References of "Pilgun, Aleksandr 50025421"
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See detailInstruction Coverage for Android App Testing and Tuning
Pilgun, Aleksandr UL

Doctoral thesis (2020)

For many people, mobile apps have already become an indispensable part of modern life. Apps entertain, educate, assist us in our daily routines and help us connect with others. However, the advanced ... [more ▼]

For many people, mobile apps have already become an indispensable part of modern life. Apps entertain, educate, assist us in our daily routines and help us connect with others. However, the advanced capabilities of modern devices running the apps and sensitive user data make mobile devices also an attractive attack target. To get access to sensitive data, adversaries tend to conceal malicious functionality in freely distributed legitimately-looking apps. The problem of low-quality and malicious apps, spreading at an enormous scale, is especially relevant for one of the biggest software repositories – Google Play. The Android apps distributed through this platform undergo a validation process by Google. However, that is insufficient to confirm their good nature. To identify dangerous apps, novel frameworks for testing and app analysis are being developed by the Android community. Code coverage is one of the most common metrics for evaluating the effectiveness of these frameworks, and it is used as an internal metric to guide code exploration in some of them. However, when analyzing apps without source code, the Android community relies mostly on method coverage since there are no reliable tools for measuring finer-grained code coverage in 3rd-party Android app testing. Another stumbling block for testing frameworks is the inability to test an app exhaustively. While code coverage measurement can indicate an improvement in testing, it is neither possible to reach 100% coverage nor to identify the maximum reachable coverage value for the app. Despite testing, the app still contains high amounts of not executed code, which makes it impossible to confirm the absence of potentially malicious code in the part of the app that has not been tested. The existing static debloating approaches aim at app size minimization rather than security and simply debloat not reachable code. However, there is currently no approach to debloat apps based on dynamic analysis information, i.e. to cut out not-executed code. In this dissertation, we solve these two problems by, first, proposing an efficient approach and a tool to measure code coverage at the instruction level, and second, a dynamic binary shrinking methodology for deleting not executed code from the app. We support our solutions by the following contributions: - An instrumentation approach to measure code coverage at the instruction level. Our technique instruments smali representation of Android bytecode to allow code coverage measurement at the finest level. - An implementation of the instrumentation approach. ACVTool is a self-contained package containing 4K lines of Python code. It is publicly available and can be integrated into different testing frameworks. - An extensive empirical evaluation that shows the high reliability and versatility of our approach. ACVTool successfully executes on 96.9% of apps from our dataset, introduces a negligible instrumentation time and runtime overheads, and its results are complaint to the results of JaCoCo (source code coverage) and Ella (method coverage) tools. - A detailed study on the influence of code coverage metric granularity on automated testing. We demonstrate the usefulness of ACVTool for automated testing techniques that rely on code coverage data in their operation. - A dynamic debloating approach based on ACVTool instruction coverage. We propose Dynamic Binary Shrinking System, a novel methodology created to shrink 3rd-party Android apps towards observed benign functionality on executed code. - An implementation of the dynamic debloating technique incorporated into the ACVCut tool. The tool demonstrates the viability of the Dynamic Shrinking System on two examples. It allows us to cut out not executed code and, thus, provide 100% instruction coverage on explored app behaviors. [less ▲]

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See detail[GitHub] pilgun/acvcut: ACVCut 1.0
Pilgun, Aleksandr UL

Software (2020)

ACVCut shrinks Android apps towards executed code. The tool is based on ACVTool instruction coverage.

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See detailFine-grained Code Coverage Measurement in Automated Black-box Android Testing
Pilgun, Aleksandr UL; Gadyatskaya, Olga UL; Zhauniarovich, Yury et al

in ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology (2020), 29(4), 1-35

Today, there are millions of third-party Android applications. Some of them are buggy or even malicious. To identify such applications, novel frameworks for automated black-box testing and dynamic ... [more ▼]

Today, there are millions of third-party Android applications. Some of them are buggy or even malicious. To identify such applications, novel frameworks for automated black-box testing and dynamic analysis are being developed by the Android community. Code coverage is one of the most common metrics for evaluating effectiveness of these frameworks. Furthermore, code coverage is used as a fitness function for guiding evolutionary and fuzzy testing techniques. However, there are no reliable tools for measuring fine-grained code coverage in black-box Android app testing. We present the Android Code coVerage Tool, ACVTool for short, that instruments Android apps and measures code coverage in the black-box setting at class, method and instruction granularity. ACVTool has successfully instrumented 96.9% of apps in our experiments. It introduces a negligible instrumentation time overhead, and its runtime overhead is acceptable for automated testing tools. We demonstrate practical value of ACVTool in a large-scale experiment with Sapienz, a state-of-art automated testing tool. Using ACVTool on the same cohort of apps, we have compared different coverage granularities applied by Sapienz in terms of the found amount of crashes. Our results show that none of the applied coverage granularities clearly outperforms others in this aspect. [less ▲]

