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See detailPermissioned Blockchain Frameworks in the Industry: A Comparison
Polge, Julien UL; Robert, Jérémy UL; Le Traon, Yves UL

in ICT Express (2020)

Permissioned and private blockchain platforms are increasingly used in today’s industry. This paper provides a comprehensive and comparative study of the 5 major frameworks (Fabric, Ethereum, Quorum ... [more ▼]

Permissioned and private blockchain platforms are increasingly used in today’s industry. This paper provides a comprehensive and comparative study of the 5 major frameworks (Fabric, Ethereum, Quorum, MultiChain and R3 Corda) with regard to the community activities, performance, scalability, privacy and adoption criteria. Based on a literature review, this study shows that even if Fabric is promising, the final selection of a framework for a specific case-study is always a trade-off. Finally, lessons learnt are given for industrial practitioners and researchers. [less ▲]

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See detailEnhanced Lightning Network (off-chain)-based micropayment in IoT ecosystems
Robert, Jérémy UL; Kubler, Sylvain; Ghatpande, Sankalp UL

in Future Generation Computer Systems (2020)

Information is being seen as the new “oil” for companies. Trading and negotiating personal data, which includes data generated by owned smart devices, is gaining attention and acceptance in the Internet ... [more ▼]

Information is being seen as the new “oil” for companies. Trading and negotiating personal data, which includes data generated by owned smart devices, is gaining attention and acceptance in the Internet of Things (IoT) era. There is a global trend to move towards open innovation ecosystems that allow data owners to have better control over their data and privacy, choosing if/what and with whom to share/trade specific data streams. Nonetheless, this requires the design of IoT ecosystems that integrate automatic enforcing mechanisms to guarantee the delivery of the negotiated data, or still the capability of making near-instantaneous payments for the data (in the form of micro-units). This paper discusses the requirements that need to be fulfilled to properly support (micro)-payment in IoT, and further the extent to which different blockchain technologies can fulfill those requirements. Based on this analysis, our paper progresses the current state-of-the-art in three-respect: (i) by carrying out a benchmark performance analysis between LN and other-like solutions; (ii) by integrating the Lightning Network (LN) off-chain technology within an existing IoT ecosystem, developed as part of the bIoTope H2020 project, and (iii) by designing a novel algorithm for payment channel fee reduction. Experiments carried out in this paper show that LN outperforms traditional blockchain solutions under IoT-specific constraints and objectives, and that an optimal parameter setting of the proposed algorithm can be identified. [less ▲]

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See detailIoTEF: A Federated Edge-Cloud Architecture for Fault-Tolerant IoT Applications
Javed, Asad; Robert, Jérémy UL; Heljanko, Keijo et al

in Journal of Grid Computing (2020)

The evolution of Internet of Things (IoT) technology has led to an increased emphasis on edge computing for Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS), in which applications rely on processing data closer to the data ... [more ▼]

The evolution of Internet of Things (IoT) technology has led to an increased emphasis on edge computing for Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS), in which applications rely on processing data closer to the data sources, and sharing the results across heterogeneous clusters. This has simplified the data exchanges between IoT/CPS systems, the cloud, and the edge for managing low latency, minimal band- width, and fault-tolerant applications. Nonetheless, many of these applications administer data collec- tion on the edge and offer data analytic and storagecapabilities in the cloud. This raises the problem of separate software stacks between the edge and the cloud with no unified fault-tolerant management, hin- dering dynamic relocation of data processing. In such systems, the data must also be preserved from being corrupted or duplicated in the case of intermittent long-distance network connectivity issues, malicious harming of edge devices, or other hostile environ- ments. Within this context, the contributions of this paper are threefold: (i) to propose a new Internet of Things Edge-Cloud Federation (IoTEF) architec- ture for multi-cluster IoT applications by adapting our earlier Cloud and Edge Fault-Tolerant IoT (CEFIoT) layered design. We address the fault tolerance issue by employing the Apache Kafka publish/subscribe platform as the unified data replication solution. We also deploy Kubernetes for fault-tolerant manage- ment, combined with the federated scheme, offering a single management interface and allowing automatic reconfiguration of the data processing pipeline, (ii) to formulate functional and non-functional requirements of our proposed solution by comparing several IoT architectures, and (iii) to implement a smart build- ings use case of the ongoing Otaniemi3D project as proof-of-concept for assessing IoTEF capabilities. The experimental results conclude that the architecture minimizes latency, saves network bandwidth, and handles both hardware and network connectivity based failures [less ▲]

