References of "Pignault, Anne"
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See detailWhat Factors Contribute to the Meaning of Work? A Validation of Morin’s Meaning of Work Questionnaire
Pignault, Anne; Houssemand, Claude UL

in Psicologia, Reflexão e Crítica (2021), 34(1),

Background: Considering the recent and current evolution of work and the work context, the meaning of work is becoming an increasingly relevant topic in research in the social sciences and humanities ... [more ▼]

Background: Considering the recent and current evolution of work and the work context, the meaning of work is becoming an increasingly relevant topic in research in the social sciences and humanities, particularly in psychology. In order to understand and measure what contributes to the meaning of work, Morin (2003) constructed a 30-item questionnaire that has become predominant and has repeatedly been used in research in occupational psychology and by practitioners in the field. Nevertheless, it has been validated only in part. Method: Meaning of work questionnaire was conducted in French with 366 people (51.3% of women; age: (M = 39.11, SD = 11.25); 99.2% of whom were employed with the remainder retired). Three sets of statistical analyses were run on the data. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis were conducted on independent samples. Results: The questionnaire described a five-factor structure. These dimensions (Success and Recognition at work and of work, α= .90; Usefulness, α= .88; Respect for work, α= .88; Value from and through work, α= .83; Remuneration, α= .85) are all attached to a general second-order latent meaning of work factor (α= .96). Conclusions: Validation of the scale, and implications for health in the workplace and career counseling practices, are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailNormalization as a mediator of emotion during unemployment
Houssemand, Claude UL; Rosato, Valeria; Thill, Steve et al

in Anxiety, Stress and Coping (2021)

Meta-analyses indicated detrimental effects on some psychological dimensions from job loss and extended periods of unemployment. This study analyses three phenomena: causes attributed to unemployment ... [more ▼]

Meta-analyses indicated detrimental effects on some psychological dimensions from job loss and extended periods of unemployment. This study analyses three phenomena: causes attributed to unemployment; processes for coping with unemployment; and the emotional impact of joblessness. Using an SEM approach, a model is created in which unemployment normalization acts as a mediator between locus of control and emotions. Method: questionnaires from 260 unemployed people in Luxembourg provided data on perceived control, coping, and emotions. Participants who attribute their situation to bad luck, believe more strongly that unemployment is due to external factors beyond their control, and recognize unemployment as being a common occurrence in life. Such cognitive attribution of unemployment has effects on job seekers’ emotions. Those who perceive unemployment in a more positive light experience more positive emotions and fewer negative affects. Negative perceptions of unemployment have no effect on the generation of positive emotion, but have an influence on negative affects. Finally, the influence of perceived-control on emotion is not direct, but is mediated by processes of unemployment normalization. Understanding how unemployed people perceive and experience their situations could help them be more effective in their search for new employment [less ▲]

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See detailEmotion Regulation Questionnaire- adapted and Individual Differences in Emotion Regulation
Seixas, Rita; Pignault, Anne; Houssemand, Claude UL

in Europe's Journal of Psychology (2021)

Emotion regulation is a human adaptation process with important implications for daily life. Two specific emotion regulation strategies were the principle areas of study: reappraisal (cognitive change in ... [more ▼]

Emotion regulation is a human adaptation process with important implications for daily life. Two specific emotion regulation strategies were the principle areas of study: reappraisal (cognitive change in which individuals adapt their state of mind about a given situation) and expressive suppression (response modulation in which individuals change their emotional response after its initiation). The Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ), that captures individual tendencies to reappraise and to suppress the expression of emotions, was also developed. Response modulation strategy was analyzed by considering two distinct processes: expressive suppression (down-regulation) and expressive enhancement (up-regulation). This latter modulation process has been less frequently studied by researchers. The present study investigates the psychometrical properties, individual differences and correlates of a French adapted version of the ERQ, which comprises reappraisal and the two response modulation tendencies – expressive suppression and expressive enhancement. Based on the initial ERQ, new items were created and added to the scale. The three-factor structure of the ERQ adapted was confirmed. As expected, emotion regulation is linked to individual differences: the tendency to reappraise has a positive low correlation with age; and men are significantly more disposed to suppress and to enhance than women. Finally, the tendency to suppress the expression of emotions is negatively correlated with extraversion, and the disposition to enhance the expression of emotions is negatively correlated with conscientiousness. [less ▲]

