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See detailHigher Education Organizations as Strategic Actors in Networks: Institutional and Relational Perspectives Meet Social Network Analysis
Dusdal, Jennifer UL; Zapp, Mike UL; Marques, Marcelo et al

in Theory and Method in Higher Education Research (in press), 7

Informed by multiple disciplines, theories, and methods, higher education scholars have developed a robust and diverse literature in many countries. Yet, some important (organizational) sociological ... [more ▼]

Informed by multiple disciplines, theories, and methods, higher education scholars have developed a robust and diverse literature in many countries. Yet, some important (organizational) sociological perspectives, both more established and more recent, are insufficiently linked. In particular, we identify two theoretical strands—institutional and relational—that, when joined, help to explain contemporary developments in global higher education and yield new organizational insights. We review relevant literature from each perspective, both in their general formulations and with specific reference to contemporary higher education research. Within the broad institutional strand, we highlight Strategic Action Fields, organizational actorhood, and associational memberships. Within the relational strand, we focus on ties and relationships that are especially crucial as science has entered an age of (inter)national research collaboration. Across these theories, we discuss linkages between concepts, objects, and levels of analysis. We explore the methodological approach of social network analysis as it offers great potential to connect these strands and thus to advance contemporary higher education research in a collaborative era. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Origins and Contemporary Development of Work-based Higher Education in Germany: Lessons for Anglophone Countries?
Graf, Lukas; Powell, Justin J W UL

in Wheelehan, Leesa; Bathmaker, Ann-Marie; Orr, Kevin (Eds.) et al Higher-level Vocational Education: The Route to High Skills and Productivity as well as Greater Equity? An International Comparative Analysis (in press)

Today, higher education is typically seen as offering the most assured pathways to secure careers and low unemployment rates. Yet, increasingly some groups, not least higher education graduates and their ... [more ▼]

Today, higher education is typically seen as offering the most assured pathways to secure careers and low unemployment rates. Yet, increasingly some groups, not least higher education graduates and their families paying ever-higher tuition fees, question the taken-for-granted contributions higher education makes to individuals and society as a whole. Despite decades of mass higher education expansion, even societies with strong systems continue to struggle to achieve their goal of universalizing participation and equalizing access. While in part this is due to limited public or corporate funding for (affordable) study opportunities, differentiated systems, such as in the US, also lack policy coordination and effective governance, providing a surfeit of options. While participation rates have climbed worldwide, higher education systems continue to produce winners (“insiders”) and losers (“outsiders”), even as the “schooled society” shifts the occupational structure upward. Market-oriented higher education systems face increasing privatization, which also involves financializing university governance. Many states have retrenched investments that had once underwritten universities’ flourishing and their moves toward massification. Tensions have deepened over who should pay for rising costs, exacerbated in an era of increasing status competition via higher education. In the face of such challenges globally, which alternatives exist? A prominent possibility, pioneered in Germany in the 1970s, are “dual study” programs offered by several organizational forms, from vocational academies to universities of applied sciences. Such hybrid programs fully integrate phases of higher education study and paid work in firms. Another potential advantage of apprenticeship training being offered in conjunction with higher education is that this would boost the reputation of apprenticeships overall. The German experience indicates that the attractiveness of the apprenticeship training system as a whole can be bolstered when it offers a viable pathway also for those individuals with a traditional university entrance certificate. If these students seriously consider and choose advanced work-based higher education, this may well increase the standing of apprenticeship training among students, their families, and employers. Thus, dual study programs provide an innovative model for policymaking and implementation. Especially when considering strategies to improve skill formation overall, to reduce the costs individuals must bear in attaining higher education, and to improve the fit between the expectations of employers and potential employees regarding skill formation, dual study programs excel. The origins and contemporary developments in work-based higher education in Germany offer lessons and inspiration for Anglophone countries, with their strong and differentiated higher education systems, to further bolster study programs coordinated with firms. [less ▲]

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See detailBenefits, Motivations, and Challenges of International Collaborative Research: A Sociology of Science Case Study
Dusdal, Jennifer UL; Powell, Justin J W UL

in Science and Public Policy (2021), 48(2), 235-245

Contemporary science is marked by expanding, diverse forms of teamwork. Collaboration across organizational and cultural boundaries extends the possibilities of discovery. International collaborative ... [more ▼]

