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Comparison of boundary treatments in thermal Lattice Boltzmann simulations of moving particles in fluids ; ; et al in Particle Technology Series (2019, April 09) Various numerical schemes have been developed in recent years to simulate particle-laden flows. The Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) has emerged as an efficient tool for direct numerical simulations in ... [more ▼] Various numerical schemes have been developed in recent years to simulate particle-laden flows. The Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) has emerged as an efficient tool for direct numerical simulations in which the flow field around the particles can be fully resolved. In the thermal Lattice Boltzmann method not only the flow field but also the temperature field is calculated by using one distribution function for the fluid density and one for the fluid temperature. The treatment of curved solid-fluid boundaries is crucial for the simulation of particulate flows with this method. While several aspects of moving boundaries have been discussed in previous studies for the non-thermal LBM, it remains unknown to what extend these findings are transferable to the thermal LBM. In this work, we consider a 3D thermal LBM with a multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) collision operator and compare different techniques that can be applied to handle the moving boundary. There are three key aspects in the LBM that need to be considered at the boundary: the momentum exchange method calculating the drag force acting upon particles, the bounce-back scheme determining the bounce-back of density distribution functions at a boundary, and the refilling algorithm assigning a value to the unknown density distribution functions at lattice nodes uncovered by the particle. First, we demonstrate how the choice of the technique to address these problems in the flow field impacts the results for the temperature field in the thermal LBM. In a second step, we focus on the thermal side where similar techniques need to be applied. We compare different refilling strategies and bounce-back schemes for the temperature distribution functions and assess heat transfer calculation methods for the particle surface. The performance of these implementations is evaluated by comparing the simulation results in terms of accuracy and stability for a moving particle in a channel flow with a Galilean invariant reference system in which the particle’s position is fixed. We conduct this analysis for various Reynolds and Prandtl numbers to test the applicability of the individual techniques to varying flow conditions. Moreover, we demonstrate the potential of the implementation found to be superior by considering a more complex flow field in a particle packing. Our findings serve as a guideline for choosing suitable moving boundary treatments in thermal LBM simulations of particle-laden flows. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 53 (15 UL)An interface resolved immersed boundary method in XDEM for particulate flow simulations Wu, Mingqiu ; Peters, Bernhard ; et al in International Congress on Particle Technology (2019, April 09) immersed boundary method (IBM) has recently been used for particulate flows and complex fluid-solid interaction problems. The IBM was first introduced by Peskin to simulate blood flow in a beating heart ... [more ▼] immersed boundary method (IBM) has recently been used for particulate flows and complex fluid-solid interaction problems. The IBM was first introduced by Peskin to simulate blood flow in a beating heart. Later it has been extended for a different range of applications. The advantages of IBM over the body-fitted method is that it substantially simplified grid generation for immersed geometries, and it is easier to handle moving boundary situations. IBM even allows the use of a stationary and non-deformation background mesh, as well as it reduces the cost of computation by avoiding generation of a body-fitted mesh for each time step. However, the IBM approach is not straightforward to implement and it requires special techniques for cut-off boundary cells as well as special techniques for data point interpolations. Generally, the IBM is classified into two approaches based on the methods of imposing the boundary condition in the immersed body. The first approach is called fictitious domain method with continuous forcing scheme which employs a distributed forcing function to impose a rigidity boundary condition in the solid particle domain. The second one is the discrete forcing approach, which enables a sharp interface to represent the immersed surface. The IBM discussed in this work is a combination of these above two approaches: we first employ the continuous forcing scheme to get a first-step approximation of the immersed body, then use an interpolation polynomial to impose a desired accurate physical boundary for each immersed boundary point based on a least square interpolation reconstruction scheme. Particle motions can be calculated and tracked by solving Newton’s equations of motions using the extended discrete element method (XDEM) while the data of fluid flow properties are obtained by solving the Navier-Stokes equations which govern the fluid phase. Combined this leads to the basic concept of DEM-CFD coupling. Therefore, a particle interface resolved simulation solver is developed by coupling the XDEM and IBM approaches together. Consequently, this solver is then used to handle both static and dynamic particle problems as well as