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See detailVers une évolution du rapport au travail et au chômage ? Points de vue de demandeurs d’emploi et discours de salariés
Thill, Steve; Houssemand, Claude UL; Pignault, Anne

in Psychologie du Travail et des Organisations (2020), 26(3), 197-213

Professional career paths are nowadays marked by multiple transitions. Job loss is one of the most frequent causes of professional transitions. Given this emphasis, recent studies questioned a possible ... [more ▼]

Professional career paths are nowadays marked by multiple transitions. Job loss is one of the most frequent causes of professional transitions. Given this emphasis, recent studies questioned a possible evolution of the “work” norm, the emergence of an “unemployment norm” and its effects on job seekers. This paper proposes to contribute to the discussion on the current evolution of the relation to work and unemployment. At first, the results of a study with 500 unemployed people, who completed a questionnaire on work centrality and on the perception of work, will be presented. Then, a discourse analysis on the meaning and meaningfulness of work of 15 working people will be discussed. The results show the central function of work and the relative normalization of unemployment. [less ▲]

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See detailLe processus de médiation et son issue à la croisée des dimensions psychologiques et sociales : pistes de recherche
Pignault, Anne; Meyers, Raymond; Houssemand, Claude UL

in Négociations (2020), 34(2), 171-192

Les pratiques de médiation sont promues de façon croissante par les sociétés occidentales, avec un nombre grandissant de centres et de praticiens qui offrent leurs services. La recherche sur les ... [more ▼]

Les pratiques de médiation sont promues de façon croissante par les sociétés occidentales, avec un nombre grandissant de centres et de praticiens qui offrent leurs services. La recherche sur les déterminants, les mécanismes et les résultats de la médiation en est cependant encore à ses débuts en Europe francophone, alors que déjà beaucoup plus avancée dans les pays anglo-saxons. Une analyse de la littérature internationale est ici proposée afin d’inspirer la recherche dans nos pays. Elle permet de faire émerger deux principales priorités de recherche, concernant les ressources et stratégies utilisées par les médiateurs et l’évaluation de la médiation et ses effets à moyen et long termes.Mediation is increasingly promoted by Western societies, with a growing number of centers and practitioners offering their services. Research on the determinants, mechanisms, and results of mediation are nevertheless still in their infancy in French-speaking Europe, though they are more advanced in English-speaking countries. An analysis of the international literature is here proposed in order to guide research in our countries. Two subjects should be research priorities: the resources and strategies used by mediators; and the evaluation of mediation by establishing precise criteria and by studying, through longitudinal research designs, the link between the initial characteristics of mediation and its medium- and long-term effects. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of meaning in life and of work on health in unemployment
Thill, Steve; Houssemand, Claude UL; Pignault, Anne

in Health Psychology Open (2020)

In line with the meaning making theory, people experience a discrepancy when their appraised meaning of a situation is in conflict with their general meaning framework. We wanted to replicate this result ... [more ▼]

In line with the meaning making theory, people experience a discrepancy when their appraised meaning of a situation is in conflict with their general meaning framework. We wanted to replicate this result in the context of unemployment. Heren the meaning of work and meaning in life influenced the perception of unemployment and consequently had an impact on mental health. This study points to new ways of thinking about unemployment and career transitions. Whereas the COVID-19-induced economic crisis will see millions of people losing their jobs, these results could assist counselors in helping unemployed people better understand the experiences they are going through. [less ▲]

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See detailUnderstanding Unemployment Normalization: Individual Differences in an Alternative Experience With Unemployment
Houssemand, Claude UL; thill, Steve; Pignault, Anne

in Frontiers in Psychology (2020)

Unemployment is a major concern of societies and people around the world. In addressing this phenomenon, the literature has suggested a change in unemployed people’s perceptions of this transition period ... [more ▼]

Unemployment is a major concern of societies and people around the world. In addressing this phenomenon, the literature has suggested a change in unemployed people’s perceptions of this transition period. In this paper, we apply a differential approach to explore the concept of unemployment normalization, an individual emotional regulation process. The results show how the global socioeconomic context and some individual and psychological variables influence the normalization of unemployment. Thus, the age of the person but also work involvement, coping strategies, locus of control, and level of self-esteem have indirect differential effects, mediated by unemployment normalization dimensions, on unemployed people’s perceived health. Only neuroticism has a direct link to subjective well-being. These results offer a new understanding of the perception of unemployment and are also discussed in the area of career and vocational counseling. [less ▲]

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See detailAdaptation and Validation of the Perceived Control in Unemployment Scale
Houssemand, Claude UL; Meyers, Raymond UL; Pignault, Anne

in Frontiers in Psychology (2019)

