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See detailPrivacy-preserving federated learning for residential short-term load forecasting
Delgado Fernandez, Joaquin UL; Potenciano Menci, Sergio UL; Lee, Chul Min UL et al

in Applied Energy (2022), 326

With high levels of intermittent power generation and dynamic demand patterns, accurate forecasts for residential loads have become essential. Smart meters can play an important role when making these ... [more ▼]

With high levels of intermittent power generation and dynamic demand patterns, accurate forecasts for residential loads have become essential. Smart meters can play an important role when making these forecasts as they provide detailed load data. However, using smart meter data for load forecasting is challenging due to data privacy requirements. This paper investigates how these requirements can be addressed through a combination of federated learning and privacy preserving techniques such as differential privacy and secure aggregation. For our analysis, we employ a large set of residential load data and simulate how different federated learning models and privacy preserving techniques affect performance and privacy. Our simulations reveal that combining federated learning and privacy preserving techniques can secure both high forecasting accuracy and near-complete privacy. Specifically, we find that such combinations enable a high level of information sharing while ensuring privacy of both the processed load data and forecasting models. Moreover, we identify and discuss challenges of applying federated learning, differential privacy and secure aggregation for residential short-term load forecasting. [less ▲]

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See detailElectricity powered by blockchain: A review with a European perspective
Roth, Tamara UL; Utz, Manuel; Baumgarte, Felix et al

in Applied Energy (2022), 325

Blockchain is no longer just a hype technology, and effective blockchain applications exist in many industries. Yet, few blockchain projects have been successful in Europe’s energy systems. To identify ... [more ▼]

Blockchain is no longer just a hype technology, and effective blockchain applications exist in many industries. Yet, few blockchain projects have been successful in Europe’s energy systems. To identify the reasons for this slow progress, we reviewed the recent energy literature regarding the use of blockchain, analyzed industry reports, and interviewed experts who have conducted blockchain projects in Europe’s energy systems. Our analysis reveals eight common use cases, their expected benefits, and the challenges encountered. We find that the expected benefits are often little more than generic hopes, largely outweighed by technological, organizational, and regulatory challenges. The identified challenges are significant and numerous, especially for peer-to-peer trading and microgrid use cases. The fact that few projects have yet provided robust evidence for profitable use suggests there is still a rocky road ahead. Moreover, many use cases appear to require more than just blockchain technology to succeed. In particular, privacy and scalability requirements often call for systems in which blockchains only take a backseat. This realization may be essential for the future use of blockchain technology in energy systems – in Europe and beyond. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Role of Cultural Fit in the Adoption of Fashionable IT: A Blockchain Case Study
Roth, Tamara UL; Rieger, Alexander UL; Utz, Manuel et al

in Forty-Third International Conference on Information Systems (2022, October)

Investments in fashionable IT do not make organizations more successful than investments in less fashionable alternatives. Many organizations nevertheless associate with fashionable IT to signal ... [more ▼]

Investments in fashionable IT do not make organizations more successful than investments in less fashionable alternatives. Many organizations nevertheless associate with fashionable IT to signal compliance with norms of progress and rationality. These decisions can be risky as fashionable IT is often surrounded by wishful and unbalanced discourse, especially in the ‘fashion up-swing’. Engagement with fashionable IT thus requires the ability to navigate hype narratives and fit the new technology into the adopting organization. Fit needs to be established in many regards, such as political and technological. In this paper, we explore a third and so far, understudied perspective: cultural fit between the values attributed to the fashionable IT through the fashion discourse and those of the recipient organizational context. Through an inductive case study of two blockchain projects, we find that cultural fit can equally be an important determinant for successful adoption of fashionable IT. Moreover, we develop a process theory for how cultural fit can be established through a process of cultural sensemaking and dissonance reduction along two recursive pathways. Adopting organizations can change their implementation of fashionable IT systems and re-frame the narratives surrounding them to fit their organization’s cultural values. Alternatively, they can transform their local or overarching organizational culture by integrating values attributed to the fashionable IT. Overall, we contribute a much-needed organizational culture perspective to IT fashions and extend the discussions on IT cultural conflict. [less ▲]

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See detailWe need a broader debate on the sustainability of blockchain
Rieger, Alexander UL; Roth, Tamara UL; Sedlmeir, Johannes UL et al

in Joule (2022), 6(6), 1137-1141

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See detailGuiding Refugees Through European Bureaucracy: Designing a Trustworthy Mobile App for Document Management
Amard, Alexandre UL; Höß, Alexandra UL; Roth, Tamara UL et al

in Drechsler, A.; Gerber, A.; Hevner, A. (Eds.) The Transdisciplinary Reach of Design Science Research. DESRIST 2022 (2022, May 25)