Contemporary science is marked by expanding, diverse forms of teamwork. Collaboration across organizational and cultural boundaries extends the possibilities of discovery. International collaborative research projects can provide findings beyond what one team could achieve alone. Motivated to grow their scientific network and maintain existing relationships, researchers increasingly collaborate, despite often unrecognized costs, since such projects are challenging to manage and carry out. Rarely studied in-depth and longitudinally, researcher perspectives are crucial to better understand the dynamics of durable collaboration networks. Thus, this retrospective, longitudinal case study of a sociology of science project applies the novel method of autoethnography to examine teamwork benefits, motivations, and challenges. Key challenges found include spatial distance and differences of culture, language, and career stage. This study, spanning North America, Europe, the Middle East, and East Asia, focused on collaborators’ characteristics and evolving perceptions of team dynamics over a decade. [less ▲]

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See detailEntwicklungslinien internationaler und komparativer Inklusionsforschung
Köpfer, Andreas; Powell, Justin J W UL; Zahnd, Raphael

in Köpfer, Andreas; Powell, Justin J W; Zahnd, Raphael (Eds.) International Handbook of Inclusive Education: Global, National and Local Perspectives (2021)

In diesem Handbuch wird das Augenmerk auf globale, regionale und lokale Fragestellungen Inklusiver Bildung gerichtet. Inklusive Bildung kann dabei als weltweites Paradigma bezeichnet werden, mit dem ... [more ▼]

In diesem Handbuch wird das Augenmerk auf globale, regionale und lokale Fragestellungen Inklusiver Bildung gerichtet. Inklusive Bildung kann dabei als weltweites Paradigma bezeichnet werden, mit dem Teilhabe und Partizipation sowie Prozesse des Ein- und Ausschlusses in Bildungskontexten und darin eingelagerte Barrieren sowie Diskriminierungen in den Blick genommen werden. Politisch-normative Setzungen Inklusiver Bildung – u.a. durch die UN-Behindertenrechtskonvention (UN-BRK) (UN 2006) – werden derzeit in bildungspolitischer Hinsicht national, regional und lokal aufgegriffen und daran anschließend Prozesse der Steuerung in Bildungssystemen initiiert. Inklusion kann dabei als "fuzzy concept" (Artiles/Dyson 2005: 43) beschrieben werden, das sich dadurch auszeichnet, dass es auf nationaler und regionaler Ebene in differenten historisch entwickelten, kulturell ausgeprägten sowie normativ und rechtlich fundierten Bil- dungssystemen aufgenommen und in die Praxis übersetzt bzw. transformiert werden muss. In den deutschsprachigen Bildungs- und Erziehungswissenschaften ist Inklusive Bildung zu einem interdisziplinären Leitbegriff avanciert, der insbesondere in der Schulpädagogik, der Sonderpädagogik und der Allgemeinen Erziehungswissenschaft diskutiert wird, allerdings auch hier mit unterschiedlichen Vorstellungen. Trotz globaler Relevanz stellen internationale und komparative Fragestellungen im Kontext Inklusiver Bildung bislang im deutschsprachigen wie internationalen Diskurs ein unzureichend bearbeitetes Forschungsfeld dar – insbesondere mit Blick auf international und interkulturell vergleichende Forschungsarbeiten. Vor diesem Hintergrund sind in diesem Handbuch Beiträge versammelt, die das Feld der internationalen, interkulturellen und komparativen Forschung schärfen und Inklusive Bildung – anschließend an die Diskurslinien der Disability Studies – als Prozess der Beseitigung von Barrieren und Benachteiligungen in Bildungssystemen und -organisationen verstehen. Dementsprechend werden Prozesse der Exklusion und Aussonderung sowie der Unterstützung und Inklusion mit besonderer Berücksichtigung komparativer Perspektiven analysiert, wobei unterschiedliche Dimensionen von Heterogenität und deren Intersektionalität, insbesondere mit Blick auf marginalisierte und von Exklusion bedrohter Personengruppen, berücksichtigt werden. Aufgrund der disziplinären Verortung der Autor*innen – v.a. in der Erziehungswissenschaft und Soziologie – und deren Beschäftigung mit Behinderungen und Benachteiligungen, rückt die Differenzlinie Behinderung bzw. „behindert werden“ in den Vordergrund. [less ▲]

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See detailLone Genius or Swarm Intelligence? Myths about Germany’s Sponsorship of Research Institutes
Powell, Justin J W UL; Baker, David P.