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See detailDissecting Android Cryptocurrency Miners
Dashevskyi, Stanislav UL; Zhauniarovich, Yury; Gadyatskaya, Olga UL et al

in CODASPY '20: Tenth ACM Conference on Data and Application Security and Privacy, New Orleans LA USA, March 2020 (2020, March)

Cryptojacking applications pose a serious threat to mobile devices. Due to the extensive computations, they deplete the battery fast and can even damage the device. In this work we make a step towards ... [more ▼]

Cryptojacking applications pose a serious threat to mobile devices. Due to the extensive computations, they deplete the battery fast and can even damage the device. In this work we make a step towards combating this threat. We collected and manually verified a large dataset of Android mining apps. In this paper, we analyze the gathered miners and identify how they work, what are the most popular libraries and APIs used to facilitate their development, and what static features are typical for this class of applications. Further, we analyzed our dataset using VirusTotal. The majority of our samples is considered malicious by at least one VirusTotal scanner, but 16 apps are not detected by any engine; and at least 5 apks were not seen previously by the service. Mining code could be obfuscated or fetched at runtime, and there are many confusing miner-related apps that actually do not mine. Thus, static features alone are not sufficient for miner detection.We have collected a feature set of dynamic metrics both for miners and unrelated benign apps, and built a machine learning-based tool for dynamic detection. Our BrenntDroid tool is able to detect miners with 95% of accuracy on our dataset. [less ▲]

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See detailDon't Trust Me, Test Me: 100% Code Coverage for a 3rd-party Android App
Pilgun, Aleksandr UL

in Pilgun, Aleksandr (Ed.) 2020 27th Asia-Pacific Software Engineering Conference (APSEC) (2020)

The incompleteness of 3rd-party app testing is an accepted fact in Software Engineering. This issue makes it impossible to verify the app functionality and to confirm its safety to the end-user. To solve ... [more ▼]

The incompleteness of 3rd-party app testing is an accepted fact in Software Engineering. This issue makes it impossible to verify the app functionality and to confirm its safety to the end-user. To solve this problem, enterprises developed strict policies. A company, willing to use modern apps, may perform an expensive security analysis, rely on trust or forbid the app. These strategies may lead companies to high direct and indirect spending with no guarantee of safety. In this work, we present a novel approach, called Dynamic Binary Shrinking, that allows a user to review app functionality and leave only tested code. The shrunk app produces 100% instruction coverage on observed behaviors and in this way guarantees the absence of unexplored, and therefore, potentially malicious code. On our running examples, we demonstrate that apps use less than 20% of the codebase. We developed an approach and the ACVCut tool to shrink Android apps towards the executed code. Repository — http://github.com/pilgun/acvcut. [less ▲]

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See detailDEMO: An Effective Android Code Coverage Tool
Pilgun, Aleksandr UL; Gadyatskaya, Olga UL; Dashevskyi, Stanislav UL et al

Poster (2018, October 15)

The deluge of Android apps from third-party developers calls for sophisticated security testing and analysis techniques to inspect suspicious apps without accessing their source code. Code coverage is an ... [more ▼]

The deluge of Android apps from third-party developers calls for sophisticated security testing and analysis techniques to inspect suspicious apps without accessing their source code. Code coverage is an important metric used in these techniques to evaluate their effectiveness, and even as a fitness function to help achieving better results in evolutionary and fuzzy approaches. Yet, so far there are no reliable tools for measuring fine-grained bytecode coverage of Android apps. In this work we present ACVTool that instruments Android apps and measures the smali code coverage at the level of classes, methods, and instructions. Tool repository: https://github.com/pilgun/acvtool [less ▲]

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See detail[GitHub] pilgun/acvtool: ACVTool v0.2
Pilgun, Aleksandr UL; Zhauniarovich, Yury; Gadyatskaya, Olga

Software (2018)

ACVTool (Android Code Coverage Tool) is a tool to measure fine-grained code coverage of 3rd-party Android apps.

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See detailThe Influence of Code Coverage Metrics on Automated Testing Efficiency in Android
Dashevskyi, Stanislav UL; Gadyatskaya, Olga UL; Pilgun, Aleksandr UL et al

Poster (2018, October)

Code coverage is an important metric that is used by automated Android testing and security analysis tools to guide the exploration of applications and to assess efficacy. Yet, there are many different ... [more ▼]

Code coverage is an important metric that is used by automated Android testing and security analysis tools to guide the exploration of applications and to assess efficacy. Yet, there are many different variants of this metric and there is no agreement within the Android community on which are the best to work with. In this paper, we report on our preliminary study using the state-of-the-art automated test design tool Sapienz. Our results suggest a viable hypothesis that combining different granularities of code coverage metrics can be beneficial for achieving better results in automated testing of Android applications. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 153 (24 UL)