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See detailLuxembourg Perspectives on Pre-Service Teacher Motivation: What Factors Influence the Choice of Becoming a Teacher, Perseverance and Success?
Rivas, Salvador UL; Poncelet, Débora UL; Reeff, Alain et al

Scientific Conference (2021, September 02)

In 2016, UNESCO estimated that 24.4 million primary school teachers and another 44.4 million secondary school teachers were needed to provide every child in the world access to education. Widespread ... [more ▼]

In 2016, UNESCO estimated that 24.4 million primary school teachers and another 44.4 million secondary school teachers were needed to provide every child in the world access to education. Widespread teacher shortages have led researchers to investigate what motivates candidates to become teachers and to remain in the profession (see for example Watt et al., 2012). Luxembourg is no exception, in 2019 for example, the government wanted to hire 320 new teachers at the fundamental school level; however, only 63 graduates from the country’s main teacher training programme at the University of Luxembourg took the required state exam to join the teaching ranks. The country needs 300 to 400 new fundamental schoolteachers per year to keep up with population growth. To help address this need, we draw on 10 years of admissions data (exam performance and noncognitive indicators) collected from candidates seeking entry to the University of Luxembourg’s teacher training programme. Our study investigates the major correlates, similarities and differences, between candidates that never-registered, i.e., candidates that after being admitted never start the programme; drop-outs, i.e., students that start but never finish; and of course, those that persist until completion. While circumstances may differ between these types of candidates, the first two nevertheless took-up the place that someone else who could have finished and possibly become a teacher. In light of the pressing need for more teachers, this study identifies important factors associated with showing up and staying in the programme until the end. Policy implications are described and discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailIncreasing the diversity of the teacher workforce: Socio-political challenges to reducing inequalities in access to teacher education programs.
Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL; Rivas, Salvador UL; Busana, Gilbert UL

in Frontiers in Education (2021), 6

Cross-border migration leads to a diversification of societies, which is reflected in the education system, where classrooms are composed of students with heterogeneous cultural, linguistic, socio ... [more ▼]

Cross-border migration leads to a diversification of societies, which is reflected in the education system, where classrooms are composed of students with heterogeneous cultural, linguistic, socio-economic characteristics. However, this diversity is only to a limited extent reflected in the teacher population, even though teachers from different backgrounds can bring specific intercultural competencies, have more positive attitudes toward multicultural heterogeneity and act as role models. To facilitate the diversification of the teaching profession, it is imperative that the cohorts of students entering teacher education programs represent the diversity of societies, however studies have shown students with migration background or from families with lower socio-economic status are underrepresented in such programs. This study considered the demographic constellation of applicants for admission into the teacher education program in Luxembourg (2015-2019) and investigated to what extent the admission process (dis)advantages certain groups. Results revealed that although applications come from diverse backgrounds, proficiency in the country´s native languages poses a disadvantage for students with migration background. In addition, applicants coming from more privileged families stand a better chance of being admitted. Results are interpreted within the framework of social mobility and social reproduction. Implications for the admission to the teachers education program are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailSocial Inequality in Education: Academic Achievement of First-, Second-, and Later-Generation Immigrant Students in Luxembourg
Rivas, Salvador UL; Reichel, Yanica UL; Krämer, Charlotte UL et al

Scientific Conference (2021, April 08)

Students with immigrant backgrounds are often disadvantaged in public educational systems. In Luxembourg, about 50% of primary and secondary school students have an immigrant background, most notably from ... [more ▼]

Students with immigrant backgrounds are often disadvantaged in public educational systems. In Luxembourg, about 50% of primary and secondary school students have an immigrant background, most notably from Italy, the former Yugoslavia and Portugal. Using data from Luxembourg’s national school monitoring program, we investigate and document for the first time, existing and emerging differences in academic achievement among different immigrant generations of students. Our results indicate that student achievement in Math, German and French is differentially affected by immigrant generational status and language spoken at home. In addition, we find secondary effects of student social background. [less ▲]