in International Higher Education (2021), 107

Countries around the world have emulated Germany’s model of the university devoted to research-based teaching. The independent, extra-university research institute led by a leading “genius” scientist was ... [more ▼]

Countries around the world have emulated Germany’s model of the university devoted to research-based teaching. The independent, extra-university research institute led by a leading “genius” scientist was also developed in Germany. In recent decades, Germany’s research budget and science system continue to be split between its universities, which are relatively underresourced, and institutes enjoying favored sponsorship and significant funding. We argue that Germany could be even more prouctive with stronger support for its research universities. [less ▲]

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See detailEuropean Embeddedness and the Founding of Luxembourg’s 21st Century Research University
Braband, Gangolf; Powell, Justin J W UL

in European Journal of Higher Education (2021)

At the heart of Western Europe and culturally embedded in the “Greater Region,” Luxembourg for centuries sent its youth abroad for tertiary education, without its own national university. Evolving ... [more ▼]

At the heart of Western Europe and culturally embedded in the “Greater Region,” Luxembourg for centuries sent its youth abroad for tertiary education, without its own national university. Evolving provisions of postsecondary education after 1945 followed construction of several teaching and research institutes that did not offer full-fledged tertiary education certification. With global higher education expansion and European developments providing a window of opportunity, the critical juncture occurred in 2003, with the founding of the national flagship University of Luxembourg (uni.lu)—since leading to an extraordinary case of university institutionalization. Traditions were explicitly maintained, but reshaped, in the new university, with student mobility continuing to bolster the national elite’s pan-European networks and internationalization. Reflecting its hyper-diversity and multilingual culture as well as porous national borders, Luxembourg’s investments in higher education capacity-building, via a 21st century research university, have been thoroughly European. Today, Luxembourg has the highest proportion of workers with tertiary attainment and of internationally mobile students, testament to its maintained mobility tradition and national policy change facilitated by global models and European norms. [less ▲]

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See detailTransatlantic Dialogues at the University of Luxembourg: Intercultural Exchange, Global Networking, Transdisciplinary Collaboration
Powell, Justin J W UL

in Brown, Ashley; Carbon, François; Chambers, Bill (Eds.) et al Transatlantic Dialogue Liber Memorialis: Re-Imagining the Tower of Babel 2008, 2011, 2014, 2017, 2020, ... (2021)

Under the banner of “Transatlantic Dialogues,” but increasingly global in scope, this series of international conferences organized since 2008 in Luxembourg, symbolize the cultural essence and reflect the ... [more ▼]

Under the banner of “Transatlantic Dialogues,” but increasingly global in scope, this series of international conferences organized since 2008 in Luxembourg, symbolize the cultural essence and reflect the core goals of the university and of its country. The University of Luxembourg (uni.lu), as the main venue, is an organization embedded in and reflecting its hyper diverse, multicultural society. Uni.lu has developed intercultural exchange, global networking, and transdisciplinary collaboration as guiding principles and modus operandi. Organized by cultural ambassador extraordinaire François Carbon (uni.lu Strategic Advisor for Cultural Affairs to the Rector), colleagues, and students, these truly unique events, stretching across numerous days and covering the entirety of the Grand Duchy, brought dimensions of culture, education, and science into dialogues as productive as they were inspirational. Creating durable human bonds and growing networks demands authentic environments and conditions to facilitate communication and collaboration, especially across languages, intellectual styles, and disciplinary foci. [less ▲]

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See detailHeterogene Lerngruppen in Europa inklusionsorientiert unterrichten: Inspirierende Praktiken und Erkenntnisse aus Deutschland, Island, Litauen, Luxemburg, Schweden und Spanien
Powell, Justin J W UL; Merz-Atalik, Kersin; Ališauskienė, Stefanija et al

in Köpfer, Andreas; Powell, Justin J W; Zahnd, Raphael (Eds.) Handbuch Inklusion International: Globale, nationale und lokale Perspektiven auf Inklusive Bildung (2021)

Inklusive Bildung ist zu einem globalen Ziel geworden. Dieses Ziel wird durch die Anerkennung des Menschenrechts auf Bildung für alle und die Vision einer demokratischen Gesellschaft unterstützt, die ... [more ▼]

