References of "Powell, Justin J W 50002885"
     in
Bookmark and Share    
Full Text
See detailMehrebenenanalyse schulischer Inklusion: Zwischen globaler Diffusion der Inklusionsrhetorik, behinderten Bildungskarrieren und institutionellen Pfadabhängigkeiten in Deutschland
Biermann, Julia; Pfahl, Lisa; Powell, Justin J W UL

in Dietze, T.; Gloystein, D.; Moser, V. (Eds.) et al Inklusion - Partizipation - Menschenrechte: Transformationen in die Teilhabegesellschaft? 10 Jahre UN-Behindertenrechtskonvention – Eine interdisziplinäre Zwischenbilanz (in press)

In Deutschland ist, wie in den meisten anderen Ländern Europas, eine Debatte über die Auflösung der traditionellen Dichotomie von Sonder- versus Regelschule zu beobachten. Diese Debatten reflektieren ... [more ▼]

In Deutschland ist, wie in den meisten anderen Ländern Europas, eine Debatte über die Auflösung der traditionellen Dichotomie von Sonder- versus Regelschule zu beobachten. Diese Debatten reflektieren, dass die derzeitige Lage im deutschen Schulsystem keineswegs einer Realisierung des Menschenrechts auf inklusive Bildung entspricht, wie es in Artikel 24 der UN-BRK verankert ist. Inklusive Bildung wird hier als gemeinsames Lernen an allgemeinen Schulen in allen Bildungsstufen definiert. Inklusion ist demnach weder vereinbar mit Sonderbeschulung (Segregation), Unterricht in separaten Klassen und Lerngruppen an allgemeinen Schulen (Separation) noch mit Unterricht, wel- cher zwar größtenteils gemeinsam stattfindet, jedoch nicht auf Vielfalt jeglicher Art ausgerichtet ist (etwa Schicht, Geschlecht, Migrationshintergrund, Behinderung) (Integration) (Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, 2016, S. 3). Die Institutionalisierung inklusiver Bildung setzt also eine De-Institutionalisierung segregierter und separierter Schulsysteme voraus (Biermann & Powell, 2014). Auf Grundlage dieses Verständnisses hat der UN Ausschuss für die Rechte von Menschen mit Behinderungen im Rahmen des Staatenberichtsverfahrens im Jahr 2015 auch die Entwicklungen in Deutschland kritisiert (Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, 2015, S. 8). Eine Transformation hin zu einem inklusiven Bildungssystem, in dem alle Schüler*innen möglichst lange gemeinsam lernen, hat es bisher nur regional bedingt gegeben (Autorengruppe Bildungsberichterstattung, 2014, 2016, 2018; Blanck, Edelstein & Powell, 2013). Obwohl sonderpädagogische Förderung je nach Bundesland und Kreis an sehr unterschiedlichen Lernorten bereitgestellt wird, ist im Aggregat dennoch die Persistenz der Sonderbeschulung nicht zu verleugnen (Autorengruppe Bildungsberichterstattung, 2014, 2016, 2018; Blanck, Edelstein & Powell, 2013). In den verschiedenen Regionen Deutschlands kommt es daher weder zu einer allgemeinen Angleichung der Lebensbedingungen noch zu einer Konvergenz in den Bildungschancen. Dies hat weitreichende Folgen für die gegenwärtige Schüler*innengeneration und nimmt negativen Einfluss auf individuelle Bildungskarrieren. Die Frage, mit welcher wir uns in diesem Beitrag beschäftigen, lautet daher: Welche Wirkung hat der völkerrechtlich anerkannte Auftrag, inklusive Bildung zu gewährleisten, auf das deutsche Schulsystem? [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 16 (0 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe New Institutionalism in Higher Education
Meyer, Heinz-Dieter; Powell, Justin J W UL

in David, M.E.; Amey, M.J. (Eds.) SAGE Encyclopedia of Higher Education (in press)

countries. It views educational institutions as a key producer of social cohesion by supplying the shared beliefs that generate shared cultural meanings. To most institutionalists, education (schools ... [more ▼]

countries. It views educational institutions as a key producer of social cohesion by supplying the shared beliefs that generate shared cultural meanings. To most institutionalists, education (schools, colleges, universities, but also home schooling, religious, and informal education) stands out as one of only a handful of key social institutions next to the family, the economy, religion, science, and government. Higher education takes its place in this nexus of institutions, as it globally expands in size and grows in strategic importance. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 232 (16 UL)
Full Text
See detailHandbuch Inklusion International: Globale, nationale und lokale Perspektiven auf Inklusive Bildung
Köpfer, Andreas; Powell, Justin J W UL; Zahnd, Raphael

Book published by Barbara Budrich (in press)

Inclusive education has become a leading theme internationally over the past several decades, as it addresses key issues, often controversial, of exclusion/inclusion, learning opportunities, and ... [more ▼]