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See detail"I am definitely manipulated, even when I am aware of it. It’s ridiculous!" - Dark Patterns from the End-User Perspective
Bongard-Blanchy, Kerstin UL; Rossi, Arianna UL; Rivas, Salvador UL et al

in Proceedings of ACM DIS Conference on Designing Interactive Systems (2021)

Online services pervasively employ manipulative designs (i.e., dark patterns) to influence users to purchase goods and subscriptions, spend more time on-site, or mindlessly accept the harvesting of their ... [more ▼]

Online services pervasively employ manipulative designs (i.e., dark patterns) to influence users to purchase goods and subscriptions, spend more time on-site, or mindlessly accept the harvesting of their personal data. To protect users from the lure of such designs, we asked: are users aware of the presence of dark patterns? If so, are they able to resist them? By surveying 406 individuals, we found that they are generally aware of the influence that manipulative designs can exert on their online behaviour. However, being aware does not equip users with the ability to oppose such influence. We further find that respondents, especially younger ones, often recognise the "darkness" of certain designs, but remain unsure of the actual harm they may suffer. Finally, we discuss a set of interventions (e.g., bright patterns, design frictions, training games, applications to expedite legal enforcement) in the light of our findings. [less ▲]

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See detailInequalities in the Luxembourgish Educational System: Effects of Language Proficiency on Math Performance Among Different Generations of Immigrant Students
Krämer, Charlotte UL; Rivas, Salvador UL; Reichel, Yanica UL et al

Poster (2020, November 12)

Research indicates students with immigrant background are disadvantaged in educational systems of the host country (e.g., OECD, 2018). In Luxembourg, roughly half of the school population has an immigrant ... [more ▼]

Research indicates students with immigrant background are disadvantaged in educational systems of the host country (e.g., OECD, 2018). In Luxembourg, roughly half of the school population has an immigrant background (Lenz & Heinz, 2018), and several studies indicate these students are considerably disadvantaged in terms of educational achievement levels (Hadjar et al., 2015, 2018). Lower achievement may be partly due to difficulties related to displacement and settling of 1st generation immigrant students. Second and later generation students may however also experience disadvantages as they speak languages at home that are different from the two main languages of instruction (i.e., German and French), and their parents may be less familiar with the educational system and less able to provide support for their children (Alba & Foner, 2016). This may explain why educational inequalities persist; however little is known about the influence of language proficiency of different generations of immigrant students on their performance in other school subjects. Therefore, our poster focuses on the effect of generation after controlling for the effect of language on math competency. Using data from the Luxembourg School Monitoring Programme (Épreuves Standardisées) for the 2016 cohort of 9th grade students in the two main tracks of secondary school (n=4,339), we conduct regression analysis to investigate to what extent language proficiency in German and French and generational status have an impact on math performance. Data indicates that language proficiency in both German and French explains a significant proportion of variance in math performance. In addition, there is a generation effect, whereby 3rd and later generation immigrant students achieve a higher level of math competency than students of the 1st or 2nd generation. Results will be discussed in terms of social mobility and educational inequality. [less ▲]

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See detailForging and Paving a Future: Immigrant Status and Academic Achievement in Luxembourg
Rivas, Salvador UL; Reichel, Yanica UL; Krämer, Charlotte UL et al

Scientific Conference (2019, August 21)

In the United States, much has been written about the upward or downward social mobility of the so-called, “New Second Generation”. In Europe, this topic has only recently begun to take shape; mostly in ... [more ▼]