Inklusive Bildung ist zu einem globalen Ziel geworden. Dieses Ziel wird durch die Anerkennung des Menschenrechts auf Bildung für alle und die Vision einer demokratischen Gesellschaft unterstützt, die Vielfalt in all ihren Facetten wertschätzt. Die Förderung angesichts der Vielfalt der Schüler*innen mit dem Ziel der Verbesserung des Lernens aller, bleibt für Lehrer*innen in allen nationalen Kontexten eine herausfordernde Aufgabe, da sowohl die gemeinsame Bildung für alle ausgeweitet als auch inklusive Bildung universell werden soll. Die erfolgreiche Unterstützung verschiedener Schüler*innen in ihren Lernprozessen gilt seit Jahrzehnten als das Herzstück einer ausgezeichneten Pädagogik. Dennoch finden wir in ganz Europa signifikante, persistente Unterschiede, sowohl hinsichtlich des Umfangs als auch der Qualität der inklusiven Schulbildung, die auf einer Reihe von institutionalisierten Strukturen und Kulturen beruhen und sich unter anderem in organisatorischen Rahmenbedingungen und Lehrmethoden heterogener Bildungssysteme niederschlagen. Aufbauend auf einer dreijährigen Zusammenarbeit im Rahmen des von der Europäischen Kommission finanzierten Comenius-Netzwerkprojekts „Teaching Diverse Learners in School Subjects“ (TdiverS), werden in diesem Beitrag Erkenntnisse über „inspirierende Praktiken“ der inklusiven Bildung, die in den sechs teilnehmenden Ländern – Deutschland, Island, Litauen, Luxemburg, Schweden und Spanien – gefunden wurden, zusammengefasst. Trotz erheblicher Unterschiede in den Bildungssystemen in Europa sind überall inklusive Bildungspraktiken zu finden. Bei den Schulhospitationen fanden wir inspirierende Inklusionspraktiken in allen Ländern, auch wenn diese durchaus sehr differente Niveaus der (inklusiven) Bildungssysteme aufweisen. [less ▲]

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See detailInternationale Disability Studies
Biermann, Julia; Powell, Justin J W UL

in Waldschmidt, Anne (Ed.) Handbuch Disability Studies (2021)

Der Beitrag zeichnet internationale Entwicklungen in den Disability Studies nach. Aufgrund der Bedeutung für die Entstehung und weltweite Verbreitung des multidisziplinären Forschungsfelds liegt der Fokus ... [more ▼]

Der Beitrag zeichnet internationale Entwicklungen in den Disability Studies nach. Aufgrund der Bedeutung für die Entstehung und weltweite Verbreitung des multidisziplinären Forschungsfelds liegt der Fokus auf den englischsprachigen Diskursen. Skizziert werden drei historische Phasen: die Etablierung der Disability Studies in den 1970er und 1980er Jahren, die Ausdifferenzierung in den 1990er und 2000er Jahren sowie die Pluralisierung seit den 2010er Jahren. [less ▲]

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See detailHandbuch Inklusion International: Globale, nationale und lokale Perspektiven auf Inklusive Bildung
Köpfer, Andreas; Powell, Justin J W UL; Zahnd, Raphael

Book published by Barbara Budrich (2021)

Inclusive education has become a leading theme internationally over the past several decades, as it addresses key issues, often controversial, of exclusion/inclusion, learning opportunities, and ... [more ▼]

