References of "Schäfer, Markus 50002991"
     in
Bookmark and Share    
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailPost-Urban Mining Automation and Digitalisation for a Closed- Loop Circular Construction
Akbarieh, Arghavan UL; Schäfer, Markus UL; Waldmann, Daniele UL et al

Poster (2021, October 13)

The large volume of in- and out-flow of raw materials to construction projects has a huge potential to be optimised for resource efficiency and waste reduction. With the recent awareness of the importance ... [more ▼]

The large volume of in- and out-flow of raw materials to construction projects has a huge potential to be optimised for resource efficiency and waste reduction. With the recent awareness of the importance of the circular economy, construction actors are aligning their practices to be more circular and sustainable. The concept of material banks is born out of this awareness in order to document the lifecycle information of materials and facilitate re-using them. The introduction of new cycles before individual materials reach their final lifecycle stages results in reduced negative environmental impacts. This paper presents a workflow by positioning different digital technologies to automate the procedures for reuse assessment: from the deconstructed building to M/C bank to new construction projects. This automation supports a practical material and component reuse, while it provides the necessary infrastructure to digitise and digitalise the post-deconstruction materials to be visualised, selected and used by future designers in Building Information Modelling (BIM)-based design and management environments. To this aim, the coupling of BIM, reality capturing technologies, additive manufacturing techniques, IoT and RFID sensors is also anticipated. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 66 (4 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailRepeatability and precision of different static deflection measurements on a real bridge-part under outdoor conditions in view of damage detection
Kebig, Tanja UL; Nguyen, Viet Ha UL; Bender, Michél et al

in Cunha, A.; Caetano, E. (Eds.) Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Structural Health Monitoring of Intelligent Infrastructure, SHMII 10 (2021, July)

A large number of concrete bridges show increasing damage due to corrosion and fatigue. The traditional visual inspection and subsequent assessment of concrete bridges is carried out regularly by an ... [more ▼]

A large number of concrete bridges show increasing damage due to corrosion and fatigue. The traditional visual inspection and subsequent assessment of concrete bridges is carried out regularly by an experienced engineer. This type of inspection can be time-consuming, costly and leading to errors. Hence, there is a great interest in complementary, alternative and easy-to-implement methods for condition monitoring of bridges. The University of Luxembourg tested different approaches on a part of a real bridge. Various tests were performed in the healthy reference state, e.g. loading tests with a movable test load according to today’s standards. The measurements in the reference state were repeated several times under outdoor conditions to monitor and document the real temperature influence. Displacement transducers were set up in the vertical and horizontal directions. Simultaneously, a new approach was used for determining the deflection with a laser-based system, that measured the displacements in the bridge’s longitudinal direction by an oblique reflector panel under a well-defined angle. The data gained from the laser-based measurement system were compared to the data from classical displacement transducers. In general, the comparison of the two measuring systems shows quite similar results. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 52 (2 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLimitations of plastic bending resistance for composite beams deviated from strain-limitation
Schäfer, Markus UL; Zhang, Qingjie UL; Braun, Matthias et al

in Journal of Constructional Steel Research (2021), 180(106562),

Due to the demand for sustainable constructions, composite structures have become more important and lead to slim and economic solutions with a low structural self-weight. EN 1994-1-1 distinguishes ... [more ▼]

Due to the demand for sustainable constructions, composite structures have become more important and lead to slim and economic solutions with a low structural self-weight. EN 1994-1-1 distinguishes between four different cross-section classes for the determination of moment resistance. For the plastic moment resistance, it is assumed, that each cross-sectional fibre can plastify without any limit on the strain. For standard composite beams with sagging moments and a high plastic neutral axis, plastic resistance and strain-limited resistance give similar results. For sections with a large compression zone height xpl and limited rotation capacity, concrete failure in the compression zone can occur before the plastic moment resistance Mpl,Rd, is reached. The strain limit design becomes critical. This paper points out the impact of the concrete part on the design of composite beams. A parametric study comparing plastic and strain limited moment resistance of a considerable variety of cross-sections has been carried out to develop the beam design methods considering compression zone height for the next generation of Eurocodes. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 60 (6 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailExtended Producer Responsibility in the Construction Sector through Blockchain, BIM and Smart Contract Technologies
Akbarieh, Arghavan UL; Carbone, William; Schäfer, Markus UL et al