particle packed bed simulations. The validation of the solver can be performed by setting one static sphere in a channel and evaluate the drag coefficients and Strouhal number (when shedding occurs) at various Reynolds [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 68 (19 UL)Integrated micromechanical model for slope stability analysis Kabore, Brice Wendlassida ; Peters, Bernhard Scientific Conference (2019, April 09) Advances in supercomputing hardware have made it possible to handle highly complex geomechanical analysis with large data. Thus, particle-based methods are gaining an ever-increasing interest with ... [more ▼] Advances in supercomputing hardware have made it possible to handle highly complex geomechanical analysis with large data. Thus, particle-based methods are gaining an ever-increasing interest with massively parallel programs being developed. These methods have been applied to the analysis of failure mechanisms and scenarios such as mass movement in landslides, avalanches under static, dynamic or seismic loading condition. They provide deep insights into the meso and micro-scale mechanisms leading to macroscopic instabilities. This contribution describes a micromechanical model for stability analysis and simulation in natural or man-made slopes under complex loading and boundary conditions. Based on the micromechanics of loose granular and compacted geomaterial, microstructural change, viscoelastic deformations, fracture, and healing are explicitly integrated into a coupled discrete particle and beam lattice model. Stress-based failure criteria and energy based dissipation and frictional contact are employed. Both gravity increase and strength reduction methods have been employed to evaluate the Factor of Safety (FoS) and potential failure surface and compared. With an emphasis on the impact of the microstructure and its spatial variability on stress-induced microcracks and crack propagation, this study outlines material models and properties relevant to stability analysis. Special focus has been put on layered slopes which present varying shear strength along the depth formed over time according to pressure, temperature, and moisture such as snowpack. This microstructural approach unifies geometrical and material information and allows the structural assembling layers of different strength. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 47 (11 UL)The XDEM Multi-physics and Multi-scale Simulation Technology: Review on DEM-CFD Coupling, Methodology and Engineering Applications Peters, Bernhard ; Baniasadi, Maryam ; Baniasadi, Mehdi et al in Particuology (2019), 44 The XDEM multi-physics and multi-scale simulation platform roots in the Ex- tended Discrete Element Method (XDEM) and is being developed at the In- stitute of Computational Engineering at the University ... [more ▼] The XDEM multi-physics and multi-scale simulation platform roots in the Ex- tended Discrete Element Method (XDEM) and is being developed at the In- stitute of Computational Engineering at the University of Luxembourg. The platform is an advanced multi- physics simulation technology that combines flexibility and versatility to establish the next generation of multi-physics and multi-scale simulation tools. For this purpose the simulation framework relies on coupling various predictive tools based on both an Eulerian and Lagrangian approach. Eulerian approaches represent the wide field of continuum models while the Lagrange approach is perfectly suited to characterise discrete phases. Thus, continuum models include classical simulation tools such as Computa- tional Fluid Dynamics (CFD) or Finite Element Analysis (FEA) while an ex- tended configuration of the classical Discrete Element Method (DEM) addresses the discrete e.g. particulate phase. Apart from predicting the trajectories of individual particles, XDEM extends the application to estimating the thermo- dynamic state of each particle by advanced and optimised algorithms. The thermodynamic state may include temperature and species distributions due to chemical reaction and external heat sources. Hence, coupling these extended features with either CFD or FEA opens up a wide range of applications as diverse as pharmaceutical industry e.g. drug production, agriculture food and processing industry, mining, construction and agricultural machinery, metals manufacturing, energy production and systems biology. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 145 (18 UL)Rate-dependent phase-field damage modeling of rubber and its experimental parameter identification Loew, Pascal Juergen ; Peters, Bernhard ; Beex, Lars in Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids (2019) Phase-field models have the advantage in that no geometric descriptions of cracks are required, which means that crack coalescence and branching can be treated without additional effort. Miehe and ... [more ▼] Phase-field models have the advantage in that no geometric descriptions of cracks are required, which means that crack coalescence and branching can be treated without additional effort. Miehe and Schänzel (2014) introduced a rate-independent phase-field damage model for finite strains in which a viscous damage regularization was proposed. We extend the model to depend on the loading rate and time by incorporating rubber’s strain-rate dependency in the constitutive description of the bulk, as well as in the damage driving force. The parameters of the model are identified using experiments at different strain rates. Local strain fields near the crack tip, obtained with digital image correlation (DIC), are used to help identify the length scale parameter. Three different degradation functions are assessed for their accuracy to model the rubber’s rate-dependent fracture. An adaptive time-stepping approach with a corrector scheme is furthermore employed to increase the computational efficiency with a factor of six, whereas an active set method guarantees the irreversibility of damage. Results detailing the energy storage and dissipation of the different model constituents are included, as well as validation results that show promising capabilities of rate-dependent phase-field modeling. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 61 (11 UL)A Discrete-Continuous Method for Predicting Thermochemical Phenomena in a Cement Kiln and Supporting Indirect Monitoring Copertaro, Edoardo ; Estupinan Donoso, Alvaro Antonio ; Peters, Bernhard in Engineering Journal (2018), 22(6), 165-183 Thermochemical phenomena involved in cement kilns are still not well understood because of their complexity, besides technical difficulties in achieving direct measurements of critical process variables ... [more ▼] Thermochemical phenomena involved in cement kilns are still not well understood because of their complexity, besides technical difficulties in achieving direct measurements of critical process variables. This article addresses the problem of their comprehensive numerical prediction. The presented numerical model exploits Computational Fluid Dynamics and Finite Difference Method approaches for solving the gas domain and the rotating wall, respectively. The description of the thermochemical conversion and movement of the powder particles is addressed with a Lagrangian approach. Coupling between gas, particles and the rotating wall includes momentum, heat and mass transfer. Three-dimensional numerical predictions for a full-size cement kiln are presented and they show agreement with experimental data and benchmark literature. The quality and detail of the results are believed to provide a new insight into the functioning of a cement kiln. Attention is paid to the computational burden of the model and a methodology is presented for reducing the time-to-solution and paving the way for its exploitation in quasireal-time, indirect monitoring. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 32 (2 UL)SOFTENING AND MELTING MODELING OF IRON ORE PARTICLES USING A CFD-DEM COUPLING METHOD Baniasadi, Mehdi ; Peters, Bernhard Scientific Conference (2018, September 25) The iron-bearing particles start softening and melting because of the weight of burden above and the high temperature in the middle of the blast furnace so-called cohesive zone. In this region, as ... [more ▼] The iron-bearing particles start softening and melting because of the weight of burden above and the high temperature in the middle of the blast furnace so-called cohesive zone. In this region, as particles are softened, the void space between particles decreases. As the temperature increases further, the softened particles start melting and generate two different liquids: molten iron and slag. Then the generated liquids trickle down to the lower part of the blast furnace. The softening and melting process forms the impermeable ferrous layers forcing gas to flow horizontally through the permeable coke windows. These phenomena have a big effect on the operation of the blast furnace, and since it is not possible to interrupt the blast furnace to investigate details of the phenomena occurring inside, the numerical simulation becomes more practical. In this contribution, the eXtended Discrete Element Method (XDEM) as an advanced numerical tool based on the discrete-continuous framework, is used. Within this model, the gas and liquid phases are described by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and the soft-sphere discrete element approach (DEM) is used for the coke and iron ore particles. Continuous phases are coupled to the discrete entities through mass, momentum, and energy exchange. Moreover, the internal temperature distribution of the particles is described. The particle’s deformation, temperature, melting, and shrinking along with the saturation of molten iron and slag are examined using the XDEM method. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 77 (5 UL)Verlet buffer for broad phase interaction detection in Discrete Element Method Mainassara Chekaraou, Abdoul Wahid ; Rousset, Alban ; Besseron, Xavier et al Poster (2018, September 24) The Extended Discrete Element Method (XDEM) is a novel and innovative numerical simulation technique that extends the dynamics of granular materials or particles as described through the classical ... [more ▼] The Extended Discrete Element Method (XDEM) is a novel and innovative numerical simulation technique that extends the dynamics of granular materials or particles as described through the classical discrete element method (DEM) by additional properties such as the thermodynamic state, stress/strain for each particle. Such DEM simulations used by industries to set up their experimental processes are complexes and heavy in computation time. Therefore, simulations have to be precise, efficient and fast in order to be able to process hundreds of millions of particles. To tackle this issue, such DEM simulations are usually parallelized with MPI. One of the most expensive computation parts of a DEM simulation is the collision detection of particles. It is classically divided into two steps: the broad phase and the narrow phase. The broad phase uses simplified bounding volumes to perform an approximated but