References of "Santos, Cristiana"
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See detailCookie Banners, What’s the Purpose? Analyzing Cookie Banner Text Through a Legal Lens
Santos, Cristiana; Rossi, Arianna UL; Sanchez Chamorro, Lorena UL et al

in Proceedings of the 2021 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security (CCS '21) (2021, November 15)

A cookie banner pops up when a user visits a website for the first time, requesting consent to the use of cookies and other trackers for a variety of purposes. Unlike prior work that has focused on ... [more ▼]

A cookie banner pops up when a user visits a website for the first time, requesting consent to the use of cookies and other trackers for a variety of purposes. Unlike prior work that has focused on evaluating the user interface (UI) design of cookie banners, this paper presents an in-depth analysis of what cookie banners say to users to get their consent. We took an interdisciplinary approach to determining what cookie banners should say. Following the legal requirements of the ePrivacy Directive (ePD) and the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), we manually annotated around 400 cookie banners presented on the most popular English-speaking websites visited by users residing in the EU. We focused on analyzing the purposes of cookie banners and how these purposes were expressed (e.g., any misleading or vague language, any use of jargon). We found that 89% of cookie banners violated applicable laws. In particular, 61% of banners violated the purpose specificity requirement by mentioning vague purposes, including “user experience enhancement”. Further, 30% of banners used positive framing, breaching the freely given and informed consent requirements. Based on these findings, we provide recommendations that regulators can find useful. We also describe future research directions. [less ▲]

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See detailArtificial Intelligence in Space
Long, George Anthony; Santos, Cristiana; Rapp, Lucien et al

E-print/Working paper (2020)

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See detailAn Agile Approach to Validate a Formal Representation of the GDPR
Bartolini, Cesare UL; Lenzini, Gabriele UL; Santos, Cristiana

in JSAI International Symposium on Artificial Intelligence (2019), 11717

Modeling in a knowledge base of logic formulæ the articles of the GDPR enables semi-automatic reasoning of the Regulation. To be legally substantiated, it requires that the formulæ express validly the ... [more ▼]

Modeling in a knowledge base of logic formulæ the articles of the GDPR enables semi-automatic reasoning of the Regulation. To be legally substantiated, it requires that the formulæ express validly the legal meaning of the Regulation’s articles. But legal experts are usually not familiar with logic, and this calls for an interdisciplinary validation methodology that bridges the communication gap between formal modelers and legal evaluators. We devise such a validation methodology and exemplify it over a knowledge base of articles of the GDPR translated <br />AQ2 into Reified I/O (RIO) logic and encoded in LegalRuleML. A pivotal element of the methodology is a human-readable intermediate representation of the logic formulæ that preserves the formulæ’s meaning while rendering it in a readable way to non-experts. After being applied over a use case, we prove that it is possible to retrieve feedback from legal experts about the formal representation of Art. 5.1a and Art. 7.1. What emerges is an agile process to build logic knowledge bases of legal texts, and to support their public trust, which we intend to use for a logic AQ3 model of the GDPR, called DAPRECO knowledge base. [less ▲]

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See detailAn Interdisciplinary Methodology to Validate Formal Representations of Legal Text Applied to the GDPR
Bartolini, Cesare UL; Lenzini, Gabriele UL; Santos, Cristiana

Scientific Conference (2018, November 12)

The modelling of a legal text into a machine-processable form, such as a list of logic formulæ, enables a semi-automatic reasoning about legal compliance but might entail some anticipation of legal ... [more ▼]

The modelling of a legal text into a machine-processable form, such as a list of logic formulæ, enables a semi-automatic reasoning about legal compliance but might entail some anticipation of legal interpretation in the modelling. The formulæ need therefore to be validated by legal experts, but it is unlikely that they are familiar with the formalism used. This calls for an interdisciplinary validation methodology to ensure that the model is legally coherent with the text it aims to represent but that could also close the communication gap between formal modellers and legal evaluators. This paper discusses such a methodology, providing an human-readable representation that preserves the formulæ's meaning but that presents them in a way that is usable by non-experts. We exemplify the methodology on a use case where Articles of the GDPR are translated in the Reified I/O logic encoded in LegalRuleML. [less ▲]