Poster (2020, December 09)

Despite the enormous amount of raw or secondary materials flowing within the construction industry, the actual available volume of materials and their respective End-of-Lifecycle (EoL) treatment is not ... [more ▼]

Despite the enormous amount of raw or secondary materials flowing within the construction industry, the actual available volume of materials and their respective End-of-Lifecycle (EoL) treatment is not regulated nor uniform. On top of that, the EoL responsibility of different stakeholders after the future building deconstruction is confusing and disputable. Consequently, different sustainability policies and metrics suffer from inaccurately reported volumes of circulating materials in the economy. Hence, this article aims to find a new way to improve and regulate the EoL treatment of recyclable materials and to create value for them. The ultimate goal of the proposed framework is to make original manufacturers responsible for the EoL treatment of their recyclable construction materials and products under the Extended Producers Responsibility (EPR) policy that is enacted in the European Union for sustainable management of waste streams. Adhering to the EPR is difficult for buildings as they are long-term and complex assets. A high degree of transparency, accuracy and security is required to correctly track the lifecycle information of building parts and their respective manufacturers for the EPR implementation. For this purpose, a framework is conceptualised based on the immutability and transparency of blockchain technology to remove trust and trace barriers in the current supply chain. The proposed conceptual model results from the synergy of Building Information Modelling (BIM) technology, material and component banks, blockchain technology and smart contracts for the EoL treatment of recyclable materials. As a result, a data-driven and closed-loop material cycle will be accomplished. This paper demonstrates that through self-executing smart contracts, a clear line of responsibility and ownership could be defined while manufacturers could be made accountable in the post-consumer phase of their construction products. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 229 (13 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEco-construction for sustainable development (Econ4SD) – Konzepte für Materialbanken
Zilian, Andreas UL; Waldmann, Daniele UL; Hertweck, Florian UL et al

in Kaliske, Michael (Ed.) 24. Dresdner Baustatik-Seminar: Reality - Modeling - Structural Design (2020, October)

This contribution presents the joint research project Econ4SD – Eco-construction for sustainable development which investigates at the University of Luxembourg various aspects of sustainable design ... [more ▼]

This contribution presents the joint research project Econ4SD – Eco-construction for sustainable development which investigates at the University of Luxembourg various aspects of sustainable design, construction and operation to support a resource-efficient circular economy in the construction sector. In this context the fundamental approach of Design for deconstruction assumes a central role and is being discussed together with the complementary concept of Material banks and their digital twinning at the level of components, buildings and markets. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 112 (11 UL)
Peer Reviewed
See detailEntwicklung der Europäischen Normung im Verbundbau
Schäfer, Markus UL; Hanswille, Gerhard

in Siebert, Gerald (Ed.) Festschrift zum 70. Geburtstag von Prof. Dr.-Ing. I. Mangerig (2020)

EN 1994-1- ist als Eurocode 4 für die Bemessung und Ausführung von Stahlverbundkonstruktionen in Deutschland als DIN EN 1994-1-1 seit 2012 bauaufsichtlich eingeführt. Im Rahmen des Europäischen Mandats ... [more ▼]