Inclusive education has become a leading theme internationally over the past several decades, as it addresses key issues, often controversial, of exclusion/inclusion, learning opportunities, and educational equality and justice. Among international organizations as well as supranational governments, we find an increasing emphasis on recognizing diversity and enabling education for all. This is visible in the Salamanca Declaration (1994), the overall “education-for-all” agenda, the Sustainable Developments Goals (e.g., Education, SDG 4), and the worldwide ratification of the UN Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities (e.g., Article 24 on Education), which mandates among state parties the establishment of an inclusive education system across levels, from early childhood to lifelong learning. This frame of reference is not only significant in terms of definitions and contents but also in the context of the strengthening of world society. The world societal level is not the same as what occurs in the relations between nation states, as important as such learning in policies and practices may be but extends beyond. This is evident in the definition of “inclusion” that has become significant internationally as a category signifying attempts to guarantee access and participation in different levels of education systems, but one that has contrasting and divergent understandings, implications, and implementation consequences between national and local contexts. The goal of participation that follows normatively and legally from such understandings of inclusion, is recontextualized differently, sometimes even paradoxically, when in fact segregated and separate settings are extended under the banner of inclusion. In Germany, for example, despite inclusion discourse flowing from such international agendas that focus on processes of integration and participation, the structures, cultures, and practices that disadvantage and disable continue to exist or even become strengthened. Even if the myriad dimensions of diversity are increasingly discussed and intersectional approaches become more important, the emphasis on difference of disability or “special educational needs” continues. In educational research, numerous publications have delineated the establishment of inclusive education from diverse perspectives. Over the past decade in particular, this has occurred in relation to the UN CRPD, which also implies a connection to the world society-frame; however, theorization and in-depth empirical analyses are lacking to explain more recent developments on multiple levels. Even for nation-states, few systematic and comparative studies have analyzed the diverse forms of inclusive education in different contexts. The consequence has been a divergence between the national discourses of inclusive education, for example, in the German-speaking countries, that remain focused on special educational needs, and the more global discourse that understands inclusive education in human rights terms and a key developmental process in democracies. Although some recent comparative research projects and dissertations provide insights into specific country contexts, a more comprehensive publication that collects such research results of international inclusive educational research has been lacking. Furthermore, the opportunity presents itself to extend the dialogue through a world society perspective on inclusion to reflect global inequalities via integrating case studies from the Global South. International and intercultural perspectives enable the investigation of structures, cultures and practices of different countries to the crucial comparison of educational processes. This is especially necessary in the case of inclusive education, whether as a source of inspiration, a reflexive critique of taken-for-grantedness or as a means to identify disparities and social inequalities. Thus, in several dozen chapters, the Handbook Inclusion International presents diverse global, national, and local perspectives on inclusive education. [less ▲]

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See detailBlurring the boundaries: University actorhood and institutional change in global higher education
Zapp, Mike UL; Marques, Marcelo; Powell, Justin J W UL

in Comparative Education (2021), 57

Higher education (HE) scholarship often focuses on the so-called ‘entrepreneurial’ university as a consequence of new public management reforms. Simultaneously the remarkable expansion of private HE is ... [more ▼]

Higher education (HE) scholarship often focuses on the so-called ‘entrepreneurial’ university as a consequence of new public management reforms. Simultaneously the remarkable expansion of private HE is said to fragment specialize and diversify HE systems. Such diagnoses are misleading as they ignore wider environmental pressures and simultaneous changes in both public non-profit and for-profit HE. We argue that putative diversity in HE operates as a ceremonial façade behind which large-scale isomorphic change across national HE systems sectors and organizational forms occurs. Multiple causes trigger such change originating in the increasingly global HE environment including a burgeoning international HE regime accounting and accountability practices increased permeability of HE systems facilitated by open borders education markets and global science as well as (neo)liberal ideologies stressing human capital and human rights. As other organizations those in HE become subject to these pressures turning universities into more rationalized standardized and strategic actors. [less ▲]

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See detailWhy is Germany not embracing the Humboldtian university?
Baker, David UL; Dusdal, Jennifer UL; Powell, Justin J W UL et al

Article for general public (2020)

Why is Germany not embracing the Humboldtian university? The focus on conducting research in independent institutes is holding the country back, say four academics.

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See detailEuropeanizing Universities: Expanding and Consolidating Networks of the Erasmus Mundus Joint Master Degree Programme (2004–2017)
Marques, Marcelo; Zapp, Mike UL; Powell, Justin J W UL

in Higher Education Policy (2020)

The Europeanization of higher education has gained considerable scope and momentum over the past quarter century. Whereas the coordinative Bologna process, with soft governance mechanisms, have ... [more ▼]

The Europeanization of higher education has gained considerable scope and momentum over the past quarter century. Whereas the coordinative Bologna process, with soft governance mechanisms, have facilitated standardization across countries, European Commission funding programs targeted universities more directly. The Erasmus Mundus Joint Degree Programme, as an incentive-based program, epitomizes the dynamics of such European funding management. Notably, it has established expanding university networks across Europe and unique new tertiary degrees that facilitate student mobility. Applying social network analysis to 561 participating universities through several program cycles, we longitudinally examine three key patterns in the program’s development: the expansion of the programme, the consolidation of networks, and the participation of and coordination by central universities in these processes. Program participation increased considerably across cycles, even as established networks were consolidated, largely through re- accreditation of established programs. Moreover, we identify those universities that assume a central position in the inter-organizational structure of this international program. These universities actively facilitate the evolving Europeanization of higher education by strengthening inter-university networks via a signature EU program. [less ▲]

