References of "Palmirani, Monica"
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See detailWhat's in an Icon? Promises and Pitfalls of Data Protection Iconography
Rossi, Arianna UL; Palmirani, Monica

in Leenes, Ronald; Hallinan, Dara; Gutwirth, Serge (Eds.) et al Data Protection and Privacy: Data Protection and Democracy (2020)

Under the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), transparency of information becomes an obligation aimed at creating an ecosystem where data subjects understand and control what happens to their ... [more ▼]

Under the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), transparency of information becomes an obligation aimed at creating an ecosystem where data subjects understand and control what happens to their personal data. The definition of transparency stresses its user-centric nature, while design considerations to comply with this obligation assume central importance. This article focuses on the icons established by the GDPR Art. 12.7 to offer “a meaningful overview of the intended processing”. Existing attempts to represent data protection through icons have not met widespread adoption and reasons about the strengths and weaknesses of their creation and evaluation are here discussed. Building on this analysis, we present an empirical research proposing a new icon set that responds to GDPR requirements. The article also discusses the challenges of creating and evaluating such icon set and provides some future directions of research for effective an effective implementation and standardization. [less ▲]

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See detailDaPIS: an Ontology-Based Data Protection Icon Set
Rossi, Arianna UL; Palmirani, Monica

in Peruginelli, Ginevra; Faro, Sebastiano (Eds.) Knowledge of the Law in the Big Data Age (2019)

Privacy policies are known to be impenetrable and lengthy texts that are hardly read and poorly understood. This is why the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) introduces provisions to enhance ... [more ▼]

Privacy policies are known to be impenetrable and lengthy texts that are hardly read and poorly understood. This is why the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) introduces provisions to enhance information transparency including icons as visual means to clarify data practices. However, the research on the creation and evaluation of graphical symbols for the communication of legal concepts, which are generally abstract and unfamiliar to laypeople, is still in its infancy. Moreover, detailed visual representations can support users’ comprehension of the underlying concepts, but at the expense of simplicity and usability. This Chapter describes a methodology for the creation and evaluation of DaPIS, a machine-readable Data Protection Icon Set that was designed following human-centered methods drawn from the emerging discipline of Legal Design. Participatory design methods have ensured that the perspectives of legal experts, designers and other relevant stake- holders are combined in a fruitful dialogue, while user studies have empirically determined strengths and weaknesses of the icon set as communicative means for the legal sphere. Inputs from other disciplines were also fundamental: canonical principles drawn from aesthetics, ergonomics and semiotics were included in the methodology. Moreover, DaPIS is modeled on PrOnto, an ontology of the GDPR, thus offering a comprehensive solution for the Semantic Web. In combination with the description of a privacy policy in the legal standard XML Akoma Ntoso, such an approach makes the icons machine-readable and automatically retrievable. Icons can thus serve as information markers in lengthy privacy statements and support an efficient navigation of the document. In this way, different representations of legal information can be mapped and connected to enhance its comprehensibility: the lawyer-readable, the machine-readable, and the human-readable layers. [less ▲]

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See detailFormalizing GDPR provisions in rei ed I/O logic: the DAPRECO knowledge base
Robaldo, Livio UL; Bartolini, Cesare UL; Lenzini, Gabriele UL et al

in Journal of Logic, Language and Information (2019)

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See detailFrom Words to Images Through Legal Visualization
Rossi, Arianna UL; Palmirani, Monica

in Pagallo, Ugo; Palmirani, Monica; Casanovas, Pompeu (Eds.) et al AI Approaches to the Complexity of Legal Systems: AICOL International Workshops 2015–2017: AICOL-VI@ JURIX 2015, AICOL-VII@ EKAW 2016, AICOL-VIII@ JURIX 2016, AICOL-IX@ ICAIL 2017, and AICOL-X@ JURIX 2017, Revised Selected Papers (2018)

One of the common characteristics of legal documents is the absolute preponderance of text and their specific domain language, whose complexity can result in impenetrability for those that have no legal ... [more ▼]