EN 1994-1- ist als Eurocode 4 für die Bemessung und Ausführung von Stahlverbundkonstruktionen in Deutschland als DIN EN 1994-1-1 seit 2012 bauaufsichtlich eingeführt. Im Rahmen des Europäischen Mandats M515 erfolgt aktuell eine Überarbeitung aller Eurocodes, mit dem Ziel, diese in die nächste Normungsgeneration zu überführen und die erforderlichen Anpassungen an den Stand der Technik sicherzustellen. Dieser Beitrag erläutert den derzeitigen Stand der Bearbeitung des Eurocode 4 und gibt einen Einblick in die damit verbundenen Diskussionen und die zu erwartenden Änderungen und Neuerungen. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 54 (0 UL)
See detailEurocode 4 - DIN EN 1994-1-1 Bemessung und Konstruktion von Verbundtragwerken aus Stahl und Beton
Hanswille, Gerhard; Schäfer, Markus UL; Bergmann, Marco

Book published by Beuth - 1. Edition (2020)

Der Kommentar zu DIN EN 1994-1-1 richtet sich an alle Fachleute, die sich planend, bauend, prüfend oder überwachend mit der Bemessung, Konstruktion und Ausführung von Verbundtragwerken aus Stahl und Beton ... [more ▼]

Der Kommentar zu DIN EN 1994-1-1 richtet sich an alle Fachleute, die sich planend, bauend, prüfend oder überwachend mit der Bemessung, Konstruktion und Ausführung von Verbundtragwerken aus Stahl und Beton befassen. Er bietet eine Unterstützung bei der Auslegung und Anwendung der Norm in der Ingenieurpraxis. Besonderer Wert wird auf die Erläuterung der den Bemessungsregeln zugrunde liegenden mechanischen Modelle gelegt, um auch bei praktischen Fragestellungen, die nicht durch spezielle Anwendungsregeln im Eurocode 4 abgedeckt sind, eine sachgerechte Anwendung der Norm zu ermöglichen. Ergänzt wird das Buch durch eine Reihe typischer Beispiele aus dem Hochbau, sodass der Praktiker sich einfach und schnell in das Regelwerk einarbeiten kann. Darüber hinaus wird ein Einblick in den derzeitigen Diskussionsstand bei der Erarbeitung der Regelungen für die nächste Generation des Eurocode 4 gegeben und es wird auf wichtige, zu erwartende Änderungen und Ergänzungen hingewiesen. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 79 (6 UL)
Full Text
See detailDraft prEN 1994-1-1: 042020 + comments, Document
Schäfer, Markus UL; Hicks, Stephen; Banfi, Mike et al

Report (2020)

Development of second generation for Eurocode 4, part 1: prEN 1994-1-1: April 2020

Detailed reference viewed: 111 (3 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailA mechanical design model for steel and concrete composite members with web openings
Claßen, Martin; Kurz, Wolfgang; Schäfer, Markus UL et al

in Engineering Structures (2019), Engineering Structures 197:109417(109417),

In web opening regions, a significant share of the global shear force is redistributed from the perforated web of the steel beam to the reinforced concrete (RC) slab. This redistribution leads to vertical ... [more ▼]

In web opening regions, a significant share of the global shear force is redistributed from the perforated web of the steel beam to the reinforced concrete (RC) slab. This redistribution leads to vertical forces in the shear connectors close to both edges of the opening and influences the internal forces in the steel beam and the RC slab over a length of approximately three times the opening length a0. The global shear failure in the web opening region is affected by the rather brittle behavior of the concrete and is either characterized by a diagonal shear cracking failure of the RC slab, or a local bending failure at the opening edges, or vertical connector failure (concrete break-out) at the ends of the opening. This paper is intended to clarify the structural behavior of web opening regions and proposes easy-to-use models that make it possible to analyze the local internal forces of each partial beam in a mechanically consistent manner. Based on these models, a novel design procedure is presented, that allows efficient design and dimensioning of web openings as well as prediction of shear resistance and failure mode. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 103 (1 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailInvestigation of the moment redistribution for steel concrete continuous beams
Yolacan, Taygun Firat UL; Schäfer, Markus UL

in The 14th Nordic Steel Construction Conference (2019, September 18)

