; Banfi, Mike et al

Report (2020)

Development of second generation for Eurocode 4, part 1: prEN 1994-1-1: April 2020

Detailed reference viewed: 137 (5 UL)