References of "Rossi, Arianna 50033521"
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See detailWhich Properties has an Icon? A Critical Discussion on Evaluation Methods for Standardised Data Protection Iconography
Rossi, Arianna UL; Lenzini, Gabriele UL

in Proceedings of the 8th Workshop on Socio-Technical Aspects in Security and Trust (STAST) (in press)

Following GDPR's Article12.7's proposal to use standardized icons to inform data subject in "an easily visible, intelligible and clearly legible manner," several icon sets have been developed. In this ... [more ▼]

Following GDPR's Article12.7's proposal to use standardized icons to inform data subject in "an easily visible, intelligible and clearly legible manner," several icon sets have been developed. In this paper, we firstly critically review some of those proposals. We then examine the properties that icons and icon sets should arguably fulfill according to Art.12's transparency provisions. Lastly, we discuss metrics and evaluation procedures to measure compliance with the Article. [less ▲]

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See detailTransparency by Design in Data-Informed Research: a Collection of Information Design Patterns
Rossi, Arianna UL; Lenzini, Gabriele UL

in Computer Law and Security Report (in press)

Oftentimes information disclosures describing personal data-gathering research activities are so poorly designed that participants fail to be informed and blindly agree to the terms, without grasping the ... [more ▼]

Oftentimes information disclosures describing personal data-gathering research activities are so poorly designed that participants fail to be informed and blindly agree to the terms, without grasping the rights they can exercise and the risks derived from their cooperation. To respond to the challenge, this article presents a series of operational strategies for transparent communication in line with legal-ethical requirements. These "transparency-enhancing design patterns" can be implemented by data controllers/researchers to maximize the clarity, navigability, and noticeability of the information provided and ultimately empower data subjects/research subjects to appreciate and determine the permissible use of their data. [less ▲]

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See detailMaking the Case for Evidence-based Standardization of Data Privacy and Data Protection Visual Indicators
Rossi, Arianna UL; Lenzini, Gabriele UL

in Journal of Open Access to Law (JOAL) (2020), 8(1),

Lately, icons have witnessed a growing wave of interest in the view of enhancing transparency and clarity of data processing practices in mandated disclosures. Although benefits in terms of ... [more ▼]

Lately, icons have witnessed a growing wave of interest in the view of enhancing transparency and clarity of data processing practices in mandated disclosures. Although benefits in terms of comprehensibility, noticeability, navigability of the information and user’s attention and memorization can be expected, they should also be supported by decisive empirical evidence about the efficacy of the icons in specific contexts. Misrepresentation, oversimplification, and improper salience of certain aspects over others are omnipresent risks that can drive data subjects to wrong conclusions. Cross-domain and international standardization of visual means also poses a serious challenge: if on the one hand developing standards is necessary to ensure widespread recognition and comprehension, each domain and application presents unique features that can be hardly established, and imposed, in a top-down manner. This article critically discusses the above issues and identifies relevant open questions for scientific research. It also provides concrete examples and practical suggestions for researchers and practitioners that aim to implement transparency-enhancing icons in the spirit of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). [less ▲]

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See detailWhat's in an Icon? Promises and Pitfalls of Data Protection Iconography
Rossi, Arianna UL; Palmirani, Monica

in Leenes, Ronald; Hallinan, Dara; Gutwirth, Serge (Eds.) et al Data Protection and Privacy: Data Protection and Democracy (2020)

Under the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), transparency of information becomes an obligation aimed at creating an ecosystem where data subjects understand and control what happens to their ... [more ▼]

Under the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), transparency of information becomes an obligation aimed at creating an ecosystem where data subjects understand and control what happens to their personal data. The definition of transparency stresses its user-centric nature, while design considerations to comply with this obligation assume central importance. This article focuses on the icons established by the GDPR Art. 12.7 to offer “a meaningful overview of the intended processing”. Existing attempts to represent data protection through icons have not met widespread adoption and reasons about the strengths and weaknesses of their creation and evaluation are here discussed. Building on this analysis, we present an empirical research proposing a new icon set that responds to GDPR requirements. The article also discusses the challenges of creating and evaluating such icon set and provides some future directions of research for effective an effective implementation and standardization. [less ▲]