In the United States, much has been written about the upward or downward social mobility of the so-called, “New Second Generation”. In Europe, this topic has only recently begun to take shape; mostly in regard to the Netherlands, Germany, France and the UK. In the context of Luxembourg, however, there is very little literature on this topic even though nearly 50% of its population is now of immigrant status. Though small in geography and population, Luxembourg is a founding member of the E.U. and quite literally in the heart of continental Europe. It hosts a diverse set of immigrant groups, continuously attracting economic and some political immigrants, most notably from Italy, the former Yugoslavia and Portugal. Each of these groups arriving at a specific sociohistorical moment: Italians at the height of the steel industry, former Yugoslavians fleeing war, and Portuguese to meet construction and service industry needs. Consequently, Luxembourg is truly a multilingual and multicultural country that makes for a fascinating microcosm to test and explore existing theories of immigrant integration. Its context presents a unique opportunity to study and extrapolate from to anticipate the needs of immigrants elsewhere. Using 2016 data from Luxembourg’s school monitoring programme (ÉpStan), we investigate existing and emerging differences in academic achievement among 1st, 2nd, and later generation immigrant groups in Luxembourg. We analyse math and language proficiencies (German and French) among a cohort of secondary school students (9th grade, N=6286). Preliminary results indicate clear generational differences. These are interpreted in relation to immigrant group characteristics and acculturation in Luxembourg. Implications for the new second generation in the European context will be discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailLesegewohnheiten und bilinguale Lesekompetenzen - Zum Zusammenhang zwischen den Deutsch- und Französisch-Lesekompetenzen von Neuntklässlerinnen und Neuntklässlern und ihren außerschulischen Lesegewohnheiten in Luxemburg
Reichert, Monique UL; Krämer, Charlotte UL; Wollschläger, Rachel UL et al

Report (2018)

Der Beitrag widmet sich der Frage, ob die Unterschiede hinsichtlich der Lesehäufigkeit, der Textsorten, die von Jugendlichen in ihrer Freizeit rezipiert werden, und der Sprache, in der sie bevorzugt lesen ... [more ▼]

Der Beitrag widmet sich der Frage, ob die Unterschiede hinsichtlich der Lesehäufigkeit, der Textsorten, die von Jugendlichen in ihrer Freizeit rezipiert werden, und der Sprache, in der sie bevorzugt lesen, dabei helfen können, ihr Lesekompetenz Niveau im Deutschen und Französischen – jenseits von sozioökonomischem Status, Migrationshintergrund, Muttersprache und Geschlecht – zu erklären. [less ▲]

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See detailHabitudes de lecture et compétences de lecture bilingue
Reichert, Monique UL; Krämer, Charlotte UL; Wollschläger, Rachel UL et al

Report (2018)

La problématique soulevée dans cet article concerne les liens entre d’une part, la fréquence de lecture chez les adolescents en fonction des types de textes lus, et de la langue dans laquelle ils lisent ... [more ▼]

La problématique soulevée dans cet article concerne les liens entre d’une part, la fréquence de lecture chez les adolescents en fonction des types de textes lus, et de la langue dans laquelle ils lisent et, dautre part, leur niveau de compétence de lecture en allemand et en français. En outre, il s’agit d’étudier ces liens en fonction des contextes socio-économique et migratoire, de la langue maternelle, et du sexe des adolescents. À cet effet, les données recueillies dans le cadre des Épreuves Standardisées (ÉpStan) de novembre 2016 permettent d’analyser les compétences de lecture en allemand et en français ainsi que les habitudes de lecture extrascolaire de 5177 élèves du grade 9, fréquentant l’Enseignement Secondaire (ES), l’Enseignement Secondaire Technique (EST) ou la branche Préparatoire de l’Enseignement Secondaire Technique (EST-PRE). Les analyses montrent clairement que, indépendamment du sexe, du type d’enseignement et des caractéristiques socioculturelles des adolescents, principalement la tendance à lire des textes narratifs est positivement corrélée aux compétences en lecture. [less ▲]

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See detailAußerschulisches Lesen und Lesekompetenz Zum Zusammenhang zwischen den Deutsch- und Französisch- Lesekompetenzen von Neuntklässlerinnen und Neuntklässlern und ihren außerschulischen Lesegewohnheiten in Luxemburg.
Reichert, Monique UL; Krämer, Charlotte UL; Rivas, Salvador UL et al

Scientific Conference (2018, November)

In Luxemburg erreichen viele Jugendliche ein gutes Lesekompetenzniveau nicht nur in einer, sondern gleich in zwei Sprachen. Allerdings wird wiederholt darauf hingewiesen, dass die Lesekompetenzen in ... [more ▼]