This study investigates moment redistribution phenomenon for pin ended double-span steel-concrete continuous composite beams and arise a question about moment redistribution for the continuous beams ... [more ▼]

This study investigates moment redistribution phenomenon for pin ended double-span steel-concrete continuous composite beams and arise a question about moment redistribution for the continuous beams subjected to partially distributed or concentrated loading conditions. The overall objective of the study is to propose a methodology to fulfil the technical gaps adopted by Eurocode-4, which considers the redistribution for only uniformly load condition. A robust iterative algorithm is developed to obtain moment-curvature relations of the standard composite cross-sections. Flexural stiffness-curvature relations of the cross-sections are predicted through the moment-curvature relations. Flexural stiffness distribution along the composite beams is determined with curvature compatibility. Fourth order differential load-deflection equation is evaluated with finite difference solution scheme for continuous beam conditions and variable flexural stiffness along the beam length. A non-iterative incremental load-deflection algorithm is developed to calculate moment distribution in continuous beams with variable flexural stiffness. A benchmark example is solved with Eurocode- 4 provisions to validate the developed algorithms. Moment redistribution from hogging (negative) zone to sagging (positive) zone of uniformly loaded double-span continuous composite beam is illustrated considering the degree of flexural stiffness degradation in the composite medium. A question is arisen for moment redistribution in the continuous beams subjected to partially distributed or concentrated loading conditions. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 50 (4 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailImpact of reinforcement to moment resistance of composite slabs
Zhang, Qingjie UL; Schäfer, Markus UL; Kurz, Wolfgang

in The 2019 World Congress on Advances in Structural Engineering and Mechanics (ASEM19) (2019, September 17)

Composite slabs lead to slim and economic structural solutions with a low selfweight. The determination of their moment resistance follows the regulations presented in EN 1994-1-1 (2004) which are based ... [more ▼]

Composite slabs lead to slim and economic structural solutions with a low selfweight. The determination of their moment resistance follows the regulations presented in EN 1994-1-1 (2004) which are based on plastic design methods. The current version of Eurocode 4 does not consider explicitly additional reinforcement in the ribs for sagging moment resistance. However, the construction industry requires this possibility in order to provide economical and flexible design. Regarding this situation, further investigations are necessary to prove the applicability of plastic design methods. In the case of high bottom reinforcement ratio, a deep position of the plastic neutral axis occurs, and concrete compression failure may happen before most parts of the profiled steel sheeting and reinforcement yield. This leads to an overestimation of the bending resistance according to the plastic design method. A parametric study, based on approximately 290.000 different combinations of various cross-section geometries and materials, is provided to compare the plastic moment resistance with the resistance determined by strain-limited design. The results show that limitations are necessary to be enabled for the general application of plastic design methods. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 67 (4 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailPLASTIC DESIGN FOR COMPOSITE BEAMS - ARE THERE ANY LIMITS?
Schäfer, Markus UL; Zhang, Qingjie UL; Braun et al

in Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Steel and Aluminium Structures ICSAS19 (2019, July)

Due to the demand for sustainable constructions, composite structures have become more important and lead to slim and economic solutions with a low structural self-weight. EN 1994-1-1 differentiate four ... [more ▼]

Due to the demand for sustainable constructions, composite structures have become more important and lead to slim and economic solutions with a low structural self-weight. EN 1994-1-1 differentiate four different cross-section classes for the determination of moment resistance. For the plastic design of the moment resistance it is assumed, that each cross-sectional fibre can plastify without any limitation of the strains. For standard composite beams in case of sagging moments and a high-lying plastic neutral axis, plastic design and strain-limited design give similar results. In the case of sections with a large compression zone height xpl and limited rotation capacity, a concrete failure in the compression zone can occur before the plastic moment resistance Mpl,Rd, is reached. The strain limit design becomes decisive. This paper points out the impact of the concrete part on the design of composite beams. A parametric study comparing plastic and strain limited moment resistance of a considerable variety of cross-sections has been carried out to develop the beam design methods considering high compression zone height of next generation of Eurocodes. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 146 (5 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEntwicklung der Slim-Floor-Bauweise in Europa
Schäfer, Markus UL; BRaun, Matthias

in Stahlbau (2019), 88(2019)(7),

Slim-floor or also called shallow floor construction represents innovative composite beam systems for multi-storey buildings. These are rolled or welded steel profiles fully or partially integrated into ... [more ▼]