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See detailLegal Design for the General Data Protection Regulation. A Methodology for the Visualization and Communication of Legal Concepts
Rossi, Arianna UL

Doctoral thesis (2019)

Privacy policies are known to be impenetrable, lengthy, tedious texts that are hardly read and poorly understood. Therefore, the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) introduces provisions to enhance ... [more ▼]

Privacy policies are known to be impenetrable, lengthy, tedious texts that are hardly read and poorly understood. Therefore, the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) introduces provisions to enhance the transparency of such documents and suggests icons as visual elements to provide “in an easily visible, intelligible and clearly legible manner a meaningful overview of the intended processing.” The present dissertation discusses how design, and in particular legal design, can support the concrete implementation of the GDPR’s transparency obligation. Notwithstanding the many benefits that visual communication demonstrably provides, graphical elements do not improve comprehension per se. Research on graphical symbols for legal concepts is still scarce, while both the creation and consequent evaluation of icons depicting abstract or unfamiliar concepts represent a challenge. More- over, precision of representation can support the individuals’ sense-making of the meaning of graphical symbols, but at the expense of simplicity and us- ability. Hence, this research proposed a methodology that combines semantic web technologies with principles of semiotics and ergonomics, and empirical methods drawn from the emerging discipline of legal design, that was used to create and evaluate DaPIS, the Data Protection Icon Set meant to support the data subjects’ navigation of privacy policies. The icon set is modeled on PrOnto, an ontological representation of the GDPR, and is organized around its core modules: personal data, roles and agents, processing operations, processing purposes, legal bases, and data subjects’ rights. In combination with the description of a privacy policy in the legal standard XML Akoma Ntoso, such an approach makes the icons machine-readable and semi-automatically retrievable. Icons can thus serve as information markers in lengthy privacy statements and support the navigation of the text by the data subject. [less ▲]

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See detailProactive Legal Design: Embedding Values in the Design of Legal Artefacts
Rossi, Arianna UL; Haapio, Helena

in Schweighofer, Erich; Kummer, Franz; Saarenpää, Ahti (Eds.) International Legal Infomatics Symposium IRIS 2019 (2019)

Legal Design is an umbrella term for merging forward-looking legal thinking with design think- ing. It applies human-centered design to prevent or solve legal problems. Legal Design takes an ... [more ▼]

Legal Design is an umbrella term for merging forward-looking legal thinking with design think- ing. It applies human-centered design to prevent or solve legal problems. Legal Design takes an interdisciplinary and proactive approach to law, covering not only legal information and documents, but also legal services, processes, and systems. This paper introduces Legal Design in the context of forward-looking Legal Tech, especially through the lenses of data protection, and analyses the analogies among Value-Sensitive Design, Proactive Law, and Privacy by Design. [less ▲]

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See detailDark Patterns: Deception or Simply Bad Design?
Rossi, Arianna UL; Lenzini, Gabriele UL; Koenig, Vincent UL et al

Poster (2019)

Lately, researchers, journalists, and regulators are devoting attention to dark patterns, defined as "design choices that benefit an online service by coercing, steering or deceiving users into making ... [more ▼]

Lately, researchers, journalists, and regulators are devoting attention to dark patterns, defined as "design choices that benefit an online service by coercing, steering or deceiving users into making decisions that, if fully informed and capable of selecting alternatives, they would not make". Those patterns that have the purpose" or the "substantial effect of obscuring, subverting, or impairing user autonomy, decision-making, or choice" have also been qualified as dark. These definitions are dense: they contain concepts like coercion, nudging, and deception that all alone would deserve an entire work to be discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailLegal Design Patterns: Towards A New Language for Legal Information Design
Rossi, Arianna UL; Ducato, Rossana; Haapio, Helena et al

in Schweighofer, Erich; Kummer, Franz; Saarenpää, Ahti (Eds.) 22nd International Legal Infomatics Symposium IRIS 2019 (2019)