Inclusive education has become a leading theme internationally over the past several decades, as it addresses key issues, often controversial, of exclusion/inclusion, learning opportunities, and educational equality and justice. Among international organizations as well as supranational governments, we find an increasing emphasis on recognizing diversity and enabling education for all. This is visible in the Salamanca Declaration (1994), the overall “education-for-all” agenda, the Sustainable Developments Goals (e.g., Education, SDG 4), and the worldwide ratification of the UN Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities (e.g., Article 24 on Education), which mandates among state parties the establishment of an inclusive education system across levels, from early childhood to lifelong learning. This frame of reference is not only significant in terms of definitions and contents but also in the context of the strengthening of world society. The world societal level is not the same as what occurs in the relations between nation states, as important as such learning in policies and practices may be but extends beyond. This is evident in the definition of “inclusion” that has become significant internationally as a category signifying attempts to guarantee access and participation in different levels of education systems, but one that has contrasting and divergent understandings, implications, and implementation consequences between national and local contexts. The goal of participation that follows normatively and legally from such understandings of inclusion, is recontextualized differently, sometimes even paradoxically, when in fact segregated and separate settings are extended under the banner of inclusion. In Germany, for example, despite inclusion discourse flowing from such international agendas that focus on processes of integration and participation, the structures, cultures, and practices that disadvantage and disable continue to exist or even become strengthened. Even if the myriad dimensions of diversity are increasingly discussed and intersectional approaches become more important, the emphasis on difference of disability or “special educational needs” continues. In educational research, numerous publications have delineated the establishment of inclusive education from diverse perspectives. Over the past decade in particular, this has occurred in relation to the UN CRPD, which also implies a connection to the world society-frame; however, theorization and in-depth empirical analyses are lacking to explain more recent developments on multiple levels. Even for nation-states, few systematic and comparative studies have analyzed the diverse forms of inclusive education in different contexts. The consequence has been a divergence between the national discourses of inclusive education, for example, in the German-speaking countries, that remain focused on special educational needs, and the more global discourse that understands inclusive education in human rights terms and a key developmental process in democracies. Although some recent comparative research projects and dissertations provide insights into specific country contexts, a more comprehensive publication that collects such research results of international inclusive educational research has been lacking. Furthermore, the opportunity presents itself to extend the dialogue through a world society perspective on inclusion to reflect global inequalities via integrating case studies from the Global South. International and intercultural perspectives enable the investigation of structures, cultures and practices of different countries to the crucial comparison of educational processes. This is especially necessary in the case of inclusive education, whether as a source of inspiration, a reflexive critique of taken-for-grantedness or as a means to identify disparities and social inequalities. Thus, in several dozen chapters, the Handbook Inclusion International presents diverse global, national, and local perspectives on inclusive education. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 40 (4 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailInternationale Disability Studies
Biermann, Julia; Powell, Justin J W UL

in Waldschmidt, Anne (Ed.) Handbuch Disability Studies (in press)

Der Beitrag zeichnet internationale Entwicklungen in den Disability Studies nach. Aufgrund der Bedeutung für die Entstehung und weltweite Verbreitung des multidisziplinären Forschungsfelds liegt der Fokus ... [more ▼]

Der Beitrag zeichnet internationale Entwicklungen in den Disability Studies nach. Aufgrund der Bedeutung für die Entstehung und weltweite Verbreitung des multidisziplinären Forschungsfelds liegt der Fokus auf den englischsprachigen Diskursen. Skizziert werden drei historische Phasen: die Etablierung der Disability Studies in den 1970er und 1980er Jahren, die Ausdifferenzierung in den 1990er und 2000er Jahren sowie die Pluralisierung seit den 2010er Jahren. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 42 (3 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailComparative Education in an Age of Competition and Collaboration
Powell, Justin J W UL

in Comparative Education (2020), 56

Comparative education relies on experiences, expertise, data, and criticism derived from multiple contexts and diverse levels to generate insights, facilitate understanding, and explain change. Marked by ... [more ▼]

Comparative education relies on experiences, expertise, data, and criticism derived from multiple contexts and diverse levels to generate insights, facilitate understanding, and explain change. Marked by connectivity, our contemporary era vastly increases the (potential) diffusion of ideas essential for scientific advance. Three interlocking trends emphasise the growing relevance of comparative educational research. Firstly, competition has become more potent – among scholars, their organisations, and within as across countries. Secondly, educational studies, as science more generally, are increasingly conducted in collaboration – across disciplinary, cultural, linguistic, and organisational boundaries – enhancing the potential for discovery while producing influential scholarship. Thirdly, while educational research and policymaking are increasingly comparative, comparative knowledge stores are often only selectively used. To counter such reductionism, in-depth comparative institutional analyses across divides of academy, policymaking, and practice remain crucial. The multidisciplinary field must claim its relevance more persuasively, even as scholarly exchange, mobilities, and cultural knowledge endure as vital foundations. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (6 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailReview of Elizabeth Guffey (2018): Designing Disability: Symbols, Space and Society. London: Bloomsbury.
Powell, Justin J W UL

in Design Issues (2020), 36(1), 100-101

In her pathbreaking book Designing Disability: Symbols, Space and Society, Elizabeth Guffey provides vital insights into decades of social and design processes that ultimately produced the most ubiquitous ... [more ▼]

