References of "Salamanca, Luis"
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See detailMicroglia phenotypes are associated with subregional patterns of concomitant tau, amyloid-β and α-synuclein pathologies in the hippocampus of patients with Alzheimer’s disease and dementia with Lewy bodies
Fixemer, Sonja UL; Ameli, Corrado UL; Hammer, Gaël et al

in Acta Neuropathologica Communications (2022), 10(1), 36

The cellular alterations of the hippocampus lead to memory decline, a shared symptom between Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) patients. However, the subregional deterioration ... [more ▼]

The cellular alterations of the hippocampus lead to memory decline, a shared symptom between Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) patients. However, the subregional deterioration pattern of the hippocampus differs between AD and DLB with the CA1 subfield being more severely affected in AD. The activation of microglia, the brain immune cells, could play a role in its selective volume loss. How subregional microglia populations vary within AD or DLB and across these conditions remains poorly understood. Furthermore, how the nature of the hippocampal local pathological imprint is associated with microglia responses needs to be elucidated. To this purpose, we employed an automated pipeline for analysis of 3D confocal microscopy images to assess CA1, CA3 and DG/CA4 subfields microglia responses in post-mortem hippocampal samples from late-onset AD (n = 10), DLB (n = 8) and age-matched control (CTL) (n = 11) individuals. In parallel, we performed volumetric analyses of hyperphosphorylated tau (pTau), amyloid-β (Aβ) and phosphorylated α-synuclein (pSyn) loads. For each of the 32,447 extracted microglia, 16 morphological features were measured to classify them into seven distinct morphological clusters. Our results show similar alterations of microglial morphological features and clusters in AD and DLB, but with more prominent changes in AD. We identified two distinct microglia clusters enriched in disease conditions and particularly increased in CA1 and DG/CA4 of AD and CA3 of DLB. Our study confirms frequent concomitance of pTau, Aβ and pSyn loads across AD and DLB but reveals a specific subregional pattern for each type of pathology, along with a generally increased severity in AD. Furthermore, pTau and pSyn loads were highly correlated across subregions and conditions. We uncovered tight associations between microglial changes and the subfield pathological imprint. Our findings suggest that combinations and severity of subregional pTau, Aβ and pSyn pathologies transform local microglia phenotypic composition in the hippocampus. The high burdens of pTau and pSyn associated with increased microglial alterations could be a factor in CA1 vulnerability in AD. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Parkinson’s-disease-associated mutation LRRK2-G2019S alters dopaminergic differentiation dynamics via NR2F1
Walter, Jonas; Bolognin, Silvia UL; Poovathingal, Suresh et al

in Cell Reports (2021)

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See detail3D Cultures of Parkinson's Disease‐Specific Dopaminergic Neurons for High Content Phenotyping and Drug Testing
Bolognin, Silvia UL; Fossépré, Marie; Qing, Xiaobing et al

in Advanced Science (2018)

Parkinson's disease (PD)‐specific neurons, grown in standard 2D cultures, typically only display weak endophenotypes. The cultivation of PD patient‐specific neurons, derived from induced pluripotent stem ... [more ▼]

Parkinson's disease (PD)‐specific neurons, grown in standard 2D cultures, typically only display weak endophenotypes. The cultivation of PD patient‐specific neurons, derived from induced pluripotent stem cells carrying the LRRK2‐G2019S mutation, is optimized in 3D microfluidics. The automated image analysis algorithms are implemented to enable pharmacophenomics in disease‐relevant conditions. In contrast to 2D cultures, this 3D approach reveals robust endophenotypes. High‐content imaging data show decreased dopaminergic differentiation and branching complexity, altered mitochondrial morphology, and increased cell death in LRRK2‐G2019S neurons compared to isogenic lines without using stressor agents. Treatment with the LRRK2 inhibitor 2 (Inh2) rescues LRRK2‐G2019S‐dependent dopaminergic phenotypes. Strikingly, a holistic analysis of all studied features shows that the genetic background of the PD patients, and not the LRRK2‐G2019S mutation, constitutes the strongest contribution to the phenotypes. These data support the use of advanced in vitro models for future patient stratification and personalized drug development. [less ▲]

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