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See detailUniversity vs. Research Institute? The Dual Pillars of German Science Production, 1950–2010
Dusdal, Jennifer UL; Powell, Justin J W UL; Baker, David UL et al

in Minerva: A Review of Science, Learning and Policy (2020), 58(3), 319-342

The world’s third largest producer of scientific research, Germany, is the origin of the research university and the independent, extra-university research institute. Its dual-pillar research policy ... [more ▼]

The world’s third largest producer of scientific research, Germany, is the origin of the research university and the independent, extra-university research institute. Its dual-pillar research policy differentiates these organizational forms functionally: universities specialize in advanced research-based teaching; institutes specialize intensely on research. Over the past decades this policy affected each sector differently: while universities suffered a lingering “legitimation crisis,” institutes enjoyed deepening “favored sponsorship”—financial and reputational advantages. Universities led the nation’s reestablishment of scientific prominence among the highly competitive European and global science systems after WWII. But sectoral analysis of contributions to science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medical and health journal publications (1950–2010) finds that Germany’s small to medium-sized independent research institutes have made significant, growing contributions, particularly in publishing in higher impact journals proportionally more than their size. Simultaneously—despite dual-pillar policy implications—the university sector continues to be absolutely and relatively successful; not eclipsed by the institutes. Universities have consistently produced two-thirds of the nation’s publications in the highest quality journals since at least 1980 and have increased publications at a logarithmic rate; higher than the international mean. Indeed, they led Germany into the global mega-science style of production. Contrary to assumed benefits of functional differentiation, our results indicate that relative to their size, each sector has produced approximately similar publication records. While institutes have succeeded, the larger university sector, despite much less funding growth, has remained fundamental to German science production. Considering these findings, we discuss the future utility of the dual-pillar policy. [less ▲]

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See detailDesigning the (Most) Mobile University: The Centrality of International Student Mobility in Luxembourg’s Higher Education Policy Discourse
Kmiotek-Meier, Emilia Alicja UL; Karl, Ute; Powell, Justin J W UL

in Higher Education Policy (2020), 33

The nexus of national educational and migration policies and international student mobility (ISM) in Europe becomes strikingly visible in Luxembourg. ISM is central for higher education policy in ... [more ▼]

The nexus of national educational and migration policies and international student mobility (ISM) in Europe becomes strikingly visible in Luxembourg. ISM is central for higher education policy in Luxembourg, but also for larger questions of social integration and economic development. Based on a discourse analysis of the political debates surrounding the foundation of the University of Luxembourg in 2003, we analyze how and why ISM became a cornerstone of higher education policy in Luxembourg. Our findings reveal that, on the one hand, incoming student mobility — and the establishment of an international research university — was and is seen as a means of competing for the best and brightest, regionally and globally, and of securing human resources to satisfy a booming, internationalized labor market. On the other hand, outgoing student mobility has traditionally been viewed as the main mechanism to establish international networks across Europe and foster elites back home. Both incoming and outgoing mobility are thought necessary to establish and maintain a competitive and sustainable knowledge economy. Reconstructing the underlying rationales behind the support for ISM as the key to higher education policy, we explain why Luxembourg currently has the highest proportion of ISM worldwide. [less ▲]

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See detailMehrebenenanalyse schulischer Inklusion: Zwischen globaler Diffusion der Inklusionsrhetorik, behinderten Bildungskarrieren und institutionellen Pfadabhängigkeiten in Deutschland
Biermann, Julia; Pfahl, Lisa; Powell, Justin J W UL

in Dietze, Torsten; Gloystein, Dietlind; Moser, Vera (Eds.) et al Inklusion – Partizipation – Menschenrechte: Transformationen in die Teilhabegesellschaft? (2020)

In Deutschland ist, wie in den meisten anderen Ländern Europas, eine Debatte über die Auflösung der traditionellen Dichotomie von Sonder- versus Regelschule zu beobachten. Diese Debatten reflektieren ... [more ▼]