In her pathbreaking book Designing Disability: Symbols, Space and Society, Elizabeth Guffey provides vital insights into decades of social and design processes that ultimately produced the most ubiquitous symbol of disability—and accessibility—worldwide: The International Symbol of Access (ISA). Building on existing scholarship from a range of disciplines coupled with original historical research, this book uncovers the origins and evolving (largely transatlantic) architectural and design discourse, and several moments of serendipity, that led to its creation. The ISA has since diffused to become part of the built environment in all corners of the world. Richly illustrated and charting at times vitriolic debates, protest activities, and artistic interventions up to the contemporary era, Guffey weaves together activist and aesthetic perspectives into a tapestry of social and design history relating to disability and accessibility. Structured in historical phases, the book’s chapters progress across larger and shorter stretches over more than a century of wheelchair design, social and welfare policies and programs (mostly in the US, UK, and Scandinavia), architectural standards, and symbols relating to barriers and accessibility measures. Guffey engages the reader in what is necessarily a multidisciplinary, multilevel investigation, with unexpected twists and turns. On one level, the book focuses on the politics of highest office, with US Presidents Franklin D. Roosevelt and Dwight D. Eisenhower (who permanently or temporarily used wheelchairs) sketched against the backdrop of the lack of accessible government buildings in Washington, DC, and the social consensus then to hide impairment for fear of stigmatization (shifted marginally by disabled Veterans). On another level, welfare state provisions in the US, UK, and Scandinavia are discussed in light of progressive legislation and the persistent challenges of implementation. Finally, at ground level, the utmost significance of individuals devoted to universal design writ large becomes manifestly evident. Guffey recounts how, in US universities, inspirational figures such as Timothy Nugent (at Illinois), Ron Mace (at North Carolina State), and Viktor Papanek (at Purdue, CalArts, Kansas, etc.), campus planners, and students designed and constructed new worlds on the drawing board and poured in concrete. We follow design professionals, such as architect Selwyn Goldsmith in the UK, who was a strident arbiter of accessibility. Academic initiatives went hand-in-fist with advocacy activities in organizations and protest and artistic actions in the streets. Indeed, to raise general awareness of the ever-present attitudinal and structural barriers—institutionalized discrimination—that disabled people face daily and to secure disability rights, disability protests and cross-national organizing have repeatedly been necessary. The long and bumpy road to universal design extends into the future. Integral to this history of design development, revision, and critiques of various symbols of disability have been international events (world expositions, Olympics & Paralympics) and organizations (Rehabilitation International), artistic inspiration, design competitions, and guerilla art interventions. Tracing the convoluted process of designing what would become the ISA—fifty years ago now—leads to Susanne Koefoed, a Danish design student, and Karl Montan, leader of the Swedish Institute for the Handicapped, but also to international negotiations and chance. The on-going questioning of the official ISA, especially, its “misfit” nature as an amalgam of technical aid and person, emphasizes the shift from invisibility to ubiquity of disability via social change and political activism as well as cultural representations and the need for signs of identity. In the new century, newer initiatives in the US, such as Brendan Murphy’s and the Accessible Icon Project (developed by Sara Hendren and Brian Glenney), have challenged the official ISA, revealing both persistence and change in understandings of disability and accessibility. When integrated into signage, the ISA designates accessible spaces and facilities. If the ISA has become present in public buildings and spaces everywhere, cultural notions of disability and access remain understudied across the social sciences, with especially the Global South remaining a blank page. Research is needed to chart the diverse local interpretations that mirror shifts from exclusion to inclusion of disabled people as the human rights revolution witnessed since the end of WWII continues, but also suffers backlash, even in the Global North. Paradoxically, this global icon refers simultaneously to disability, and its ameliorating factor, accessibility. Yet, the ambivalence and debate surrounding the ISA persist, as Guffey emphasizes especially in the later chapters, focusing on proposed alternatives to the existing ISA, codified as it is in law and conforming to the guidelines of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Until universal design (and the universalizing social policies likely needed to support it) succeeds in reducing the barriers in environments and in attitudes and in maximizing the usefulness of products and services during the design stage, identity formation processes are among the most positive aspects of the ISA. The icon’s influence and implementation extend far beyond marking modifications to the built environment. Whether taken-for-granted, modified or critiqued, the current ISA has spread globally. It can now be found wherever people move in physical space, finding their way. The symbol testifies to the on-going shift from exclusion, along a slow and winding road, to social inclusion and full participation of disabled people. In sum, Guffey brings scholarship on the ISA to the next stage. It complements studies that chart the influence of disabled peoples’ organizations and of international organizations as they facilitated remarkable shifts in disability paradigms. Yet institutionalized discrimination abounds, with the ISA marking that accessibility and universal design are far from achieved. If a few imprecisions tarnish the literature list, this historical work reconstructing a largely Western process cannot be faulted for not providing a complete global analysis of ISA implementation and adjustment. In that vein, with contributions from Guffey herself, the current exhibition “Viktor Papanek: The Politics of Design” (Kries, Klein & Clarke, 2018) indeed extends the discussion to the Global South and across further disciplines, rightfully embedding the dialogue about symbols of disability and enhancing access within broader contexts. Footnote: Kries, Matteo, Amelie Klein & Alison J. Clarke (eds.) (2018). Viktor Papanek: The Politics of Design. Weil am Rhein, Germany: Vitra Design Museum. ISBN: 978-3-945852-26-2. The exhibition is currently on view at Germany’s Vitra Design Museum (20 September 2018–10 March 2019), then at Barcelona Design Museum (20 October 2019–2 February 2020). [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 118 (14 UL)
Full Text
See detailParadox: Mehr Bildung, weniger Gleichheit
Powell, Justin J W UL