fast collision detection. It returns a list of particle pairs that could interact. The narrow phase is applied to the result of the broad phase and returns the exact list of colliding particles. The goal of this research is to apply a Verlet buffer method to (X)DEM simulations regardless of which broad phase algorithm is used. We rely on the fact that such DEM simulations are temporal coherent: the neighborhood only changes slightly from the last time-step to the current time-step. We use the Verlet buffer method to extend the list of pairs returned by the broad phase by stretching the particles bounding volume with an extension range. This allows re-using the result of the broad phase for several time-steps before an update is required once again and thereby its reduce the number of times the broad phase is executed. We have implemented a condition based on particles displacements to ensure the validity of the broad phase: a new one is executed to update the list of colliding particles only when necessary. This guarantees identical results because approximations introduced in the broad phase by our approach are corrected in the narrow phase which is executed at every time-steps anyway. We perform an extensive study to evaluate the influence of the Verlet extension range on the performance of the execution in terms of computation time and memory consumption. We consider different test-cases, partitioners (ORB, Zoltan, METIS, SCOTCH, ...), broad phase algorithms (Link cell, Sweep and prune, ...) and grid configurations (fine, coarse), sequential and parallel (up to 280 cores). While a larger Verlet buffer increases the cost of the broad phase and narrow phase, it also allows skipping a significant number of broad phase execution (> 99 \%). As a consequence, our first results show that this approach can speeds up the total .execution time up to a factor of 5 for sequential executions, and up to a factor of 3 parallel executions on 280 cores while maintaining a reasonable memory consumption. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 47 (13 UL)A co-located partitions strategy for parallel CFD-DEM couplings Pozzetti, Gabriele ; Besseron, Xavier ; Rousset, Alban et al in Advanced Powder Technology (2018) In this work, a new partition-collocation strategy for the parallel execution of CFD–DEM couplings is investigated. Having a good parallel performance is a key issue for an Eulerian-Lagrangian software ... [more ▼] In this work, a new partition-collocation strategy for the parallel execution of CFD–DEM couplings is investigated. Having a good parallel performance is a key issue for an Eulerian-Lagrangian software that aims to be applied to solve industrially significant problems, as the computational cost of these couplings is one of their main drawback. The approach presented here consists in co-locating the overlapping parts of the simulation domain of each software on the same MPI process, in order to reduce the cost of the data exchanges. It is shown how this strategy allows reducing memory consumption and inter-process communication between CFD and DEM to a minimum and therefore to overcome an important parallelization bottleneck identified in the literature. Three benchmarks are proposed to assess the consistency and scalability of this approach. A coupled execution on 280 cores shows that less than 0.1% of the time is used to perform inter-physics data exchange. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 87 (23 UL)Hybrid MPI+OpenMP Implementation of eXtended Discrete Element Method Mainassara Chekaraou, Abdoul Wahid ; Rousset, Alban ; Besseron, Xavier et al in Proc. of the 9th Workshop on Applications for Multi-Core Architectures (WAMCA'18), part of 30th Intl. Symp. on Computer Architecture and High Performance Computing (SBAC-PAD 2018) (2018, September) The Extended Discrete Element Method (XDEM) is a novel and innovative numerical simulation technique that ex- tends classical Discrete Element Method (DEM) (which simulates the motion of granular material ... [more ▼] The Extended Discrete Element Method (XDEM) is a novel and innovative numerical simulation technique that ex- tends classical Discrete Element Method (DEM) (which simulates the motion of granular material), by additional properties such as the chemical composition, thermodynamic state, stress/strain for each particle. It has been applied successfully to numerous industries involving the processing of granular materials such as sand, rock, wood or coke [16], [17]. In this context, computational simulation with (X)DEM has become a more and more essential tool for researchers and scientific engineers to set up and explore their experimental processes. However, increasing the size or the accuracy of a model requires the use of High Performance Computing (HPC) platforms over a parallelized implementation to accommodate the growing needs in terms of memory and computation time. In practice, such a parallelization is traditionally obtained using either MPI (distributed memory computing), OpenMP (shared memory computing) or hybrid approaches combining both of them. In this paper, we present the results of our effort to implement an OpenMP version of XDEM allowing hybrid MPI+OpenMP simulations (XDEM being already parallelized with MPI). Far from the basic OpenMP paradigm and recommendations (which simply summarizes by decorating the main computation loops with a set of OpenMP pragma), the OpenMP parallelization of XDEM required a fundamental code re-factoring and careful tuning in order to reach good performance. There are two main reasons for those