Perceived control plays an important role in the understanding of people's experiences with unemployment and reemployment. Yet, no scale has been designed specifically to measure people's perceived ... [more ▼]

Perceived control plays an important role in the understanding of people's experiences with unemployment and reemployment. Yet, no scale has been designed specifically to measure people's perceived control in an unemployment situation. In the current study, using two independent samples with 1,009 and 831 unemployed people in France and Luxembourg, respectively, we created and tested a three-dimensional Perceived Control in Unemployment Scale that was based on Levenson's (1973, 1981) theory. An exploratory factor analysis (Study 1) and a confirmatory factor analysis (Study 2) showed that the data were consistent with the theoretically postulated three-factor model. In addition, we established convergent and discriminant validity with several adaptive and non-adaptive dimensions in two independent samples of 141 unemployed people and 384 recently unemployed people in Luxembourg (Studies 3 and 4, respectively). Perceived control did not change over a period of 6 months of unemployment, yet the three types of perceived control measured at the beginning of unemployment predicted employment status 6 months later. Unemployed people with perceptions of internal control or control from powerful others found jobs more quickly, whereas the perception that chance was the controlling factor predicted longer unemployment. [less ▲]

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See detailUnemployment Normalisation: The effect on well-being during various stages of unemployment
Thill, Steve; Houssemand, Claude UL; Pignault, Anne

in Psychological Reports (2019), 122(5), 1600-1617

The negative effects of job loss on mental health have been thoroughly described in the literature. However, different fluctuations in mental health during the unemployment period have been noticed. We ... [more ▼]

The negative effects of job loss on mental health have been thoroughly described in the literature. However, different fluctuations in mental health during the unemployment period have been noticed. We argue that a coping process takes place in this kind of situation. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effect of the unemployment normalization process on mental health during various stages of unemployment. Participants (N = 803) completed the General Health Questionaire-12 and the Unemployment Normalization Questionnaire. Results showed that a negative perception of unemployment had the greatest impact on mental health during the different phases of unemployment. Nevertheless, during the first year, having a positive perception counteracted these negative effects, and after 1 year, the unemployment norm took over the role of buffering against the negative effects on mental health. These results indicate that unemployment is still perceived as negative, but depending on the stage of unemployment, various coping strategies are used to buffer the negative consequences of unemployment. [less ▲]

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See detailAn Alternative Relationship to Unemployment: Conceptualizing Unemployment Normalization
Pignault, Anne; Houssemand, Claude UL

in Review of General Psychology (2018), 22(3), 355-366

Unemployment is widely described as a situation that engenders stress, malaise, and a loss of identity for those affected by it. Whereas the deleterious effects of unemployment are clear, people may also ... [more ▼]

Unemployment is widely described as a situation that engenders stress, malaise, and a loss of identity for those affected by it. Whereas the deleterious effects of unemployment are clear, people may also develop an alternative relationship to unemployment and hold other perceptions of this transition period. Some studies have indeed pointed toward a shift in the social work norm, whereas others have questioned the negative impact of unemployment on some individuals. Yet to date, few studies have directly focused on the process through which these other, less negative perceptions of unemployment may arise. The present article thus explores one possible experience that we have termed unemployment normalization. We conceptualize unemployment normalization as an emotional regulation process based on cognitive reappraisal. This article suggests some variables that may influence it and presents a roadmap for future research. [less ▲]

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See detailUnemployment Normalization: Its Effect on Mental Health During Various Stages of Unemployment.
Thill, Steve UL; Houssemand, Claude UL; Pignault, Anne

in Psychological Reports (2018), 122(5), 1600-1617

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See detailNormalizing Unemployment: A New Way to Cope with Unemployment
Pignault, Anne; Houssemand, Claude UL

in Basic and Applied Social Psychology (2017)

Although the literature suggests that the massive unemployment statistics of the last decade have resulted in changes in the way people view unemployment, no study to date has precisely identified this ... [more ▼]

Although the literature suggests that the massive unemployment statistics of the last decade have resulted in changes in the way people view unemployment, no study to date has precisely identified this phenomenon and its effects on individuals. This study brings to light the connection between these new perceptions of and experiences with unemployment and health. Using both qualitative and quantitative methods, we developed and validated the Unemployment Normalization Questionnaire and correlated it with health. Thus, 938 unemployed people from two economic contexts (France and Luxembourg) completed both the Unemployment Normalization Questionnaire and the General Health Questionnaire. This study confirmed the existence of the psychological concept of unemployment normalization among actual job seekers and its relation to perceived well-being. [less ▲]

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