in Powell, Justin J W (Ed.) Wissen aktuell: Exoplaneten, Urknall und Bildung (2019)

Bildung für sozialen Fortschritt: Wie wirkt sich ein Mehr an Bildung auf eine Gesellschaft aus? Dieser Frage widmete sich eine Tagung am Institut für Höhere Studien in Wien. In den vergangenen Jahrzenten ... [more ▼]

Bildung für sozialen Fortschritt: Wie wirkt sich ein Mehr an Bildung auf eine Gesellschaft aus? Dieser Frage widmete sich eine Tagung am Institut für Höhere Studien in Wien. In den vergangenen Jahrzenten ist der Bildungsstand weltweit gestiegen und geht mit einem längeren, gesünderen Leben, einer höheren Produktivität und mehr zivilgesellschaftlichem Engagement einher. Gleichzeitig kann Bildung die soziale Ungleichheit verschärfen. Gestaltung: Julia Geistberger Mit: Justin Powell, Bildungssoziologe Universität Luxemburg Redaktion: Barbara Daser [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 84 (7 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailWhat is meant by inclusion: On the effects of different definitions on attitudes toward inclusion.
Krischler, Mireille UL; Powell, Justin J W UL; Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke UL

in European Journal of Special Needs Education (2019), 34(5), 632-648

Aiming to further our knowledge about what is meant by inclusion, we examined how various conceptualisations relate to people’s attitudes about inclusive education. We assign the varying characterisations ... [more ▼]

Aiming to further our knowledge about what is meant by inclusion, we examined how various conceptualisations relate to people’s attitudes about inclusive education. We assign the varying characterisations of inclusion of specific groups with differing involvement in the education system in Luxembourg, applying the influential systematisation of definitions of inclusion by Göransson and Nilholm (2014). Results of study 1 showed that members of the general population, pre-service and in-service teachers perceive inclusive education in importantly different ways. Although results showed relatively positive attitudes toward inclusive education for the whole sample, attitudes varied by group and in relation to the differential categorisation of definitions. As teachers’ attitudes and the extent to which they feel prepared to implement inclusive practice are crucial for the success of inclusive education, the latter aspect is further investigated in study 2. Results showed that teachers with more in-depth understanding of inclusive education reported more positive attitudes and felt better prepared to implement inclusive practices. Implications for education systems and society are discussed. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 149 (19 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDisability and Inequality in Educational Opportunities in Life Course Perspective
Powell, Justin J W UL; Pfahl, Lisa

in Becker, Rolf (Ed.) Research Handbook in Sociology of Education (2019)

Inclusive education has become a global norm, supported by the recognition of human rights, and now affects education policymaking and system development worldwide. While important contributions in ... [more ▼]

Inclusive education has become a global norm, supported by the recognition of human rights, and now affects education policymaking and system development worldwide. While important contributions in sociological research on education, disability, and inequality exist, those in life course perspective and international comparative perspectives are rarer. Studies of educational opportunities of children and youth with disabilities and disadvantages over the past several decades underscore the lack of systematic approaches to facilitate educational and social inclusion. Within the educational research field, sociological approaches to disability, to special educational needs, and to inclusive education emphasize such dimensions as exclusion/inclusion, segregation/integration, learning opportunities, in/equality, institutionalization, stigma, risk, and certification or credentials. To recognize and understand the causes and consequences of disability-related inequality requires in-depth dialogue and benefits from results of studies on different levels and within diverse cultural contexts. This article provides insights into disability and inequality in educational opportunities across Europe and an overview of research topics, results, and gaps. The sociology of education would increase its contribution were it to be more inclusive in analyzing the processes that affect educational opportunities and life chances of those who experience disablement in schooling. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 185 (38 UL)
Full Text
See detailOrganisationssoziologie und Bildungsforschung im Dialog
Apelt, Maja; Powell, Justin J W UL

in Apelt, Maja; Bode, Ingo; Hasse, Raimund (Eds.) et al Handbuch Organisationssoziologie (2019)

Justin Powell wurde von Maja Apelt zum Verhältnis der Bildungs- zur Organisationssoziologie interviewt. Konkret geht es um Berührungspunkte von Bil-dungsforschung und Organisationssoziologie, empirische ... [more ▼]