In Luxemburg erreichen viele Jugendliche ein gutes Lesekompetenzniveau nicht nur in einer, sondern gleich in zwei Sprachen. Allerdings wird wiederholt darauf hingewiesen, dass die Lesekompetenzen in Luxemburg stark mit dem familiären Hintergrund der Schülerinnen und Schüler zusammenhängen. Die vorliegende Studie soll jedoch über die Darstellung der Zusammenhänge zwischen den Deutsch- und Französisch-Lesekompetenzen und Einflussfaktoren wie sozio-ökonomischem Hintergrund, Migrationsstatus und Muttersprache hinausgehen. In der Tat stellt sich die Frage, ob es Faktoren gibt, die sich positiv auf das Lesekompetenzniveau der Schülerinnen und Schüler auswirken und auf die sie – anders als bei diesen mittlerweile gut belegten Faktoren – selbst Einfluss nehmen können? Das Leseverhalten Jugendlicher stellt hierfür einen naheliegenden Ansatzpunkt dar. Somit wurden die Schülerinnen und Schüler während der ÉpStan 2016 nicht nur zu ihrem familiären, schulischen und persönlichen Hintergrund befragt, sondern erstmals auch zu ihrem außerschulischen Leseverhalten. Hierbei wurde erfasst, wie häufig sie in ihrer Freizeit Texte unterschiedlicher Art (z. B. Erzählungen, Sachtexte, Zeitungsartikel, Foreneinträge oder Emails) lesen, und in welchen Sprachen sie dies tun. Mittels verschiedener Regressionsanalysen wurde der familiäre Hintergrund der Jugendlichen, ihr Leseverhalten, sowie ihr Lesekompetenzniveau im Deutschen und Französischen zueinander in Bezug gesetzt. Die aus diesen Analysen hervorgehenden Ergebnisse belegen eindrücklich, dass neben dem familiären Hintergrund auch die Lesehäufigkeit und die Sprache, in der die Schülerinnen und Schüler üblicherweise lesen, von Bedeutung für das erreichte Lesekompetenzniveau sind. Darüber hinaus haben insbesondere die Textsorten, mit denen sich die Jugendlichen in ihrer Freizeit auseinandersetzen, entscheidenden Einfluss auf ihre Deutsch- und ihre Französisch-Lesekompetenz. Insbesondere die Häufigkeit, mit der Jugendliche angeben, narrative Texte (wie Geschichten, Romane oder Erzählungen) zu lesen, steht deutlich in positivem Zusammenhang mit ihrer Lesekompetenz in beiden Sprachen. Der Vortrag schließt mit einer Diskussion bezüglich der außerordentlich hohen Attraktivität von digitalen Textsorten bei Kindern und Jugendlichen, und den Möglichkeiten, diese Vielfalt an primär kommunikativ bzw. interaktiv ausgerichteten Lesematerialien als lebensnahe, pädagogische „Sprungbretter“ zu nutzen, mit deren Hilfe zukünftige Leserinnen und Leser an zunehmend komplexere Texte herangeführt werden könnten. [less ▲]

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See detailFaut-il lire, et que faut-il lire, pour mieux savoir lire? La compréhension de textes parmi les adolescents: tentative d'explication des différences interindividuelles
Reichert, Monique UL; Krämer, Charlotte UL; Rivas, Salvador UL et al

Scientific Conference (2018, January 11)

En matière d’éducation en général, et plus précisément dans le contexte de l’acquisition de compétences et de connaissances scolaires, on ne cesse de souligner que dans beaucoup de pays il existe des ... [more ▼]