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See detailProperty and the Cloud
Bartolini, Cesare UL; Santos, Cristiana; Ullrich, Carsten UL

in Computer Law and Security Report (2018)

Data is a modern form of wealth in the digital world, and massive amounts of data circulate in cloud environments. While this enormously facilitates the sharing of information, both for personal and ... [more ▼]

Data is a modern form of wealth in the digital world, and massive amounts of data circulate in cloud environments. While this enormously facilitates the sharing of information, both for personal and professional purposes, it also introduces some critical problems concerning the ownership of the information. Data is an intangible good that is stored in large data warehouses, where the hardware architectures and software programs running the cloud services coexist with the data of many users. This context calls for a twofold protection: on one side, the cloud is made up of hardware and software that constitute the business assets of the service provider (property of the cloud); on the other side, there is a definite need to ensure that users retain control over their data (property in the cloud). The law grants protection to both sides under several perspectives, but the result is a complex mix of interwoven regimes, further complicated by the intrinsically international nature of cloud computing that clashes with the typical diversity of national laws. As the business model based on cloud computing grows, public bodies, and in particular the European Union, are striving to find solutions to properly regulate the future economy, either by introducing new laws, or by finding the best ways to apply existing principles. [less ▲]

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See detailModeling relevant legal information for consumer disputes
Santos, Cristiana; Rodriguez Doncel, Victor; Casanovas, Pompeu et al

in EGOVIS 2016: Electronic Government and the Information Systems Perspective (2016, September)

Accessing relevant legal information found in text excerpts from heterogeneous sources is essential to the decision making process in consumer disputes. The Ontology of Relevant Legal Information in ... [more ▼]

Accessing relevant legal information found in text excerpts from heterogeneous sources is essential to the decision making process in consumer disputes. The Ontology of Relevant Legal Information in Consumer Disputes (ric) is the domain-independent ontology modeling this relevant legal information comprising rights, their requisites, exceptions, constraints, enforcement procedures, legal sources. Its use is exemplified with one extension thereof, the Air Transport Passenger Incidents Ontology (ric-atpi), representing both the possible incidents triggered by a complaint in the air transport passenger domain and the related legal information that might be applicable. The Ontology models the key provisions found in hard law, and those in soft law, comprising heterogeneous sources in a structured manner. An ontology-based system provides the knowledge embedded in the legal sources and their relation to the specific scenario. [less ▲]

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See detailComplaint Ontology Pattern - COP
Santos, Cristiana; Pruski, Cédric; da Silveira, Marcos et al

in Workshop on Ontology and Semantic Web Patterns, Kobe 18 October 2016 (2016)

In this paper we present an ontology design pattern to conceptualize complaints - an important domain still uncovered by ODPs. The proposed Complaint Ontology Pattern (COP) has been designed based on the ... [more ▼]

In this paper we present an ontology design pattern to conceptualize complaints - an important domain still uncovered by ODPs. The proposed Complaint Ontology Pattern (COP) has been designed based on the analysis of free text complaints from available complaint datasets (banking, air transport, automobile) among other knowledge sources. We present a detailed use case from consumer disputes. We evaluate the pattern by annotating the complaints from our use case and by discussing how COP aligns to existing ontologies. [less ▲]

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See detailCombining Input/Output logic and Rei cation for representing real-world obligations
Robaldo, Livio UL; Humphreys, Llio UL; Sun, Xin et al

in Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Juris-informatic (JURISIN 2015) (2015)

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See detailMapping Recitals to Normative Provisions in EU Legislation to Assist Legal Interpretation
Humphreys, Llio UL; Santos, Cristiana; Di Caro, Luigi et al

in Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Legal Knowledge and Information Systems (2015)

Detailed reference viewed: 158 (6 UL)