After being granted asylum in European countries, refugees need to go through a multitude of administrative processes before they can participate in society. However, these processes are often challenging ... [more ▼]

After being granted asylum in European countries, refugees need to go through a multitude of administrative processes before they can participate in society. However, these processes are often challenging, as refugees struggle to understand them, lack instructions for managing paperwork, and do not possess the required language skills. Prior research emphasizes the role of information and communication technologies to simplify and enable refugee-friendly administrative processes. However, recent research and existing applications mainly focus on information retrieval and do not offer assistance for understanding official letters, completing administrative forms, and managing corresponding documents. Furthermore, refugees are often reluctant to use existing applications as they do not trust their host country’s governments and public authorities. In this research, we aim to address this functional and trust gap. We follow a design science research approach to develop a design for a refugee-centric and trustworthy mobile application that assists refugees along administrative processes. In doing so, we identify three design principles that may guide the development of such applications for refugees. [less ▲]

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See detailBlockchain as a driving force for federalism: A theory of cross-organizational task-technology fit
Roth, Tamara UL; Stohr, Alexander; Amend, Julia et al

in International Journal of Information Management (2022)

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See detailThe Social Construction of Self-Sovereign Identity: An Extended Model of Interpretive Flexibility
Weigl, Linda UL; Barbereau, Tom Josua UL; Rieger, Alexander UL et al

in Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences 2022 (2022, January)

User-centric identity management systems are gaining momentum as concerns about Big Tech and Big Government rise. Many of these systems are framed as offering Self-Sovereign Identity (SSI). Yet, competing ... [more ▼]

User-centric identity management systems are gaining momentum as concerns about Big Tech and Big Government rise. Many of these systems are framed as offering Self-Sovereign Identity (SSI). Yet, competing appropriation and the social embedding of SSI have resulted in diverging interpretations. These vague and value-laden interpretations can damage the public discourse and risk misrepresenting values and affordances that technology offers to users. To unpack the various social and technical understandings of SSI, we adopt an ‘interpretive flexibility’ lens. Based on a qualitative inductive interview study, we find that SSI’s interpretation is strongly mediated by surrounding institutional properties. Our study helps to better navigate these different perceptions and highlights the need for a multidimensional framework that can improve the understanding of complex socio-technical systems for digital government practitioners, researchers, and policy-makers. [less ▲]

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See detailDeFi, Not So Decentralized: The Measured Distribution of Voting Rights
Barbereau, Tom Josua UL; Smethurst, Reilly UL; Papageorgiou, Orestis UL et al

in Proceedings of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences 2022 (2022, January)

Bitcoin and Ethereum are frequently promoted as decentralized, but developers and academics question their actual decentralization. This motivates further experiments with public permissionless ... [more ▼]

Bitcoin and Ethereum are frequently promoted as decentralized, but developers and academics question their actual decentralization. This motivates further experiments with public permissionless blockchains to achieve decentralization along technical, economic, and political lines. The distribution of tokenized voting rights aims for political decentralization. Tokenized voting rights achieved notoriety within the nascent field of decentralized finance (DeFi) in 2020. As an alternative to centralized crypto-asset exchanges and lending platforms (owned by companies like Coinbase and Celsius), DeFi developers typically create non-custodial projects that are not majority-owned or managed by legal entities. Holders of tokenized voting rights can instead govern DeFi projects. To scrutinize DeFi’s distributed governance strategies, we conducted a multiple-case study of non-custodial, Ethereum-based DeFi projects: Uniswap, Maker, SushiSwap, Yearn Finance, and UMA. Our findings are novel and surprising: quantitative evaluations of DeFi’s distributed governance strategies reveal a failure to achieve political decentralization. [less ▲]

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See detailChapter 8: Tokenization and Regulatory Compliance for Art and Collectible Markets: From Regulators' Demands for Transparency to Investors' Demands for Privacy
Barbereau, Tom Josua UL; Smethurst, Reilly UL; Sedlmeir, Johannes et al

in Lacity, Mary; Treiblmaier, Horst (Eds.) Blockchains and the Token Economy: Studies in Theory and Practice (2022)

Art and collectibles markets tend to involve lower liquidity and higher fees than public equity markets. Distributed ledger technology can tokenize artworks and collectibles, so that claims to these ... [more ▼]