Slim-floor or also called shallow floor construction represents innovative composite beam systems for multi-storey buildings. These are rolled or welded steel profiles fully or partially integrated into the concrete slab. This construction method constitutes one of the most recent developments in steel-concrete composite construction and has become increasingly important in the last two decades. In this article, the construction method is explained as well as its development. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 71 (1 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailZur dehnungsbegrenzten Momententragfähigkeit von Flachdecken in Verbundbauweise
Schäfer, Markus UL; Zhang, Qingjie UL

in Stahlbau (2019), 88(2019)(Heft 7),

Due to the demand for sustainable buildings and slim constructions, composite slim-floor systems become more important. The present European Codes do not include complete design rules for shallow-floor ... [more ▼]

Due to the demand for sustainable buildings and slim constructions, composite slim-floor systems become more important. The present European Codes do not include complete design rules for shallow-floor beams. For the design, additional regulations have to be considered for bending design and the classification of the cross-section. This article points out the limits for plastic bending design and its particularities. In den letzten Jahren hat die Slim-Floor-Bauweise zunehmend an Bedeutung gewonnen, dies ist nicht zuletzt auf die Forderung nach schlanken Konstruktionen und einer Optimierung des Bauablaufs zurückzuführen. Die Bemessung solcher Bauteile kann jedoch nicht allein auf Grundlage der europäischen Regelwerke für den Verbundbau erfolgen. Es gelten einige Besonderheiten, die durch ergänzende Bemessungsregeln zu erfassen sind. Umfangreiche Untersuchungen verdeutlichen, dass eine Einstufung der Rotationskapazität und die Festlegung der Querschnittsklasse nicht allein basierend auf der Klassifizierung des Stahlquerschnitts erfolgen können, da der Beton bei derartigen Systemen einen wesentlichen Einfluss auf das Tragverhalten nimmt. In diesem Beitrag werden die Besonderheiten für kompakte Slim-Floor-Querschnitte im Rahmen der Biegebemessung erläutert. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 73 (4 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailTragverhalten von CoSFB-Dübeln
Braun, Matthias; Obiala, Renata; Schäfer, Markus UL et al

in Stahlbau (2019), 88(2019)(Heft 7),

Slim-floor or shallow floor construction is characterized by the integration of a steel beam into a slab. The activation of a composite action between the steel section and the concrete slab leads to a ... [more ▼]

Slim-floor or shallow floor construction is characterized by the integration of a steel beam into a slab. The activation of a composite action between the steel section and the concrete slab leads to a significant increase of the bending capacity and the stiffness of the beam, allowing for larger beam spans. This paper presents a fundamentally new method for assessing the load-bearing capacity of CoSFB-Dowels, which ensures a composite action of a composite slim-floor beam (CoSFB). Based on detailed analysis of push-out tests, extensive numerical simulations were performed in order to identify the contribution of various parameters on the load-bearing capacity. Finally, an analytical formulation of the load-bearing capacity is presented, which has been derived by applying a simple second order plasticity approach. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 102 (4 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailChancen und Herausforderungen für Stahl-Verbundkonstruktionen im modernen Geschossbau
Schäfer, Markus UL; Braun, Matthias

in Stahlbau (2019), 88(7),

Aus dem Trend der Urbanisierung und dem Anstieg von Investitionen in den Wirtschaftszentren Europas resultiert ein rasantes Wachstum. Damit einher geht eine immense Nachfrage nach entsprechenden ... [more ▼]