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See detailAssessing the impact of attacks on OPC-UA applications in the Industry 4.0 era
Polge, Julien UL; Robert, Jérémy UL; Le Traon, Yves UL

in 16th IEEE Annual Consumer Communications & Networking Conference (CCNC), Las Vegas, 11-14 January 2019 (2019, January 11)

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See detailLinked Vocabulary Recommendation Tools for Internet of Things: A Survey
Kolbe, Niklas UL; Kubler, Sylvain UL; Robert, Jérémy UL et al

in ACM Computing Surveys (2019)

The Semantic Web emerged with the vision of eased integration of heterogeneous, distributed data on the Web. The approach fundamentally relies on the linkage between and reuse of previously published ... [more ▼]

The Semantic Web emerged with the vision of eased integration of heterogeneous, distributed data on the Web. The approach fundamentally relies on the linkage between and reuse of previously published vocabularies to facilitate semantic interoperability. In recent years, the Semantic Web has been perceived as a potential enabling technology to overcome interoperability issues in the Internet of Things (IoT), especially for service discovery and composition. Despite the importance of making vocabulary terms discoverable and selecting most suitable ones in forthcoming IoT applications, no state-of-the-art survey of tools achieving such recommendation tasks exists to date. This survey covers this gap, by specifying an extensive evaluation framework and assessing linked vocabulary recommendation tools. Furthermore, we discuss challenges and opportunities of vocabulary recommendation and related tools in the context of emerging IoT ecosystems. Overall, 40 recommendation tools for linked vocabularies were evaluated, both, empirically and experimentally. Some of the key ndings include that (i) many tools neglect to thoroughly address both, the curation of a vocabulary collection and e ective selection mechanisms; (ii) modern information retrieval techniques are underrepresented; and (iii) the reviewed tools that emerged from Semantic Web use cases are not yet su ciently extended to t today’s IoT projects. [less ▲]

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See detailA Replicable Comparison Study of NER Software: StanfordNLP, NLTK, OpenNLP, SpaCy, Gate
Schmitt, Xavier; Kubler, Sylvain; Robert, Jérémy UL et al

in International Conference on Social Networks Analysis, Management and Security (2019)

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See detailTRIDENT: A Three-Steps Strategy to Digitise an Industrial System for Stepping into Industry 4.0
Benedick, Paul-Lou UL; Robert, Jérémy UL; Le Traon, Yves UL

in Proceedings of 45th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (2019)

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See detailAccess Time Improvement Framework for Standardized IoT Gateways
Javed, Asad; Yousefnezhad, Narges; Robert, Jérémy UL et al

in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications (2019)

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See detailData Exchange Interoperability in IoT Ecosystem for Smart Parking and EV Charging
Karpenko, Anastasiia; Kinnunen, Tuomas; Madhikermi, Manik et al

in Sensors (2018)

Many domains are trying to integrate with the Internet of Things (IoT) ecosystem, such as public administrations starting smart city initiatives all over the world. Cities are becoming smart in many ways ... [more ▼]

Many domains are trying to integrate with the Internet of Things (IoT) ecosystem, such as public administrations starting smart city initiatives all over the world. Cities are becoming smart in many ways: smart mobility, smart buildings, smart environment and so on. However, the problem of non-interoperability in the IoT hinders the seamless communication between all kinds of IoT devices. Different domain specific IoT applications use different interoperability standards. These standards are usually not interoperable with each other. IoT applications and ecosystems therefore tend to use a vertical communication model that does not allow data sharing horizontally across different IoT ecosystems. In 2014, The Open Group published two domain-independent IoT messaging standards, O-MI and O-DF, aiming to solve the interoperability problem. In this article we describe the practical use of O-MI/O-DF standards for reaching interoperability in a mobile application for the smart city context, in particular for the Smart Mobility domain, electric vehicle (EV) charging case study. The proof-of-concept of the smart EV charging ecosystem with mobile application user interface was developed as a part of an EU (Horizon 2020) Project bIoTope. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasuring inconsistency and deriving priorities from fuzzy pairwise comparison matrices using the knowledge-based consistency index
Kubler, Sylvain; Derigent, William; Voisin, Alexandre et al

in Knowledge-Based Systems (2018)

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See detailO-MI/O-DF vs. MQTT: a performance analysis
Benedick, Paul-Lou UL; Robert, Jérémy UL; Le Traon, Yves UL et al

in O-MI/O-DF vs. MQTT: a performance analysis (2018, June 21)