Art and collectibles markets tend to involve lower liquidity and higher fees than public equity markets. Distributed ledger technology can tokenize artworks and collectibles, so that claims to these assets can be exchanged digitally without intermediaries. Tokenization offers investors access to a global market plus a digitized paper trail, as well as new options for the fractional ownership of artworks, art-collateralized loans, and yield-bearing art assets. The main challenge for tokenization researchers and platform developers is to simultaneously satisfy regulators’ demands for transparency and auditability as well as art investors’ demands for privacy. New technological solutions are required that enable market participants to disclose the absolute minimum amount of information that is required by regulators. We explore new concepts from distributed ledger technology, cryptography, and digital identity management that can help address this challenge. [less ▲]

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See detailArtificial Intelligence as a Call for Retail Banking : Applying Digital Options Thinking to Artificial Intelligence Adoption
Fridgen, Gilbert UL; Hartwich, Eduard UL; Rägo, Vadim et al

in Proceedings of the Thirtieth European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS 2022), Timisoara, Romania: Artificial Intelligence as a Call for Retail Banking : Applying Digital Options Thinking to Artificial Intelligence Adoption (2022)

Technology-driven challenges, both existing and emerging, require banks to invest in IT capabilities, especially in artificial intelligence (AI). Digital options theory presents a valuable guide rail for ... [more ▼]

Technology-driven challenges, both existing and emerging, require banks to invest in IT capabilities, especially in artificial intelligence (AI). Digital options theory presents a valuable guide rail for these investments. However, the nature of AI as a moving frontier of computing requires certain extensions to established digital option thinking. Based on interviews with 23 experts in the retail banking industry, we highlight the importance of thinking broadly when laying the foundation for AI options and being mindful of the dynamic effects of contextual factors. Drawing from digital options theory and the Technology-Organization-Environment framework as dual lens, our study adds a structured approach to consciously balance resources and AI-related capability investments with a broader consideration of the banking industry’s complex environment. In this way, our study complements recent research on the interplay between incumbents’ resources and digital opportunities. [less ▲]

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See detailLove at First Sight? A User Experience Study of Self-Sovereign Identity Wallets
Sartor, Sebastian; Sedlmeir, Johannes UL; Rieger, Alexander UL et al

in 30th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS 2022) (2022)

Today’s systems for digital identity management exhibit critical security, efficiency, and privacy issues. A new paradigm, called Self-Sovereign Identity (SSI), addresses these shortcomings by equipping ... [more ▼]

Today’s systems for digital identity management exhibit critical security, efficiency, and privacy issues. A new paradigm, called Self-Sovereign Identity (SSI), addresses these shortcomings by equipping users with mobile wallets and empowering them to manage their digital identities. Various companies and governments back this paradigm and promote its development and diffusion. User experience often plays a subordinate role in these efforts, even though it is crucial for user satisfaction and adoption. We thus conduct a comprehensive user experience study of four prominent SSI wallets using a mixed-method approach that involves moderated and remote interviews and the User Experience Questionnaire (UEQ). We find that the examined wallets already provide a decent level of user experience, yet further improvements need to be done. In particular, the examined wallets do not make their novelty and benefits sufficiently apparent to users. Our analysis contributes to user experience research and offers guidance for SSI practitioners. [less ▲]

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See detailWith or Without Blockchain? Towards a Decentralized, SSI-based eRoaming Architecture
Höß, Alexandra UL; Roth, Tamara UL; Sedlmeir, Johannes UL et al

in Proceedings of the 55th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS) (2022)

Fragmentation and limited accessibility of charging infrastructure impede the adoption of electric vehicles. To improve the availability of charging infrastructure independent of providers, eRoaming ... [more ▼]

Fragmentation and limited accessibility of charging infrastructure impede the adoption of electric vehicles. To improve the availability of charging infrastructure independent of providers, eRoaming offers a promising solution. Yet, current eRoaming systems are typically centralized, which raises concerns of market power concentration. While the use of blockchain technology can obviate such concerns, it comes with significant privacy challenges. To address these challenges, we explore a combination of blockchain with self-sovereign identity. Specifically, we apply a design science research approach, which helps us to identify requirements, derive a conceptual architecture, and deduce design principles for decentralized eRoaming and beyond. We find that blockchain may best leverage its benefits when it takes a backseat as a public registry for legal entities. Moreover, we find that the use of self-sovereign identities could improve compliance with privacy regulations, but they should not be overused. [less ▲]