One of the common characteristics of legal documents is the absolute preponderance of text and their specific domain language, whose complexity can result in impenetrability for those that have no legal expertise. In some experiments, visual communication has been introduced in legal documents to make their meaning clearer and more intelligible, whilst visualizations have also been automatically generated from semantically-enriched legal data. As part of an ongoing research that aims to create user-friendly privacy terms by integrating graphical elements and Semantic Web technologies, the process of creation and interpretation of visual legal concepts will be discussed. The analysis of current approaches to this subject represents the point of departure to propose an empirical methodology that is inspired by interaction and human-centered design practices. [less ▲]

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See detailLegal Design Patterns for Privacy
Haapio, Helena; Hagan, Margaret; Palmirani, Monica et al

in Data Protection / LegalTech Proceedings of the 21st International Legal Informatics Symposium IRIS 2018 (2018)

Fulfilling the legal requirements of mandated disclosure is a challenge in many contexts. Privacy communication is no exception, especially for those who seek to effectively inform individuals about the ... [more ▼]

Fulfilling the legal requirements of mandated disclosure is a challenge in many contexts. Privacy communication is no exception, especially for those who seek to effectively inform individuals about the use of their data. Lawyers across countries and industries are facing recurring problems when (re)writing privacy notices and terms. Visual and interactive design patterns have been suggested as the solution, yet our analysis shows that they are lacking on most privacy policies. This indicates the need for standardization and an actionable pattern library, which we propose in this paper. [less ▲]

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See detailLegal Ontology for Modelling GDPR Concepts and Norms
Palmirani, Monica; Bartolini, Cesare UL; Martoni, Michele et al

in JURIX 2018 proceedings (2018)

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See detailPrOnto: Privacy Ontology for Legal Reasoning
palmirani, monica; Martoni, Michele; Rossi, Arianna UL et al

in International Conference on Electronic Government and the Information Systems Perspective (2018)

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See detailA Methodological Framework to Design a Machine-Readable Privacy Icon Set
Palmirani, Monica; Rossi, Arianna UL; Martoni, Michele et al

in Schweighofer, Erich (Ed.) Data Protection / LegalTech Proceedings of the 21st International Legal Informatics Symposium IRIS 2018 (2018)

The GDPR suggests icons to convey data practices in a more straightforward way. Although vi- sualizations to represent legal terms have many benefits, there is fear that they could be misrep- resented by ... [more ▼]

The GDPR suggests icons to convey data practices in a more straightforward way. Although vi- sualizations to represent legal terms have many benefits, there is fear that they could be misrep- resented by designers and misinterpreted by individuals, thus hindering instead of facilitating the comprehension. In order to solve these issues, we present a methodology to generate legal visual representations that is based on an analysis of legal requirements, on an ontological representation of the legal knowledge, and on an iterative, multi-stakeholder design approach, followed by empirical evaluation. [less ▲]

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See detailA Visualization Approach for Adaptive Consent in the European Data Protection Framework
Rossi, Arianna UL; Palmirani, Monica

in Edelmann, Noella; Parycek, Peter (Eds.) Proceedings of the 7th International Conference for E-Democracy and Open Government (2017)

For the first time in the history of European data protection law, the use of visualizations and especially of icons is explicitly suggested as a way to improve the comprehensibility of the information ... [more ▼]

For the first time in the history of European data protection law, the use of visualizations and especially of icons is explicitly suggested as a way to improve the comprehensibility of the information about data handling practices provided to the data subjects, which plays a crucial role to obtain informed consent. Privacy icon sets have already been developed, but they differ in the kinds of information they depict and in the perspectives they embed. Moreover, they have not met widespread adoption, one reasons being that research has shown that possibility of misinterpretation of these symbols exist. Our research relies on legal Semantic Web technologies and on principles drawn from legal design and Human Computer Interaction to propose visualizations of privacy policies and consent forms. The final aim is to enhance the communication of data practices to users and to support their decision about whether to give or withhold consent [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 100 (4 UL)