En matière d’éducation en général, et plus précisément dans le contexte de l’acquisition de compétences et de connaissances scolaires, on ne cesse de souligner que dans beaucoup de pays il existe des écarts importants entre des élèves en fonction de leur arrière-fond socio-économique, de leur langue maternelle, ou de leur statut de migration. Souvent, cependant, il importe de clarifier quelles pourraient être des caractéristiques qui interagissent avec les variables pré-mentionnées. Cela aiderait à saisir le pourquoi des ces différences et à élucider quelles mesures de soutien pourraient être adoptées. En supposant que la fréquence de lecture puisse avoir un impact important sur le niveau de lecture, nous nous intéressons, dans la présente étude, aux différences en matière de lecture et ce en fonction des différentes caractéristiques socio-culturelles et des habitudes de lecture des élèves. À cet effet, nous aurons recours aux données issues des Épreuves Standardisées de l’année 2016/2017. Tous les élèves du grade 9 de l’enseignement secondaire du Luxembourg y ont participé à des tests de lecture de textes en français et en allemand. En outre, ces mêmes élèves ont été questionnés sur leur arrière-fond socio-culturel, ainsi que sur leurs habitudes de lecture. Plus précisément, il leur était demandé d’indiquer à quelle fréquence ils lisaient différents types de textes en dehors de l’école. Les résultats montrent que les textes en format numérique sont ceux qui sont le plus attrayants pour les adolescents. Cette préférence générale pour des textes numériques se retrouve parmi tous les groupes socio-culturels sans exception. Des analyses de régression mettent en évidence que ce sont surtout le fait et la fréquence de lire des textes narratifs qui ont un impact sur les compétences de lecture, et ce même si on prend en compte les variables d’arrière-fond socio-culturel des élèves. La discussion des résultats mettra d’un côté l’accent sur l’importance de la lecture ainsi que sur les possibilités de stimuler la motivation de lecture auprès des jeunes, mais aussi sur la popularité croissante de textes en format numérique et les conséquences correspondantes. [less ▲]

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See detailFaut-il lire, et que faut-il lire, pour mieux savoir lire?
Reichert, Monique UL; Krämer, Charlotte UL; Rivas, Salvador UL et al

Scientific Conference (2018, January)

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See detailDo graphical cues effectively inform users? A Socio-Technical Security Study in Accessing Wifi Networks
Ferreira, Ana; Huynen, Jean-Louis; Koenig, Vincent UL et al

in Proc. of the International Conference on Human Aspects of Information Security, Privacy, and Trust (2015, July 21)

We study whether the padlock and the signal strength bars, two visual cues shown in network managers, convey their intended messages. Since users often choose insecure networks when they should not ... [more ▼]

We study whether the padlock and the signal strength bars, two visual cues shown in network managers, convey their intended messages. Since users often choose insecure networks when they should not, finding the answer is not obvious; in our study we clarify whether the problem lies in uninformative and ambiguous cues or in the user who, despite understanding the cues, chooses otherwise. This paper describes experiments and comments the results that bring evidence to our study [less ▲]

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See detailDo graphical cues effectively inform users? A socio-technical security study in accessing wifi networks.
Ferreira, Ana UL; Huynen, Jean-Louis UL; Koenig, Vincent UL et al

in Lecture Notes in Computer Science (2015), 9190

We study whether the padlock and the signal strength bars, two visual cues shown in network managers, convey their intended messages. Since users often choose insecure networks when they should not ... [more ▼]

We study whether the padlock and the signal strength bars, two visual cues shown in network managers, convey their intended messages. Since users often choose insecure networks when they should not, finding the answer is not obvious; in our study we clarify whether the problem lies in uninformative and ambiguous cues or in the user who, despite understanding the cues, chooses otherwise. This paper describes experiments and comments the results that bring evidence to our study. [less ▲]

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See detailHCI Design Methods in CBA: Lessons Learned and Recommendations Based on a Concept Map Use Case
Weinerth, Katja UL; Koenig, Vincent UL; Rivas, Salvador UL et al

in Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications 2014 (2014)

This paper focuses on the user-centered design of a computer-based assessment (CBA) instrument for knowledge measurement. We describe relevant design steps in general and illustrate them via the design of ... [more ▼]

This paper focuses on the user-centered design of a computer-based assessment (CBA) instrument for knowledge measurement. We describe relevant design steps in general and illustrate them via the design of our usability improved CBA concept map instrument (ISO 9241-11, 1998; ISO 9241-210, 2010). We discuss design versus evaluation methods from a human-computer interaction (HCI) perspective and emphasize important design steps relevant for constructing usability improved assessment instruments in educational assessment. As these HCI methods are still seldom applied to CBA, this paper helps alleviate the dearth of literature and guidelines in this domain. Our objective is thus to provide the reader with a series of design recommendations for CBA, as derived both from HCI research; and to summarize lessons learned from our specific CBA design use case. [less ▲]