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See detailNot yet another digital identity
Rieger, Alexander UL; Roth, Tamara UL; Sedlmeir, Johannes UL et al

in Nature Human Behaviour (2021)

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See detailDigital Identities and Verifiable Credentials
Sedlmeir, Johannes UL; Smethurst, Reilly UL; Rieger, Alexander UL et al

in Business and Information Systems Engineering (2021), 63(5), 603-613

Public institutions and companies typically employ physical credentials (such as passports, social security cards, and employee badges) to identify individuals. Individuals can choose where to store their ... [more ▼]

Public institutions and companies typically employ physical credentials (such as passports, social security cards, and employee badges) to identify individuals. Individuals can choose where to store their physical credentials, and sometimes, they can decide to whom their credentials are disclosed. These familiar privileges inspired a new type of digital credential called a verifiable credential (VC). Similar to physical credentials, individuals can store their verifiable credentials in a so-called digital wallet on their mobile phone, on another edge device, or in the cloud, and they can use verifiable credentials for identification, authentication, and authorization. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Evolution of an Architectural Paradigm - Using Blockchain to Build a Cross-Organizational Enterprise Service Bus
Amend, Julia; Fridgen, Gilbert UL; Rieger, Alexander UL et al

in 54th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Maui, Hawaii (Virtual) (2021, April)

Cross-organizational collaboration and the exchange of process data are indispensable for many processes in federally organized governments. Conventional IT solutions, such as cross-organizational ... [more ▼]

Cross-organizational collaboration and the exchange of process data are indispensable for many processes in federally organized governments. Conventional IT solutions, such as cross-organizational workflow management systems, address these requirements through centralized process management and architectures. However, such centralization is difficult and often undesirable in federal contexts. One alternative solution that emphasizes decentralized process management and a decentralized architecture is the blockchain solution of Germany’s Federal Office for Migration and Refugees. Here, we investigate the architecture of this solution and examine how it addresses the requirements of federal contexts. We find that the solution’s architecture resembles an improvement and cross-organizational adaption of an old architectural paradigm, the enterprise service bus. [less ▲]

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See detailReconciling Blockchain with the GDPR: Insights from the German Asylum Procedure
Rieger, Alexander UL; Stohr, Alexander; Wenninger, Annette et al

in Blockchain and the Public Sector: Theories, Reforms, and Case Studies (2021)

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See detailUsing Blockchain to Coordinate Federal Processes: The Case of Germany's Federal Office for Migration and Refugees
Amend, Julia; van Dun, Christopher; Fridgen, Gilbert UL et al

in Urbach, Nils; Röglinger, Maximilian; Kautz, Karlheinz (Eds.) et al Digitalization Cases Vol. 2: Mastering Digital Transformation for Global Business (2021)

(a)Situation faced: The German asylum procedure requires close cooperation and information exchange between various authorities at the municipal, state, and federal levels. Federal separation of ... [more ▼]

(a)Situation faced: The German asylum procedure requires close cooperation and information exchange between various authorities at the municipal, state, and federal levels. Federal separation of competencies inhibits the delegation of process governance to a central authority such as the Federal Office for Migration and Refugees (BAMF). This separation also leads to regional differences as federal laws govern the procedure's general steps, whereas state laws govern implementation. Moreover, existing solutions for cross-organizational collaboration are limited in terms of flexibility, security, and data quality. As a result, the exchange of certain data on asylum procedures still occurs using Excel spreadsheets and e-mails.(b)Action taken: Against this backdrop, the BAMF explored technological options that would support the decentralized governance of the asylum procedure. After a preliminary evaluation, the BAMF decided to explore a solution based on blockchain technology. Building upon a successful proof of concept, the BAMF initiated a pilot project with Saxony's central immigration authority. This project aims to develop a blockchain solution that supports the coordination of asylum procedures and can be easily adapted to local differences and functional requirements.(c)Results achieved: The use of the blockchain solution allows for efficient, secure, and timely distribution of status information. It supports communication and improves coordination between authorities. Despite an apparent conflict between blockchain principles and data privacy requirements, the BAMF's design complies with relevant regulation (notably the GDPR). As a first-of-its-kind project, it outlines best practices and provides valuable insights into opportunities and challenges arising from the use of blockchain in the public sector.(d)Lessons learned: The BAMF's case demonstrates that blockchain solutions can be promising alternatives when the delegation of process governance to a central party is not desirable and when federal principles of organization are to be reflected technologically. However, blockchain projects require special attention to managing know-how and capabilities, software development activities, stakeholders, the regulatory context, and cross-organizational governance. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 52 (2 UL)