Over the past decade, a flourishing number of concepts and architectural shifts appeared such as Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT), Industrial CPS or even Industry 4.0. Unfortunately, today’s IoT as ... [more ▼]

Over the past decade, a flourishing number of concepts and architectural shifts appeared such as Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT), Industrial CPS or even Industry 4.0. Unfortunately, today’s IoT as well as Industry 4.0 environments, look more like a collection of isolated “Intranets of Things”, also referred to as “vertical silos”, rather than a federated infrastructure. Breaking down these silos is a key challenge in both the IoT and Industry 4.0 communities. This paper is intended to present and discuss two open and standardised mes- saging protocols designed for IoT applications, namely: MQTT and O-MI/O-DF. First, a traffic load’s analytical model derived from the MQTT standard specifications is presented. Second, a comparison study between MQTT and O-MI/O-DF standards is carried out based on a real-life industrial implementation. This study brings a deep understanding of the extent to which these protocols are performant (from a traffic load perspective) and how they can impact on future architectural designs. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of metadata quality in open data portals using the Analytic Hierarchy Process
Kubler, sylvain; Robert, Jérémy UL; Neumaier, Sebastian et al

in Government Information Quarterly (2018)

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See detailCombined Use of Lifecycle Management and IoT in Smart Cities
Hefnawy, Ahmed; Elhariri, Taha; Bouras, Abdelaziz et al

in Combined Use of Lifecycle Management and IoT in Smart Cities (2017, December)

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See detailPROFICIENT: Productivity Tool for Semantic Interoperability in an Open IoT Ecosystem
Kolbe, Niklas UL; Robert, Jérémy UL; Kubler, Sylvain et al

in Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Computing, Networking and Services (2017, November 07)

The Internet of Things (IoT) is promising to open up opportunities for businesses to offer new services to uncover untapped needs. However, before taking advantage of such opportunities, there are still ... [more ▼]

The Internet of Things (IoT) is promising to open up opportunities for businesses to offer new services to uncover untapped needs. However, before taking advantage of such opportunities, there are still challenges ahead, one of which is the development of strategies to abstract from the heterogeneity of APIs that shape today's IoT. It is becoming increasingly complex for developers and smart connected objects to efficiently discover, parse, aggregate and process data from disparate information systems, as different protocols, data models, and serializations for APIs exist on the market. Standards play an indisputable role in reducing such a complexity, but will not solve all problems related to interoperability. For example, it will remain a permanent need to help and guide data/service providers to efficiently describe the data/services they would like to expose to the IoT. This paper presents PROFICIENT, a productivity tool that fulfills this need, which is showcased and evaluated considering recent open messaging standards and a smart parking scenario. [less ▲]

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See detailKnowledge-based Consistency Index for Fuzzy Pairwise Comparison Matrices
Kubler, Sylvain UL; Derigent, William; Voisin, Alexandre et al

in Knowledge-based Consistency Index for Fuzzy Pairwise Comparison Matrices (2017, July 10)

Abstract—Fuzzy AHP is today one of the most used Multiple Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM) techniques. The main argument to introduce fuzzy set theory within AHP lies in its ability to handle uncertainty ... [more ▼]

Abstract—Fuzzy AHP is today one of the most used Multiple Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM) techniques. The main argument to introduce fuzzy set theory within AHP lies in its ability to handle uncertainty and vagueness arising from decision makers (when performing pairwise comparisons between a set of criteria/alternatives). As humans usually reason with granular information rather than precise one, such pairwise comparisons may contain some degree of inconsistency that needs to be properly tackled to guarantee the relevance of the result/ranking. Over the last decades, several consistency indexes designed for fuzzy pairwise comparison matrices (FPCMs) were proposed, as will be discussed in this article. However, for some decision theory specialists, it appears that most of these indexes fail to be properly “axiomatically” founded, thus leading to misleading results. To overcome this, a new index, referred to as KCI (Knowledge-based Consistency Index) is introduced in this paper, and later compared with an existing index that is axiomatically well founded. The comparison results show that (i) both indexes perform similarly from a consistency measurement perspective, but (ii) KCI contributes to significantly reduce the computation time, which can save expert’s time in some MCDM problems. [less ▲]

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See detailEnriching a Situation Awareness Framework for IoT with Knowledge Base and Reasoning Components
Kolbe, Niklas UL; Zaslavsky, Arkady; Kubler, Sylvain UL et al

in Modeling and Using Context (2017, July)