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See detailSocio-Technical Study On the Effect of Trust and Context when Choosing WiFi Names
Ferreira, Ana UL; Huynen, Jean-Louis UL; Koenig, Vincent UL et al

in Lecture Notes in Computer Science (2013), 8203

We study trust and context as factors influencing how people choose wireless network names. Our approach imagines the mindset of a hypothetical attacker whose goal is to ensnare unsuspecting victims into ... [more ▼]

We study trust and context as factors influencing how people choose wireless network names. Our approach imagines the mindset of a hypothetical attacker whose goal is to ensnare unsuspecting victims into accessing dishonest WiFi access points. For this purpose, we conducted an online survey. We used two separate forms. The first form asked a random group of participants to rate a list of wireless names according to their preferences (some real and others purposely made-up) and afterwards with implied trust in mind. The second form was designed to assess the effect of context and it asked a different set of respondents to rate the same list of wireless names in relation to four different contexts. Our results provide some evidence confirming the idea that trust and context can be exploited by an attacker by purposely, or strategically, naming WiFi access points with reference to trust or within certain contexts. We suggest, in certain cases, possible defence strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailA Blind Item-Review Process as a Method to Investigate Item Characteristics in Measuring Diverse Populations
Dogan, Enis; Rivas, Salvador UL

Scientific Conference (2012, April 15)

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See detailImproving Admission Decisions for a Teacher Training Program: The Case of a Multilingual and Multicultural Environment
Rivas, Salvador UL

Scientific Conference (2012, April 13)

Higher education institutions across the world use a combination of previous grades along with scores on verbal and quantitative aptitude tests in making admissions decisions for their various academic ... [more ▼]

Higher education institutions across the world use a combination of previous grades along with scores on verbal and quantitative aptitude tests in making admissions decisions for their various academic programs. Recent work suggests there are several additional factors that would likely add to the predictive validity of the admissions system, and be more fair to candidates (Harackiewicz et. al, 2002). These include measures of personality, creativity, situational judgment, critical thinking, and others (Kyllonen, 2005). Consequently, over the past several years, numerous programs in the U.S. and elsewhere have experimented with potential alternative or supplementary predictors (Peeters and Lievens, 2005; Kyllonen, 2008). The University of Luxembourg, in particular the Bachelor of Science in Education (BScE) program, will contribute to this debate by exploring and validating alternative/supplementary measures of social competency – in this case measures that gauge the potential for college success and capacity for effective teaching. Our study seeks to identify valid and reliable indicators of not only future academic success in the BScE program, but also of becoming an effective primary school teacher. Overall the goal of our project is: a) to consider what it means to be successful in school and as a teacher (and the measurement of these successful outcomes); b) to identify the most important constructs that will predict success in the BScE program; c) to examine alternative measures of these constructs with respect to psychometric properties, administrative and logistical concerns, and user acceptance, and d) to conduct a validity study examining the predictive validity of various candidate new measures in predicting successful outcomes. To accomplish this we use a sample of BScE program candidates that took a newly revised admissions exam in the summer of 2011, designed to measure both cognitive and noncognitive attributes. The composition of these candidates was made up of self-selected/self-motivated persons seeking admission to the BScE program, whose main objective is to train and prepare future primary school teachers. On average the BScE program receives yearly approximately 400 registration applications, of which about 300 complete the exam. The average age tends to be between 19 and 20 years; it is approximately 70% female; comes mostly from the classique (nearly 70%) and the technique (25%) academic tracks; and over 90% of the candidates are of Luxembourgish nationality. The noncognitive section of the exam measured basic socio-demographic characteristics and a host of social competencies ranging from personality, time management, team-work, individual adaptability, conscientiousness, teaching self-efficacy, and other attitudes and beliefs. Because some these measures are new in the multilingual context of Luxembourg, they had to be translated from English into French and German; thus requiring further investigation to establish their reliability and validity as predictors of future performance. With that in mind, this paper will report our findings investigating the psychometric and other statistical properties of our noncognitive measures. Moreover, we will report how these measures help profile successful students relative to two important validation criteria – their course grades and in-classroom teaching evaluations – measures of college success and effective teaching. [less ▲]