Justin Powell wurde von Maja Apelt zum Verhältnis der Bildungs- zur Organisationssoziologie interviewt. Konkret geht es um Berührungspunkte von Bil-dungsforschung und Organisationssoziologie, empirische und theoretischeLücken der Organisationssoziologie aus Sicht der Bildungsforschung und zu-künftige gemeinsame Fragestellungen. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 87 (4 UL)
Full Text
See detailDas Verhältnis zwischen Hochschule und Wissenschaft in Deutschland: Expansion – Produktion – Kooperation
Dusdal, Jennifer UL; Oberg, Achim; Powell, Justin J W UL

in Burzan, Nicole (Ed.) Komplexe Dynamiken globaler und lokaler Entwicklungen: Der Verhandlungsband des 39. Kongresses der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Soziologie vom 24.-28. September 2018 an der Georg-August-Universität Göttingen (2019)

Dieser Beitrag rekonstruiert den Einfluss der Hochschulentwicklung und der wissenschaftlichen Kapazitätsbildung auf die wissenschaftliche Wissensproduktion in Deutschland, einem der weltweit stärksten ... [more ▼]

Dieser Beitrag rekonstruiert den Einfluss der Hochschulentwicklung und der wissenschaftlichen Kapazitätsbildung auf die wissenschaftliche Wissensproduktion in Deutschland, einem der weltweit stärksten Produzenten wissenschaftlichen Wissen seit 1900. Folgende Forschungsfragen sollen beantwortet werden: Wie haben institutionalisierte Strukturen, und darin verschiedene Organisationsformen, die langfristige Entwicklung wissenschaftlicher Produktivität beeinflusst und verändert? In welchen organisationalen Netzwerken entwickelt sich aktuell die Wissenschaft weiter? Die Annäherung an den Forschungsgegenstand erfolgt auf der Makroebene anhand von Indikatoren zur Erfassung der globalen Expansion, Kooperation und Produktion der Wissenschaft. Vor dem Hintergrund dieses Untersuchungsrahmens wird dann auf der Mesoebene das Zusammenspiel von Organisationsformen in Deutschland mittels netzwerkanalytischer Verfahren betrachtet. Ziel des Beitrags ist, die Orte und institutionellen Settings wissenschaftlicher Produktion zu identifizieren und anhand ihrer Aufgaben und Ziele voneinander abzugrenzen sowie ihre Beziehungen zueinander herauszuarbeiten. Als theoretische Basis werden neo-institutionalistische Ansätze zur Untersuchung und Erklärung der Expansion des Hochschulwesens und der Wissenschaft und zur Analyse von organisationalen Netzwerken herangezogen. Grundlage der empirischen Analyse bilden Publikationen in peer-reviewed Zeitschriften als Kennzeichen wissenschaftlicher Produktion. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 101 (21 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailRatings, Rankings, Research Evaluation: How do Schools of Education Behave Strategically within Stratified UK Higher Education?
Marques, Marcelo UL; Powell, Justin J W UL

in Higher Education (2019)

While higher education research has paid considerable attention to the impact of both ratings and rankings on universities, less attention has been devoted to how university subunits, such as Schools of ... [more ▼]

While higher education research has paid considerable attention to the impact of both ratings and rankings on universities, less attention has been devoted to how university subunits, such as Schools of Education, are affected by such performance measurements. Anchored in a new institutional approach, we analyze the formation of a competitive institutional environment in UK higher education in which ratings and rankings assume a central position in promoting competition among Schools of Education (SoE). We apply the concepts of “ institutional environment” and “ organizational strategic actors” to UK SoE to demonstrate how such university subunits articulate their qualities and respond to the institutional environment in which they are embedded—by using ratings and rankings (R&R) to compete for material and symbolical resources as well as inter-organizational and intra-organizational legitimacy. Through findings from 22 in-depth expert interviews with members ofthe multidisciplinary field of education and a content analysis of websites (n = 75) of SoE that participated in REF 2014, we examine the stratified environment in which SoE are embedded (1). We uncover how R&R are applied by SoE within this competitive, marketized higher education system (2). Finally, we indicate the strategic behaviors that have been triggered by the rise of R&R in a country with a highly formalized and standardized research evaluation system (3). The results show both homogenization and differentiation among SoE in their use of organizational vocabulary and the applications of R&R while simultaneously revealing strategic behavior, ranging from changes in internal practices to changes in organizational structures. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 84 (8 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailTeaching Diverse Learners in Europe: Inspiring Practices and Lessons Learned from Germany, Iceland, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Spain and Sweden
Powell, Justin J W UL; Merz-Atalik, Kerstin; Ališauskienė, Stefanija et al

in Schuelka, Matthew; Johnstone, Christopher; Thomas, Gary (Eds.) et al SAGE Handbook of Inclusion and Diversity in Education (2019)

Teaching in inclusive settings may be considered a new, challenging task; however, successfully supporting diverse pupils in their learning process has always been at the heart of outstanding pedagogy ... [more ▼]