difficulties. Firstly, XDEM is a legacy code devel- oped for more than 10 years, initially focused on accuracy rather than performance. Secondly, the particles in a DEM simulation are highly dynamic: they can be added, deleted and interaction relations can change at any timestep of the simulation. Thus this article details the multiple layers of optimization applied, such as a deep data structure profiling and reorganization, the usage of fast multithreaded memory allocators and of advanced process/thread-to-core pinning techniques. Experimental results evaluate the benefit of each optimization individually and validate the implementation using a real-world application executed on the HPC platform of the University of Luxembourg. Finally, we present our Hybrid MPI+OpenMP results with a 15%-20% performance gain and how it overcomes scalability limits (by increasing the number of compute cores without dropping of performances) of XDEM-based pure MPI simulations. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 98 (21 UL)MULTI-SCALE MODELLING OF SNOW MECHANICS Kabore, Brice Wendlassida ; Peters, Bernhard ; et al in 41st Solid Mechanics Conference (2018, August 27) Detailed reference viewed: 14 (2 UL)Micromechanical model for sintering and damage in viscoelastic porous ice and snow. Part I: Theory Kabore, Brice Wendlassida ; Peters, Bernhard E-print/Working paper (2018) Ice and snow have sometime been classified as a viscoelastic or viscoplastic mate- rial according to temperature, strain rate, pressure and time scale. Throughout experimental studies presented in the ... [more ▼] Ice and snow have sometime been classified as a viscoelastic or viscoplastic mate- rial according to temperature, strain rate, pressure and time scale. Throughout experimental studies presented in the literature, it has been observed that at very low temperatures or high strain rate, porous ice and snow exhibit brittle behavior, but experience high viscous and plastic flow at temperatures closed to the melting point and low rates. At the macroscopic level nonlinearity is not necessarily attributed to material level permanent changes or yielding but mainly to micro cracks, porosity collapse and crack propagation. This paper attempts to address this complex behavior with a full microstructure based model. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 19 (3 UL)Experimental and numerical investigation into the softening Behavior of a packed bed of iron ore pellets Baniasadi, Mehdi ; Peters, Bernhard in Powder Technology (2018), 339 In this contribution, the softening process of a packed bed of pre-reduced pellets is investigated numerically and experimentally. For this purpose, pellets were reduced to different reduction degrees in ... [more ▼] In this contribution, the softening process of a packed bed of pre-reduced pellets is investigated numerically and experimentally. For this purpose, pellets were reduced to different reduction degrees in a reduction apparatus. The range of reduction degree (RD) was selected 50 − 80%, which is an acceptable range for iron-bearing materials reaching the cohesive zone. Then, softening experiments under load for a packed bed of pre-reduced pellets in a lab-scale furnace at a temperature range of 800oC to initial melt formation point were carried out. For the modeling part, the newly developed eXtended Discrete Element Method (XDEM) is used. This method is able to predict the deformation of particles over temperature which needs an extension to include heat transfer to DEM. Heat transfer between particle-particle, particle-wall, and particle-gas is considered. To validate the XDEM results with the measurements, an appropriate relationship between Young's modulus of the pellet versus temperature has been estimated. The effect of load on the bed shrinkage is also discussed. FactSage version 7.0 software was used to compute the initial melt point with the phase equilibrium for a 5-component FeO − SiO2 − CaO − MgO − Al2O3 system. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 40 (4 UL)Parallel Coupling of CFD-DEM simulations Pozzetti, Gabriele ; Besseron, Xavier ; Rousset, Alban et al Presentation (2018, August) Eulerian-Lagrangian couplings are nowadays widely used to address engineering and technical problems. In particular, CFD-DEM couplings have been successfully applied to study several configurations ... [more ▼] Eulerian-Lagrangian couplings are nowadays widely used to address engineering and technical problems. In particular, CFD-DEM couplings have been successfully applied to study several configurations ranging from mechanical, to chemical and environmental engineering. However, such simulations are normally very computationally intensive, and the execution time represents a major issue for the applicability of this numerical approach to complex scenarios. With this work, we introduce a novel coupling approach aiming at improving the performance of the parallel CFD-DEM simulations. This strategy relies on two points. First, we propose a new partition-collocation strategy for the parallel execution of CFD–DEM couplings, which can considerably reduce the amount of inter-process communication between the CFD and DEM parts. However, this strategy imposes some alignment constraints on the CFD mesh. Secondly, we adopt a dual-grid multiscale scheme for the CFD-DEM coupling, that is known to offer better numerical properties, and that allows us to obtain more flexibility on the domain partitioning overcoming the alignment constraints. We assess the correctness and performance of our approach on elementary benchmarks and at a large scale with a realistic test-case. The results show a significant performance improvement compared to other state-of-art CFD-DEM couplings presented in the literature. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 71 (5 UL)The Extented Discrete Element Method (XDEM): An Advanced Approach to Model Blast Furnace Peters, Bernhard ; ; Baniasadi, Mehdi in Iron Ores and Iron Oxide Materials (2018) The blast furnace iron making is the oldest but still the main method to produce liquid iron through sequential reduction processes of iron ore materials. Despite the existence of several discrete and ... [more ▼] The blast furnace iron making is the oldest but still the main method to produce liquid iron through sequential reduction processes of iron ore materials. Despite the existence of several discrete and continuous numerical models, there is no global method to provide detailed information about the processes inside the furnaces. The extended discrete element method known as XDEM is an advance numerical tool based on Eulerian – Lagrangian framework which is able to cover more information about the blast furnace process. Within this plat- form, the continuous phases such as gas and liquid phases are coupled to the discrete entities such as coke and iron ore particles through mass, momentum and energy exchange. This method has been applied to the shaft, cohesive zone, dripping zone and hearth of the blast furnace. In this chapter, the mathematical and numerical methods implemented in the XDEM method are described, and the results are discussed. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 132 (15 UL)Bonded Particle Model for Numerical Analysis of Concrete Fracture under Impact Loading Kabore, Brice Wendlassida ; Peters, Bernhard Scientific Conference (2018, July 04) Linear elastic fracture mechanics and homogenization techniques have shown limitations in concrete fracture analysis due to the existence of localized damage zone and instabilities near the crack region ... [more ▼] Linear elastic fracture mechanics and homogenization techniques have shown limitations in concrete fracture analysis due to the existence of localized damage zone and instabilities near the crack region. Concrete structures which are primarily quasi-brittle material present rate dependent failure modes, and fracture properties under impact or blast loading. Experiments show that concrete may exhibit viscoplasticity, strain rate and hydrostatic pressure dependent damage and crack propagation. This paper describes an explicit approach of discrete particles bonded with Euler-Bernoulli beams to simulate dynamic fracture in concrete. The fracture is initiated in the beam network and propagated and energy is dissipated according to the prescribed fracture energy. The bonded particle model has shown advanced capability to predict processes including microcracking, crack deflection, bridging and branching occurring in the fracture process zone under impact loading. It can also predict to some extent the crack propagation velocity. A quasi-brittle fracture model with rate dependent strength is elaborated to capture rate dependent behavior at high and moderate strain rates where the concrete exhibit increased load carrying capacity. In order to ensure stability of this program, numerical localnon viscous damping is used. The effect of particle size and bonds in overall response was also investigated. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 16 (2 UL)Softening and melting modeling of iron ore particles using a discrete - continuous coupling method Baniasadi, Mehdi ; ; Peters, Bernhard Scientific Conference (2018, June 13) The blast furnace iron making is the main method to produce liquid iron. A blast furnace is charged with ore and coke from the top along with a preheated gas introduced to the furnace through the tuyeres ... [more ▼] The blast furnace iron making is the main method to produce liquid iron. A blast furnace is charged with ore and coke from the top along with a preheated gas introduced to the furnace through the tuyeres in the lower part. The combustion of coke generates reducing gas ascending through the blast furnace to reduce iron-bearing materials. The reduced iron-bearing particles start softening and melting because of the weight of burden above and the high temperature in the middle of the blast furnace so-called cohesive zone. In this region, as particles are softened, the void space between particles decreases. As the temperature increases further, the softened particles start melting and generate two different liquids: molten iron and slag. Then the generated liquids trickle down to the lower part of the blast furnace. The softening and melting process forms the impermeable ferrous layers forcing gas to flow horizontally through the permeable coke windows. This causes a high-pressure drop. Softening and melting has a big effect on the operation of the blast furnace and since it is not possible to interrupt the blast furnace to investigate details of the phenomena occurring inside, the numerical simulation becomes more practical. In this contribution, the eXtended Discrete Element Method (XDEM) [1] as an advanced numerical tool based on the Eulerian-Lagrangian framework, is used. Within this platform, the gas and liquid phases are described by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and the soft-sphere discrete element approach (DEM) is used for the coke and iron ore particles. Continuous phases are coupled to the discrete entities through mass, momentum, and energy exchange. Moreover, the internal temperature distribution of the particles is described. Therefore, the XDEM is able to model multiphase and multiscale phenomena as can occur in the cohesive zone. The particle's deformation, temperature, melting, and shrinking along with gas and liquids pressure, temperature and velocity patterns are examined using the XDEM method. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 109 (4 UL)Exploring a Multiphysics Resolution Approach for Additive Manufacturing Estupinan Donoso, Alvaro Antonio ; Peters, Bernhard in JOM (2018) Metal additive manufacturing (AM) is a fast-evolving technology aiming to efficiently produce complex parts while saving resources. Worldwide, active research is being performed to solve the existing ... [more ▼] Metal additive manufacturing (AM) is a fast-evolving technology aiming to efficiently produce complex parts while saving resources. Worldwide, active research is being performed to solve the existing challenges of this growing technique. Constant computational advances have enabled multiscale and multiphysics numerical tools that complement the traditional physical experimentation. In this contribution, an advanced discrete--continuous concept is proposed to address the physical phenomena involved during laser powder bed fusion. The concept treats powder as discrete by the extended discrete element method, which predicts the thermodynamic state and phase change for each particle. The fluid surrounding is solved with multiphase computational fluid dynamics techniques to determine momentum, heat, gas and liquid transfer. Thus, results track the positions and thermochemical history of individual particles in conjunction with the prevailing fluid phases' temperature and composition. It is believed that this methodology can be employed to complement experimental research by analysis of the comprehensive results, which can be extracted from it to enable AM processes optimization for parts qualification. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 76 (16 UL)Hydrodynamic Analysis of Gas-Liquid-Liquid-Solid Reactors using the XDEM Numerical Approach Baniasadi, Maryam ; Peters, Bernhard ; Baniasadi, Mehdi et al in Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering (2018) Multiphase reactors are abundantly used in many industries. Among them, few reactors deal with four phases called gas-liquid-liquid-solid systems, which received less attention due to their complex ... [more ▼] Multiphase reactors are abundantly used in many industries. Among them, few reactors deal with four phases called gas-liquid-liquid-solid systems, which received less attention due to their complex situation. Numerical study of such complex systems is not easy and requires loads of computational effort. In this study, a discrete-continuous numerical model known as eXtended discrete element method (XDEM) is proposed to investigate the hydrodynamic behaviour of fluid phases passing through the packed bed of solid particles. This model is applied to the dripping zone of a blast furnace. In this zone, two distinct liquid phases, namely liquid iron and slag, flow through a pile of coke particles while exchanging momentum. In this work, besides the solid-fluid and gas-liquid interactions, the liquid-liquid interactions are also studied and the phases' mutual effects are discussed. In addition, a sensitivity study on the slag viscosity is performed, which shows the importance of liquid phase properties on the system behaviour. The results evaluation shows that the liquid iron accelerates the downward flow of the slag and the slag decelerates the downward flow of the liquid iron phase due to the resistance force caused by their relative velocity. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 104 (16 UL)A Multiscale DEM-VOF Method for the simulation of three-phase flows Pozzetti, Gabriele ; Peters, Bernhard in International Journal of Multiphase Flow (2018), 99 A novel multiscale approach for three-phase flows is presented. The goal of the proposed method is to solve arbitrary three-phase flow configurations in a computationally efficient way, and in particular ... [more ▼] A novel multiscale approach for three-phase flows is presented. The goal of the proposed method is to solve arbitrary three-phase flow configurations in a computationally efficient way, and in particular taking into account the effects of different length scales while sharply reducing the computational burden. This is particularly important in chemical, environmental, and process engineering, where large-scale quantities are normally of interest, but small-scale dynamics cannot be neglected. The method is based on the definition of two different length scales: the bulk scale, and the fluid fine scale. A dual-grid approach is adopted in order to resolve the bulk scale with information from the fluid fine scale. It is shown that the described method succeeds in delivering more accuracy than a standard approach based on the volume averaging technique, still, it remains suitable for the solution of real interest problems. The method is shown to successfully satisfy experimental results presented in the literature. Examples of three-phase flows simulations are provided to show how the proposed numerical approach can describe the physics of particle-laden, free surface flows with competitive computational cost. It is shown how the proposed method can naturally extend the DEM-VOF method to the presence of complex interface dynamics. [less ▲] Detailed reference viewed: 207 (28 UL) |
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