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See detailPopulation Change and Changing Educational Attainment of Ethnic Groups in the United States, 1980-2000
Wilson, Franklin; Rebhun, Uzi; Rivas, Salvador UL

in Population Research and Policy Review (2011), 30(4), 639-659

This study assesses the effect of population change on decade changes in the educational attainments of country of origin populations in the United States. Our data are derived from decennial censuses ... [more ▼]

This study assesses the effect of population change on decade changes in the educational attainments of country of origin populations in the United States. Our data are derived from decennial censuses, NLMS, the World Bank, and INS. We find that changes in the share of country of origin populations with one or more years of post-secondary schooling are associated with selected components of population change during the 1980–1990 and 1990–2000 decades. The specific components include survivors during the decade, in-migration, and emigration of the foreign-born. Likewise, intra-generational mobility is found to be an important determinant of changes in educational attainment. The discussion addresses limitations of the data and suggests directions for future research as well as policy implications. [less ▲]

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See detailToward a Revised Socioeconomic Index using the American Community Survey, 2000-2006
Rivas, Salvador UL; Hauser, Robert; Chang, Vicky

Poster (2011, April 13)

This report presents the application of a new set of socioeconomic indexes (SEIs) of occupations developed using the American Community Survey (ACS). In these analyses, the new SEIs are used to ... [more ▼]

This report presents the application of a new set of socioeconomic indexes (SEIs) of occupations developed using the American Community Survey (ACS). In these analyses, the new SEIs are used to characterize the socioeconomic standings of household heads and spouses associated with samples of children age 6-18 years. These children were extracted from two independent sources: the pooled 2000-2005 October Current Population Survey (CPS) and the 2005 ACS. We compared the new measures with the 1990-based measures from Hauser and Warren (1997) by performing correlation and regression analyses on the sample data to examine the relationships among three status-attainment variables -- education, occupation and income. Since the development of Duncan’s SEI (1961) for measuring the occupational attainment of individuals, subsequent measures have been updated not only to improve the validity of the measure but also to accommodate changes in the way occupation has been measured and classified. SEIs provide researchers with succinct and reliable measures for summarizing individuals’ or households’ positions in the socioeconomic hierarchy. With growing complexity and details in the new occupation classification system, many categories in the 2000 Census occupation codes, for example, cannot find their counterparts in the previous listings and thus the SEI is due for another update. The analyses presented in this report serve as a “test-drive” for the new SEIs. The results from our preliminary analyses indicate that despite the fact that the two pairs of occupational measures are not in the exact same metric, they behave very similarly in terms of their dependence on educational attainment, explanatory power on various earning and income measures and differentials across gender and race-ethnicity groups. [less ▲]

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See detailDeciphering Socioeconomic Status: Understanding the Association Between SES and Student Background Variables in the National Assessment of Educational Progress
Ogut, Burhan; Rivas, Salvador UL

Scientific Conference (2011, April 08)

National Assessment of Educational Progress uses proxies of socioeconomic status when reporting results by key groups. In order to examine the validity of these proxy variables, current study uses a ... [more ▼]

National Assessment of Educational Progress uses proxies of socioeconomic status when reporting results by key groups. In order to examine the validity of these proxy variables, current study uses a special sample of around 1300 students who took both NAEP and ECLS-K grade eight reading assessments. These students answered the background questionnaire in both assessments. In addition, ECLS-K also collected information from parents about their socioeconomic status. Therefore, measures of socioeconomic status found in ECLS-K were used to evaluate and understand the associations among SES and other proxy measures of SES found in NAEP. Results of this study allow for the evaluation of variables collected in NAEP to measure SES against parent-reported SES collected in ECLS-K. [less ▲]

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