Patterns are a central tool in legal design. They are conceptual schemes or entities describing solutions to a recurring legal problem, helping to make contracts, disclosures and policies accessible to ... [more ▼]

Patterns are a central tool in legal design. They are conceptual schemes or entities describing solutions to a recurring legal problem, helping to make contracts, disclosures and policies accessible to users and easier to prepare. In this paper, we take stock of existing legal design patterns and pattern libraries and present the idea of a legal design pattern language intended to lead to documenting and sharing good practices across disciplines and to more actionable pattern libraries. [less ▲]

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See detailWhen Design Met Law: Design Patterns for Information Transparency
Rossi, Arianna UL; Ducato, Rossana; Haapio, Helena et al

in Droit de la Consommation (2019), (1),

The problems of online disclosures, notices, and terms are well-known and documented. Research and experience tell us that consumers dislike and do not read them. Much less has been said and done about ... [more ▼]

The problems of online disclosures, notices, and terms are well-known and documented. Research and experience tell us that consumers dislike and do not read them. Much less has been said and done about the solutions. Building on Proactive Law and Legal Design, this research-based, practice-oriented article introduces proactive legal design patterns as a possible way forward. The article illustrates, with examples, how design patterns can help implement the principle of transparency in consumer-facing communication and elaborates, in an innovative manner, the ways in which legal design patterns can help solve recurring problems. [less ▲]

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See detailDaPIS: an Ontology-Based Data Protection Icon Set
Rossi, Arianna UL; Palmirani, Monica

in Peruginelli, Ginevra; Faro, Sebastiano (Eds.) Knowledge of the Law in the Big Data Age (2019)

Privacy policies are known to be impenetrable and lengthy texts that are hardly read and poorly understood. This is why the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) introduces provisions to enhance ... [more ▼]

Privacy policies are known to be impenetrable and lengthy texts that are hardly read and poorly understood. This is why the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) introduces provisions to enhance information transparency including icons as visual means to clarify data practices. However, the research on the creation and evaluation of graphical symbols for the communication of legal concepts, which are generally abstract and unfamiliar to laypeople, is still in its infancy. Moreover, detailed visual representations can support users’ comprehension of the underlying concepts, but at the expense of simplicity and usability. This Chapter describes a methodology for the creation and evaluation of DaPIS, a machine-readable Data Protection Icon Set that was designed following human-centered methods drawn from the emerging discipline of Legal Design. Participatory design methods have ensured that the perspectives of legal experts, designers and other relevant stake- holders are combined in a fruitful dialogue, while user studies have empirically determined strengths and weaknesses of the icon set as communicative means for the legal sphere. Inputs from other disciplines were also fundamental: canonical principles drawn from aesthetics, ergonomics and semiotics were included in the methodology. Moreover, DaPIS is modeled on PrOnto, an ontology of the GDPR, thus offering a comprehensive solution for the Semantic Web. In combination with the description of a privacy policy in the legal standard XML Akoma Ntoso, such an approach makes the icons machine-readable and automatically retrievable. Icons can thus serve as information markers in lengthy privacy statements and support an efficient navigation of the document. In this way, different representations of legal information can be mapped and connected to enhance its comprehensibility: the lawyer-readable, the machine-readable, and the human-readable layers. [less ▲]

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See detailFormalizing GDPR provisions in reified I/O logic: the DAPRECO knowledge base
Robaldo, Livio UL; Bartolini, Cesare UL; Lenzini, Gabriele UL et al

in Journal of Logic, Language and Information (2019)

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See detailFrom Words to Images Through Legal Visualization
Rossi, Arianna UL; Palmirani, Monica

in Pagallo, Ugo; Palmirani, Monica; Casanovas, Pompeu (Eds.) et al AI Approaches to the Complexity of Legal Systems: AICOL International Workshops 2015–2017: AICOL-VI@ JURIX 2015, AICOL-VII@ EKAW 2016, AICOL-VIII@ JURIX 2016, AICOL-IX@ ICAIL 2017, and AICOL-X@ JURIX 2017, Revised Selected Papers (2018)