Teaching in inclusive settings may be considered a new, challenging task; however, successfully supporting diverse pupils in their learning process has always been at the heart of outstanding pedagogy. Vast differences both in the extent and the quality of inclusive schooling exist between and within European countries. Promoting comparison and cooperation among countries with long-institutionalized inclusive schooling and countries with less inclusive structures, cultures, and practices proves crucial in education research and reform. Building upon a multi-year collaboration, we synthesize lessons learned about inclusive education reforms and “inspiring practices“ in inclusive education in partner schools in Germany, Iceland, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Spain, and Sweden. Contemporary practices take the diversity of groups of learners into account, building upon diversity as a resource; this served as the framework for our collaboration. The TdiverS consortium—as an EU-funded Comenius Network Project “Teaching Diverse Learners in (School-)Subjects“ (TdiverS)—was built on the following principles and goals: (1) diversity in theory and practice, resulting from collaborations of practitioners and scientists exchanging knowledge about teaching in inclusive settings; (2) strengthening awareness of the diversity of frameworks, conditions, and determining factors of teaching inclusively in varying cultural contexts; and (3) inclusive education research uniting multilevel, multicultural, and multidisciplinary perspectives. We highlight the values of inclusive education, map its contemporary European geography, summarize contemporary country-level education reforms and the local development of inclusive practices in six countries, and discuss lessons learned across Northern, Eastern, Southern, and Western Europe. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 375 (30 UL)
Full Text
See detailDie Notwendigkeit inklusiver Bildung für die Erneuerung der Governancekonzepte: Deutschland und Luxemburg im Vergleich
Powell, Justin J W UL; Merz-Atalik, Kerstin

in Herzmann, Petra; Panagiotopoulou, Julie A.; Sturm, Tanja (Eds.) et al Inklusionsforschung im Spannungsfeld von Erziehungswissenschaft und Bildungspolitik (2019)

Die hohe und gestiegene Bedeutung inklusiver Bildung – für Individuen und Gesellschaften gleichermaßen – wird global, national, regional und lokal von verschiedensten Akteur*innen hervorgehoben sowie ... [more ▼]

Die hohe und gestiegene Bedeutung inklusiver Bildung – für Individuen und Gesellschaften gleichermaßen – wird global, national, regional und lokal von verschiedensten Akteur*innen hervorgehoben sowie zunehmend auch wissenschaftlich multidisziplinär diskutiert. Fragen der Steuerung, der Governance, hingegen, sind bisher im deutschsprachigen Raum nur wenig systematisch oder umfassend analysiert worden, obwohl mehrere Wissenschaftsdisziplinen sich zunehmend mit diesen Fragen auseinandersetzen. Während politikwissenschaftliche Analysen die Machtstrukturen, Pfadabhängigkeiten und Entscheidungsprozesse fokussieren haben soziologische Analysen die globale Diffusion von Diskursen und Normen sowie systembedingte Komplexitäten und Umsetzungsschwierigkeiten vielfältiger Reformen verdeutlicht. Die Erziehungswissenschaft, nicht nur in der deutsch-sprachigen Welt, hat sich lange Zeit schwer getan, sich eindeutig zu den brisanten bildungs- als auch sozialpolitischen Fragen der inklusiven Bildung – auch die zentrale Frage der Governance – zu positionieren, weil es das fundamentale Verhältnis von Allgemeiner und Sonderpädagogik hinterfragt sowie in letzter Konsequenz die Transformation des gegliederten und hochgradig selektiven Bildungswesen verlangt. Dieser Band beleuchtet eben dieses Spannungsverhältnis aus verschiedenen Perspektiven; in diesem Beitrag wird deshalb versucht, verschiedene Dimensionen der Governance auf der Forschungsagenda zu platzieren, wie auch in zwei konkreten Fällen – Deutschland und Luxemburg – zu vertiefen. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 168 (15 UL)
Full Text
See detailThe Global Triumph of the Research University: A Driving Force of Science Production
Baker, David P.; Dusdal, Jennifer UL; Powell, Justin J W UL et al

E-print/Working paper (2018)

The demand for higher education in countries around the world has never been higher. This increase in education levels has generated many benefits to society, including more knowledgeable citizens ... [more ▼]

The demand for higher education in countries around the world has never been higher. This increase in education levels has generated many benefits to society, including more knowledgeable citizens, advanced economies, and enhanced longevity. We have also seen countries and universities invest heavily in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), including health (STEM+) research and scientific output. This has resulted in unexpected pure exponential growth in science production around the world. Increased competition, as well as boundary-spanning collaborations, drive unprecedented scientific advancement and technological innovation. In a book entitled The Century of Science: The Global Triumph of the Research University, we explore global scientific developments from the early 20th century to today. University-based research, especially, has risen globally to become the driving force of science production in STEM+ fields. Universities, with their multiple missions of research, teaching, and public service, are uniquely positioned to contribute to scientific output while simultaneously producing the next generation of scientists. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 134 (17 UL)
Full Text
See detailThe RAE/REF have engendered evaluation selectivity and strategic behaviour, reinforced scientific norms, and further stratified UK higher education
Marques, Marcelo UL; Powell, Justin J W UL; Zapp, Mike UL et al