Aus dem Trend der Urbanisierung und dem Anstieg von Investitionen in den Wirtschaftszentren Europas resultiert ein rasantes Wachstum. Damit einher geht eine immense Nachfrage nach entsprechenden Nutzflächen sowie der zugehörigen Infrastruktur. In den großen Ballungsgebieten, den Hotspots der Wirtschaft, wird der Bedarf an Mehrgeschossbauten und Hochhäusern stark ansteigen.Dabei stellen sich neue Herausforderungen. Die Bauindustrie muss sich mit zukunftsorientierten Bauweisen unter Einbeziehung des Klimaschutzes und insbesondere der Ressourceneffizienz ernsthaft auseinandersetzen und neue Ansätze jenseits traditioneller Bauweisen finden. Da ca. 33 % des gesamten Rohstoffverbrauchs mit der Bauwirtschaft verbunden sind, müssen nachhaltige, effiziente und marktfähige Bautechnologien in den Fokus gerückt werden. Darüber hinaus gewinnt die Optimierung der Baustellenorganisation und Logistik sowie industrieller Vorfertigung vermehrt an Bedeutung... [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 103 (0 UL)
Full Text
See detailProject Team SC4 T6 interim reports April 2019 Draft EN 1994-1-1
Schäfer, Markus UL; Banfi, Mike; Hicks, Stephen et al

Report (2019)

April draft of second generation for Eurocode 4: EN 1994-1-1; Outcome from SC4.T6

Detailed reference viewed: 106 (6 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEuropean design code for composite structures in steel and concrete - Historical development and investigation in the second generation of Eurocode 4
Schäfer, Markus UL

in Steel Construction (2019), 12 (2019) Heft 2(02/2019), 70-81

The Eurocodes (EC) represent European norms (EN) for the design and construction of building and bridge structures. The development of these European design codes is carried out on behalf of the European ... [more ▼]

The Eurocodes (EC) represent European norms (EN) for the design and construction of building and bridge structures. The development of these European design codes is carried out on behalf of the European Union (EU) by the “European Committee for Standardization - CEN”. The Eurocodes have been in use for some years now. The motivation behind the development of the Eurocodes is the harmonization of the planning and design process for the structural components and construction elements of buildings and bridges all over Europe. Based on the experience gained through the use of the Eurocode conditions in recent years and many comments from industry, a revision of all parts of the Eurocode is currently in progress. The aim is to adapt the current design standards to the state of the art and research, to simplify the application and to harmonize the Eurocodes with each other. Finally, these modifications will be transferred to the second generation of European standards. An overview of the development phases and project teams is presented in this paper, accompanied by an insight into current standardization work and the technical discussions, mainly focusing on EN 1994-1-1. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 50 (3 UL)
Full Text
See detailSlim-floor beam bending moment resistance considering partial shear connection
Zhang, Qingjie UL; Schäfer, Markus UL

in Wald, Frantisek; Jandera, Michal (Eds.) Stability and Ductility of Steel Structures 2019 (2019)

Having the advantage of flat lower surface, high stiffness and integrated fire resistance, slim-floor composite beams are widely used and favoured in many design solutions. The current bending design ... [more ▼]

Having the advantage of flat lower surface, high stiffness and integrated fire resistance, slim-floor composite beams are widely used and favoured in many design solutions. The current bending design methods are mainly derived from plastic design methods for classical composite beam with consideration of the special features for slim-floor beams such as the transverse bending of bottom flange when used as support for slabs. Alternatively, more advanced strain-limited design method or FE-method can be used. In the case of full shear connection, with deep position of neutral axis and great compression zone height, there is a risk that plastic design method may overestimate the bending resistance of the cross section compared to the strain-limited design method. In the case of the partial shear connection, shear design diagram for slim-floor beams obtained by means of the strain-limited design can also differ significantly from the one obtained by plastic design method, thus further research on slim-floor beams is still necessary. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 55 (3 UL)