In Deutschland ist, wie in den meisten anderen Ländern Europas, eine Debatte über die Auflösung der traditionellen Dichotomie von Sonder- versus Regelschule zu beobachten. Diese Debatten reflektieren, dass die derzeitige Lage im deutschen Schulsystem keineswegs einer Realisierung des Menschenrechts auf inklusive Bildung entspricht, wie es in Artikel 24 der UN-BRK verankert ist. Inklusive Bildung wird hier als gemeinsames Lernen an allgemeinen Schulen in allen Bildungsstufen definiert. Inklusion ist demnach weder vereinbar mit Sonderbeschulung (Segregation), Unterricht in separaten Klassen und Lerngruppen an allgemeinen Schulen (Separation) noch mit Unterricht, wel- cher zwar größtenteils gemeinsam stattfindet, jedoch nicht auf Vielfalt jeglicher Art ausgerichtet ist (etwa Schicht, Geschlecht, Migrationshintergrund, Behinderung) (Integration) (Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, 2016, S. 3). Die Institutionalisierung inklusiver Bildung setzt also eine De-Institutionalisierung segregierter und separierter Schulsysteme voraus (Biermann & Powell, 2014). Auf Grundlage dieses Verständnisses hat der UN Ausschuss für die Rechte von Menschen mit Behinderungen im Rahmen des Staatenberichtsverfahrens im Jahr 2015 auch die Entwicklungen in Deutschland kritisiert (Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, 2015, S. 8). Eine Transformation hin zu einem inklusiven Bildungssystem, in dem alle Schüler*innen möglichst lange gemeinsam lernen, hat es bisher nur regional bedingt gegeben (Autorengruppe Bildungsberichterstattung, 2014, 2016, 2018; Blanck, Edelstein & Powell, 2013). Obwohl sonderpädagogische Förderung je nach Bundesland und Kreis an sehr unterschiedlichen Lernorten bereitgestellt wird, ist im Aggregat dennoch die Persistenz der Sonderbeschulung nicht zu verleugnen (Autorengruppe Bildungsberichterstattung, 2014, 2016, 2018; Blanck, Edelstein & Powell, 2013). In den verschiedenen Regionen Deutschlands kommt es daher weder zu einer allgemeinen Angleichung der Lebensbedingungen noch zu einer Konvergenz in den Bildungschancen. Dies hat weitreichende Folgen für die gegenwärtige Schüler*innengeneration und nimmt negativen Einfluss auf individuelle Bildungskarrieren. Die Frage, mit welcher wir uns in diesem Beitrag beschäftigen, lautet daher: Welche Wirkung hat der völkerrechtlich anerkannte Auftrag, inklusive Bildung zu gewährleisten, auf das deutsche Schulsystem? [less ▲]

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See detailHegemonic University Tales: Discussing Narrative Positioning within the Academic Field between Humboldtian and Managerial Governance
Lueg, Klarissa; Graf, Angela; Powell, Justin J W UL

in Lueg, Klarissa; Lundholt, Marianne Wolff (Eds.) The Routledge Handbook of Counter-Narratives (2020)

This chapter observes and analyzes hegemonic narratives in and of the academic field. In particular, our focus is on normative and evaluative accounts relating to forms of university governance. We ... [more ▼]

This chapter observes and analyzes hegemonic narratives in and of the academic field. In particular, our focus is on normative and evaluative accounts relating to forms of university governance. We suggest centering on two overarching approaches to what is seen as legitimate in terms of governing the university. First, we trace the age-old Humboldtian perspective, representing especially professorial independence and self-governance. Second, we consider the newer managerial perspective, separating top-down university management decision-making separate from (or counter to) faculty influence. We find that, as the latter form is currently taking hold within European universities, scholarly remembrance of the former Humboldtian governance tradition has morphed into a nearly uncritical, hegemonic tale of a glorified past. In contrast, we suggest, the managerial perspective represents a powerful ante-narrative, a hegemonic story in-the-making. The morally laden, and somewhat fantastical, Humboldtian tale, being itself hegemonic, is unfit to serve as a critical counter-narrative vis-à-vis the managerial approach that has attained considerable authority. Thus, we argue that contemporary governance discourse is suspended between two poles: the Humboldtian perspective, favoring professorial power and authority relations, and the managerial perspective, subordinating faculty under market considerations and continuous evaluation. The dilemma arising from this “suspension” also renders the governance discourse into regions of impracticality and elitism. We argue that a counter-narrative fit to challenge the managerialist governance structures in practice is lacking, with elitism continuously reproduced in-between an ancient hegemonic narrative (Humboldtian) and equally hegemonic contemporary ante-narrative (managerialist). [less ▲]