Article for general public (2018)

The UK’s periodic research assessment exercise has grown larger and more formalised since its first iteration in 1986. Marcelo Marques, Justin J.W. Powell, Mike Zapp and Gert Biesta have examined what ... [more ▼]

The UK’s periodic research assessment exercise has grown larger and more formalised since its first iteration in 1986. Marcelo Marques, Justin J.W. Powell, Mike Zapp and Gert Biesta have examined what effects it has had on the submitting behaviour of institutions, considering the intended and unintended consequences in the field of education research. Findings reveal growing strategic behaviour, including high selectivity of submitted staff, the reinforcement of scientific norms with respect to the format and methodological orientation of submitted research outputs, and an explicit concentration of funding. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 124 (23 UL)
Full Text
See detailDie Ideenfabrik. Universitäten als Produzenten von Wissen
Zimmermann, Julia Maria; Powell, Justin J W UL; Dusdal, Jennifer UL

Article for general public (2018)

Detailed reference viewed: 97 (18 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailReview of Meyer, Heinz-Dieter (2017): The Design of the University: German, American, and “World Class”. Abingdon: Routledge
Powell, Justin J W UL

in Comparative Education Review (2018), 62(3), 451-454

By and large, we take our universities for granted. Indeed, the oldest have outlived political regimes of all kinds. This stimulating historical and comparative study exemplifies the importance of in ... [more ▼]

By and large, we take our universities for granted. Indeed, the oldest have outlived political regimes of all kinds. This stimulating historical and comparative study exemplifies the importance of in-depth experience and engagement with the cultural and structural environments in which some of the world’s greatest universities have over centuries incrementally developed and been embedded. This is crucial if we hope to understand the sources of their authority and myriad contributions to scientific knowledge and human flourishing. A neo-institutionalist scholar and multicultural citizen who fruitfully contributes to dialogues exploring core institutions in education and society on both sides of the Atlantic, Heinz-Dieter Meyer is uniquely placed to grapple with the complex processes of institutional learning and design that have made the German and American universities among the globally most productive. He also shows how they have influenced each other via the complex, yet crucial flows of inspired scholars and students carrying key idea(l)s with them for interpretation and application back home. The contributions of key actors, but also the outcomes of choices at critical junctures, such as the failure to establish a national state-funded university in the United States, take center stage in this engaging account of how the leaders of American universities adapted the German model, joining diverse concepts to design what has become the greatest uni-versity system in the world, yet one that remains nearly impossible to emulate due to the unique constellation of actors and institutional environment in which it developed. In eighteen chapters in four parts, The Design of the University: German, American, and “World Class” takes us from Göttingen and Berlin to Boston and to the world level as the scientific enterprise—and competition between scientists and the most crucial organizational form in which they conduct their experiments and make their arguments, the research university—becomes ever more global. Contributing to and inviting debate, Meyer’s main argument is that the American university has suc-ceeded based upon an institutional design—or, perhaps, a non-design—that on multiple levels facil-itates self-government and the identification of a niche within an extraordinarily large and differen-tiated higher education system. This is not a full-fledged historiographic treatment of a subject fa-vored by academics (permanently searching for reputational gains) and policymakers (as they in-creasingly launch research funding programs and evaluation systems to foster competition). Rather than a full-fledged sociology of science, this book creatively sketches the trajectories of German and American university development, emphasizing affinities as well as crucial differences, to ulti-mately argue that in fact “Humboldt’s most important ideas flourished in the American atmosphere of unrestricted institutional experimentation and vigorous self-government” (xiii). Interrogating what he calls the “design thinking” of eminent thinkers Adam Smith and Wilhelm von Humboldt, among others, Meyer traces the challenging, complex, and contingent learning processes in the adaptation of the German research university model to the American context, eventually becoming the most differentiated and “world-class” higher education system in the world. Asking about the reasons for the American university’s success, especially in comparison to the recent insti-tutional crisis of the German research university, albeit still extraordinarily productive, Meyer argues that this American meritocratic success story has institutional design (of self-government) at its heart. Enjoying the patronage of not one, but three major institutions—state, church, and market—the American university attained true autonomy and global preeminence through unparalleled wealth of patronage and an intricate system of checks and balances. In this line of argument, chart-ing the ascendancy from humble origins of what can hardly be called a system due its extraordinary diversity, Meyer concurs with David Labaree (2017), who’s A Perfect Mess [1] is a highly-suitable com-panion piece grounded in the history of American higher education. Contemporary architects of higher education policy globally, driven by the fantasy of “world class” labels, Meyer warns, have completely underestimated the “institutional, social, and political prerequisites that excellence in research and teaching require” (p. 4). Meyer begins his treatise, appropriately, in Göttingen, the site of Georgia Augusta University, where many leaders of American higher education, first and foremost Boston Brahmin George Ticknor, learned by doing, ensconced in a cosmopolitan center of learning and intellectual enlightenment. The blueprint included professionalized scholarship, the unification of research and teaching in seminars and lectures, freedom to choose among academic offerings, a vast library of scientific knowledge, and academic standing based on perpetual production of cutting-edge research judged by peers (p. 19). Instead of Adam Smith’s preferred instruments of competition, choice, and tuition-dependence, Wilhelm von Humboldt’s “design revolution” proposed “three unities” whose powerful integration could surpass the utilitarian logic prevalent then and now: “teaching and research; scien-tific discovery and moral formation (Bildung); scholarly autonomy and scholarly community” (p. 40). The book’s second part, on institutional learning, charts the institutional migration of the blueprint; the contested design options of Gymnasium, college, and graduate school (the latter ultimately the key to global preeminence); the lasting influence of Protestantism (here Meyer follows the arguments of Max Weber, Robert K. Merton, and Joseph Ben-David) and extraordinary educational philanthropy; the battle between those who would centralize, by establishing a national university, and those committed to local control; and finally the contrasting answers to the eternal question of vocational-ism—e.g., how should business be treated, as a sibling to medicine and law or as their distant cousin? The more education-enamored, democratically-inclined patrician elites of the American East Coast were, Meyer argues, radically different institution-builders than German scholars, French state nobility, or even Chinese mandarins: “No other class combined their respect for, and grand vision of, the civilizing role of learning with their economic resources and the realism needed to put their plans into practice” (p. 113). Building on philosophical and historical elaboration, the book’s third part on achieving self-government discusses the six American moves leading to institutional innovation. At organizational level, the German chair and institute give way to departments and discipline, the university presi-dent is no longer figurehead but chief executive, and independent boards of trustees, not govern-ment officials, have ultimate authority. The implications for individuals and organizations of these “design shifts” cannot be overstated. Anyone seeking to understand American higher education, with its phenomenal vertical and horizontal differentiation and on-going academic drift (“a snake-like procession” as David Riesman, to whom the book is dedicated, calls it), and its self-organized autonomy—supported by many philanthropists without the limiting control of a few state bureau-crats—will find this analysis illuminating. Embedded in civil society, “vigorous self-government is the historic design contribution of the American university” (p. 209)—and an achievement that must be guarded in an era in which university autonomy is at risk. In concluding, Meyer’s American opti-mistic and laudatory tone shifts back to Germanic critique and foreboding, identifying challenges and the contemporary struggles that threaten the unintentional masterpiece of institutional learning and diversity. Such justified hopes and fears must now give way to empirical studies of the extraor-dinary outputs in terms of scientific production and societal capabilities and well-being brought about by the continuous process of university Bildung—in Germany, the United States, and around the world. [1] David Labaree (2017), A Perfect Mess: The Unlikely Ascendancy of American Higher Education. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 109 (9 UL)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailHigher Education Systems and Institutions, Luxembourg
Harmsen, Robert UL; Powell, Justin J W UL