Theimportanceofsystem-levelcontext-andsituationaware- ness increases with the growth of the Internet of Things (IoT). This paper proposes an integrated approach to situation awareness by providing a ... [more ▼]

Theimportanceofsystem-levelcontext-andsituationaware- ness increases with the growth of the Internet of Things (IoT). This paper proposes an integrated approach to situation awareness by providing a semantically rich situation model together with reliable situation infer- ence based on Context Spaces Theory (CST) and Situation Theory (ST). The paper discusses benefits of integrating the proposed situation aware- ness framework with knowledge base and efficient reasoning techniques taking into account uncertainty and incomplete knowledge about situa- tions. The paper discusses advantages and impact of proposed context adaptation in dynamic IoT environments. Practical issues of two-way mapping between IoT messaging standards and CST are also discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards Semantic Interoperability in an Open IoT Ecosystem for Connected Vehicle Services
Kolbe, Niklas UL; Kubler, Sylvain UL; Robert, Jérémy UL et al

in 2017 IEEE Global Internet of Things Summit (GIoTS) Proceedings (2017, July)

A present challenge in today’s Internet of Things (IoT) ecosystem is to enable interoperability across hetero- geneous systems and service providers. Restricted access to data sources and services limits ... [more ▼]

A present challenge in today’s Internet of Things (IoT) ecosystem is to enable interoperability across hetero- geneous systems and service providers. Restricted access to data sources and services limits the capabilities of a smart city to improve social, environmental and economic aspects. Interoperability in the IoT is concerned with both, messaging interfaces and semantic understanding of heterogeneous data. In this paper, the first building blocks of an emerging open IoT ecosystem developed at the EU level are presented. Se- mantic web technologies are applied to the existing messaging components to support and improve semantic interoperability. The approach is demonstrated with a proof-of-concept for connected vehicle services in a smart city setting. [less ▲]

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See detailApplication of Measurement-Based AHP to Product-Driven System Control
Derigent, William; Voisin, Alexandre; Thomas, André et al

in Borangiu, Theodor (Ed.) Service Orientation in Holonic and Multi-Agent Manufacturing (2017)

This paper presents an application of the measurements-based AHP to define a two-stage algorithm for product-driven systems control, in case of an unexpected event. This algorithm is made of two stages ... [more ▼]

This paper presents an application of the measurements-based AHP to define a two-stage algorithm for product-driven systems control, in case of an unexpected event. This algorithm is made of two stages: the first one aims to define which kind of strategy the product should adopt (wait ̧ react by it self or switch back to centralized mode) while the second one helps to choose the most appropriate resource able to fulfill the product requirements. The methodology is detailed on a simple case study. [less ▲]

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See detailOpen IoT Ecosystem for Sporting Event Management
Kubler, Sylvain UL; Robert, Jérémy UL; Främling, Kary et al

in IEEE Access (2017), 5(1), 7064-7079

By connecting devices, people, vehicles, and infrastructures everywhere in a city, governments and their partners can improve community well-being and other economic and financial aspects (e.g., cost and ... [more ▼]

By connecting devices, people, vehicles, and infrastructures everywhere in a city, governments and their partners can improve community well-being and other economic and financial aspects (e.g., cost and energy savings). Nonetheless, smart cities are complex ecosystems that comprise many different stakeholders (network operators, managed service providers, logistic centers, and so on), who must work together to provide the best services and unlock the commercial potential of the so-called Internet of Things (IoT). This is one of the major challenges that faces today’s smart city movement, and the emerging "API economy." Indeed, while new smart connected objects hit the market every day, they mostly feed "vertical silos" (e.g., vertical apps, siloed apps, and so on) that are closed to the rest of the IoT, thus hampering developers to produce new added value across multiple platforms and/or application domains. Within this context, the contribution of this paper is twofold: 1) present the strategic vision and ambition of the EU to overcome this critical vertical silos’ issue and 2) introduce the first building blocks underlying an open IoT ecosystem developed as part of an EU (Horizon 2020) Project and a joint project initiative (IoT-EPI). The practicability of this ecosystem, along with a performance analysis, is carried out considering a proof-of-concept for enhanced sporting event management in the context of the forthcoming FIFA World Cup 2022 in Qatar. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of metadata quality in open data portals using the Analytic Hierarchy Process
Kubler, Sylvain UL; Robert, Jérémy UL; Umbrich, Jürgen et al

in Government Information Quarterly (2017)

Detailed reference viewed: 144 (2 UL)