References of "Rohde, Nicholas"
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See detailPrenatal Economic Shocks and Birth Outcomes in UK Cohort Data
Clark, Andrew; d'ambrosio, Conchita UL; Rohde, Nicholas

in Economics and Human Biology (2021), 41

We consider the effects of major prenatal economic shocks experienced by mothers on two indicators of newborn-infant health, birth weight and head circumference, using detailed microdata from the UK ... [more ▼]

We consider the effects of major prenatal economic shocks experienced by mothers on two indicators of newborn-infant health, birth weight and head circumference, using detailed microdata from the UK ALSPAC survey. Controlling for physiological and socioeconomic factors, an economic shock in the first 18 weeks of gestation lowers birth weight by 40-70 grams and head circumference by 2-3mm. We find evidence of transmission via poorer maternal health due to absolute material deprivation and tobacco and alcohol consumption, but not for the endocrinological effects of increased psychosocial anxiety. The fragile-male hypothesis holds for birth weight but not for head circumference, as predicted by recent theories on gender differences in prenatal development. [less ▲]

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See detailWelfare-Based Income Insecurity in the US and Germany: Evidence from Harmonized Panel Data
d'ambrosio, Conchita UL; Rohde, Nicholas; Tang, Kam Ki et al

in Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization (2020), 176

This paper develops normative approaches for measuring individual-level income insecurity. Using concepts derived from Expected Utility Theory and Prospect Theory, we build a suite of measures designed to ... [more ▼]

This paper develops normative approaches for measuring individual-level income insecurity. Using concepts derived from Expected Utility Theory and Prospect Theory, we build a suite of measures designed to capture various facets of psychologically distressing income risk. We present an application for the US and Germany from 1993-2013, employing conditionally heteroskedastic fixed-effects models to generate predictive densities for future incomes. Our results reveal much higher levels of income risk in the US relative to Germany, which can be mostly attributed to a higher level of autonomous, time-invariant volatility. State-by-state variations in liberal/conservative political administrations partially explain our results, and we find some evidence that trade exposure is a contributing factor in the US. [less ▲]

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See detailEstimating the Mental Health Effects of Social Isolation
D'Ambrosio, Conchita UL; Rohde, Nicholas; Tang, Kam Ki et al

in Applied Research in Quality of Life (2016), 11

It is frequently hypothesized that feelings of social isolation are detrimental for an individual's mental health, however standard statistical models cannot estimate this effect due to reverse causality ... [more ▼]

It is frequently hypothesized that feelings of social isolation are detrimental for an individual's mental health, however standard statistical models cannot estimate this effect due to reverse causality between the independent and dependent variables. In this paper we present endogeneity-corrected estimates of the mental health consequences of isolation (based on self-assessed loneliness scores) using Australian panel data. The central identification strategy comes from a natural source of variation where some people within our sample are required by work or study commitments to move home. This relocation may break individuals' social ties, resulting in significantly higher reported feelings of loneliness and consequently may lower mental health scores. The method gives results that are significant, robust and pass a battery of diagnostic tests. Estimates indicate that feelings of isolation have large negative consequences for psychological well-being, and that the effects are larger for women and older people. The results suggest that at current levels, a 10% reduction applied to all individuals would reduce annual expenditure on mental illness in Australia by approximately $3B AUD, or around $150 AUD per person. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Distribution of Economic Insecurity: Italy and the USA over the Great Recession
D'Ambrosio, Conchita UL; Rohde, Nicholas

in Review of Income and Wealth (2014), 60(S1), 33-52

We estimate the distribution of economic insecurity in Italy and the USA using data from 1994 to 2010. Economic insecurity for each individual is assumed to depend on both current wealth and the changes ... [more ▼]

We estimate the distribution of economic insecurity in Italy and the USA using data from 1994 to 2010. Economic insecurity for each individual is assumed to depend on both current wealth and the changes in wealth that have been experienced in the past. The first element plays the role of the buffer stock that can be relied on in the case of an adverse future event. The second element reflects the individual's confidence in his ability to overcome any losses in the future. With respect to this second element, experiences in the recent past are given greater weight than experiences that occurred in the more distant past. The results confirm that the great recession has had a dramatic effect on the distribution of economic insecurity in both countries with the effect being much stronger in the USA. [less ▲]

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