One of the common characteristics of legal documents is the absolute preponderance of text and their specific domain language, whose complexity can result in impenetrability for those that have no legal ... [more ▼]

One of the common characteristics of legal documents is the absolute preponderance of text and their specific domain language, whose complexity can result in impenetrability for those that have no legal expertise. In some experiments, visual communication has been introduced in legal documents to make their meaning clearer and more intelligible, whilst visualizations have also been automatically generated from semantically-enriched legal data. As part of an ongoing research that aims to create user-friendly privacy terms by integrating graphical elements and Semantic Web technologies, the process of creation and interpretation of visual legal concepts will be discussed. The analysis of current approaches to this subject represents the point of departure to propose an empirical methodology that is inspired by interaction and human-centered design practices. [less ▲]

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See detailLegal Design Patterns for Privacy
Haapio, Helena; Hagan, Margaret; Palmirani, Monica et al

in Data Protection / LegalTech Proceedings of the 21st International Legal Informatics Symposium IRIS 2018 (2018)

Fulfilling the legal requirements of mandated disclosure is a challenge in many contexts. Privacy communication is no exception, especially for those who seek to effectively inform individuals about the ... [more ▼]

Fulfilling the legal requirements of mandated disclosure is a challenge in many contexts. Privacy communication is no exception, especially for those who seek to effectively inform individuals about the use of their data. Lawyers across countries and industries are facing recurring problems when (re)writing privacy notices and terms. Visual and interactive design patterns have been suggested as the solution, yet our analysis shows that they are lacking on most privacy policies. This indicates the need for standardization and an actionable pattern library, which we propose in this paper. [less ▲]

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See detailA Methodological Framework to Design a Machine-Readable Privacy Icon Set
Palmirani, Monica; Rossi, Arianna UL; Martoni, Michele et al

in Schweighofer, Erich (Ed.) Data Protection / LegalTech Proceedings of the 21st International Legal Informatics Symposium IRIS 2018 (2018)

The GDPR suggests icons to convey data practices in a more straightforward way. Although vi- sualizations to represent legal terms have many benefits, there is fear that they could be misrep- resented by ... [more ▼]

The GDPR suggests icons to convey data practices in a more straightforward way. Although vi- sualizations to represent legal terms have many benefits, there is fear that they could be misrep- resented by designers and misinterpreted by individuals, thus hindering instead of facilitating the comprehension. In order to solve these issues, we present a methodology to generate legal visual representations that is based on an analysis of legal requirements, on an ontological representation of the legal knowledge, and on an iterative, multi-stakeholder design approach, followed by empirical evaluation. [less ▲]

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See detailPrOnto: Privacy Ontology for Legal Reasoning
palmirani, monica; Martoni, Michele; Rossi, Arianna UL et al

in International Conference on Electronic Government and the Information Systems Perspective (2018)

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See detailLegal Ontology for Modelling GDPR Concepts and Norms
Palmirani, Monica; Bartolini, Cesare UL; Martoni, Michele et al

in JURIX 2018 proceedings (2018)

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See detailA Visualization Approach for Adaptive Consent in the European Data Protection Framework
Rossi, Arianna UL; Palmirani, Monica

in Edelmann, Noella; Parycek, Peter (Eds.) Proceedings of the 7th International Conference for E-Democracy and Open Government (2017)

For the first time in the history of European data protection law, the use of visualizations and especially of icons is explicitly suggested as a way to improve the comprehensibility of the information ... [more ▼]

For the first time in the history of European data protection law, the use of visualizations and especially of icons is explicitly suggested as a way to improve the comprehensibility of the information about data handling practices provided to the data subjects, which plays a crucial role to obtain informed consent. Privacy icon sets have already been developed, but they differ in the kinds of information they depict and in the perspectives they embed. Moreover, they have not met widespread adoption, one reasons being that research has shown that possibility of misinterpretation of these symbols exist. Our research relies on legal Semantic Web technologies and on principles drawn from legal design and Human Computer Interaction to propose visualizations of privacy policies and consent forms. The final aim is to enhance the communication of data practices to users and to support their decision about whether to give or withhold consent [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 104 (4 UL)