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See detailNew Institutionalism in Higher Education
Meyer, Heinz-Dieter; Powell, Justin J W UL

in David, Miriam E.; Amey, Marilyn J. (Eds.) SAGE Encyclopedia of Higher Education (2020)

countries. It views educational institutions as a key producer of social cohesion by supplying the shared beliefs that generate shared cultural meanings. To most institutionalists, education (schools ... [more ▼]

countries. It views educational institutions as a key producer of social cohesion by supplying the shared beliefs that generate shared cultural meanings. To most institutionalists, education (schools, colleges, universities, but also home schooling, religious, and informal education) stands out as one of only a handful of key social institutions next to the family, the economy, religion, science, and government. Higher education takes its place in this nexus of institutions, as it globally expands in size and grows in strategic importance. [less ▲]

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See detailRatings, Rankings, Research Evaluation: How do Schools of Education Behave Strategically within Stratified UK Higher Education?
Marques, Marcelo UL; Powell, Justin J W UL

in Higher Education (2020), 79

While higher education research has paid considerable attention to the impact of both ratings and rankings on universities, less attention has been devoted to how university subunits, such as Schools of ... [more ▼]

While higher education research has paid considerable attention to the impact of both ratings and rankings on universities, less attention has been devoted to how university subunits, such as Schools of Education, are affected by such performance measurements. Anchored in a new institutional approach, we analyze the formation of a competitive institutional environment in UK higher education in which ratings and rankings assume a central position in promoting competition among Schools of Education (SoE). We apply the concepts of “ institutional environment” and “ organizational strategic actors” to UK SoE to demonstrate how such university subunits articulate their qualities and respond to the institutional environment in which they are embedded—by using ratings and rankings (R&R) to compete for material and symbolical resources as well as inter-organizational and intra-organizational legitimacy. Through findings from 22 in-depth expert interviews with members ofthe multidisciplinary field of education and a content analysis of websites (n = 75) of SoE that participated in REF 2014, we examine the stratified environment in which SoE are embedded (1). We uncover how R&R are applied by SoE within this competitive, marketized higher education system (2). Finally, we indicate the strategic behaviors that have been triggered by the rise of R&R in a country with a highly formalized and standardized research evaluation system (3). The results show both homogenization and differentiation among SoE in their use of organizational vocabulary and the applications of R&R while simultaneously revealing strategic behavior, ranging from changes in internal practices to changes in organizational structures. [less ▲]

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See detailCompeting Institutional Logics and Paradoxical Universalism in Disabled People’s School-to-work Transitions: Comparing Switzerland and the United States
Tschanz, Christoph; Powell, Justin J W UL

in Social Inclusion (2020), 8(1), 155-167

Disablement is a complex social phenomenon in contemporary societies, reflected in disability policies oriented towards contrasting paradigms. Fraught with ambivalence, disability raises dilemmas of ... [more ▼]

Disablement is a complex social phenomenon in contemporary societies, reflected in disability policies oriented towards contrasting paradigms. Fraught with ambivalence, disability raises dilemmas of classification and targeted supports. Paradoxical universalism emphasizes that to achieve universality requires recognizing individual dis/abilities and particularity contextual conditions and barriers that lead to disablement. Myriad aspects of educational and disability policies challenge both conceptualization and realization of universal policies, such as compulsory schooling, with widespread exclusion or segregation prevalent. Tensions between providing supports and ubiquitous stigmatization and separation that results are endemic—particularly evident during life course transitions that imply shifting memberships in institutions and organizations. Young adults’ transitions from school-to-work are fundamentally challenged by contrasting policies, institutional logics, and institutionalized organizations, particularly visible during inter-institutional transitions. Analyzing institutional logics facilitates understanding of the lack of inter-institutional coordination that hinders successful transitions for disabled youth. Examining such challenges in the United States and Switzerland, we compare two cases with liberal labor markets and federal governance structures but also with contrasting education, welfare and employment systems. Whereas lacking inter-institutional coordination negatively impacts disabled young adults in the US, Switzerland’s robust vocational education and training (VET) system, while not a panacea, does provide more coordinated support during transitions from school-to-work. These two countries provide relevant cases to examine ambivalence and contestation around the human right to inclusive education as well as the universality of the right (not) to work. [less ▲]

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