in Shin, J.C.; Teixeira, P. (Eds.) Encyclopedia of International Higher Education Systems and Institutions (2018)

Bordered by Belgium, France, and Germany, Luxembourg is one of the three main seats of the European Union’s institutions. The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg sits at the crossroads between Europe’s Germanic and ... [more ▼]

Bordered by Belgium, France, and Germany, Luxembourg is one of the three main seats of the European Union’s institutions. The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg sits at the crossroads between Europe’s Germanic and Francophone language communities. The country has experienced remarkable migratory flows, resulting in an ethnically hyper-diverse and multilingual population. Reflecting this cultural diversity, the educational system at all levels emphasizes language learning. Historically an agrarian society, a century ago it developed a very strong steelmaking industry and over the past decades has witnessed extraordinary growth in its financial services sector. Established to broaden the economic bases of the country, thus reducing overreliance on the steel and banking industries, yet against considerable pecuniary and ideological resistance, the national flagship University of Luxembourg (UL) was founded in 2003 upon initiative of a small group of elite decisionmakers. As a private, government-dependent institution (établissement public) directed by a Board of Governors (Conseil de Gouvernance), the university’s major funding is provided by the state, although its third-party funding has increased rapidly and substantially. Ironically, while spatial mobility is everywhere supported, Luxembourg has invested considerable capital and strategic planning in establishing its own national university. It aims to compete globally by concentrating its intellectual and financial resources and by building on the country’s strengths and priorities. The state took this ambitious step in scientific capacity-building in founding a research-oriented university, in so doing also providing a stay-at-home alternative for Luxembourg’s youth, traditionally educated abroad. The long-standing custom of educating elites in other countries was ostensibly justified by the establishment of cosmopolitan, Europe-wide networks. Today, rising international competition and supranational coordination have increased pressure on Luxembourg to grow its higher education system and thus also foster educational and scientific innovation. The University provides a means to diversify the economy and to integrate citizens from diverse cultural background, while the polity remains dominated by local elites. Oriented towards the Grand Duchy’s unique context—small size, but simultaneously flourishing center of European governance and international business—the University was founded upon the principles of internationality, multilingualism, and interdisciplinarity. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 330 (62 UL)