References of "Nienaber, Birte 50002761"
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See detailBorders and Migration
Nienaber, Birte UL

in Wassenberg, Birte; Reitel, Bernard; Thevenet, Anne (Eds.) et al Critical Dictionary on Cross-Border Cooperation in Europe (in press)

Detailed reference viewed: 77 (10 UL)
See detailLa formation professionnelle transfrontalière en tant que processus d’apprentissage et mobilisation du savoir transfrontaliers
Funk, Ines; Nienaber, Birte UL; Dörrenbächer, H. Peter

in Hamez, Grégory; Defays, Jean-Marc (Eds.) Réalités, perceptions et représentations des frontières de l'Union Européenne (in press)

Detailed reference viewed: 84 (3 UL)
See detailUsing cross-border mobility in vocational education and training in the Greater Region SaarLorLux region
Nienaber, Birte UL; Dörrenbächer, H. Peter; Funk, Ines et al

in Cairns, David (Ed.) The Palgrave Handbook of Youth Mobility (in press)

High unemployment rates on one side of a border and training opportunities on the other, the lack of training programmes for specialised jobs on the one side of the border and well defined vocational ... [more ▼]

High unemployment rates on one side of a border and training opportunities on the other, the lack of training programmes for specialised jobs on the one side of the border and well defined vocational programmes on the other side: cross-border vocational education and training (VET) is an increasingly used tool to accommodate the differing needs inside the European Union in recent years. This paper will present, explain and analyse the diverse approaches and concepts of tailor-made as well as more standardized cross-border VET programmes in the Greater Region SaarLorLux (DE, FR, LUX, BE) and explain the different mobility types (from short-time exchange programmes, to internships as well as a formalised division of mobility between days of apprenticeship in one country and days of practical training in another country). This cross-border region is the largest transboundary commuting area and therefore the largest transboundary labour market in the EU. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 70 (9 UL)
See detailSklaverei war gestern? Menschenhandel im Europa des 21. Jahrhunderts
Veit, Charlotte UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

in Binsfeld, Andrea; Ghetta, Marcello (Eds.) Sklaverei und Identität (in press)

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See detailLearning in transition: Erasmus+ as an opportunity for internationalization
Samuk, Sahizer UL; Nienaber, Birte UL; Kmiotek, Emilia Alicja UL et al

in Cairns, David (Ed.) The Palgrave Handbook of Youth Mobility (in press)

Erasmus+ has diversified its benefits for young people to learn and thrive via mobility in the last 30 years. How does Erasmus+ serve young people? We conducted 10 semi-structured interviews with young ... [more ▼]

Erasmus+ has diversified its benefits for young people to learn and thrive via mobility in the last 30 years. How does Erasmus+ serve young people? We conducted 10 semi-structured interviews with young people (aged between 18-29) in Luxembourg, Norway and Romania. Firstly, these young people feel that their identity changes as they internationalise and they travel more after the Erasmus+ experience. Hence, Erasmus+ is an eye opener. Secondly, employment, volunteering or training activities under Erasmus+ become a door-opener increasing young people’s chances of finding jobs. Thirdly, Erasmus+ does not end when the mobility ends: a new life style is adopted and nostalgia with the Erasmus+ leads to feeling at “home” in international environments. All these three aspects can be defined as Erasmus-isation encapsulated within a life-long perspective. [less ▲]

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See detailLa réintroduction des contrôles frontaliers dans l’Espace Schengen. Réflexions préliminaires pour un agenda de recherche
Evrard, Estelle UL; Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Report (in press)

This articles analyses the potential impact of closed borders or the re-establishing of border checks on the Greater Region - especially in Luxembourg.

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See detailAgency and Structure Revisited with Youth Responses to Gendered (Spatial) Mobilities in the EU
Samuk, Sahizer UL; Schlimbach, Tabea; Kmiotek-Meier, Emilia Alicja UL et al

in Border Crossings (2020), 10

Young people involved in geographical mobility face diverse gendered mobility settings and gender inequalities. How do the youth involved in diverse mobility types deal with adverse circumstances caused ... [more ▼]

Young people involved in geographical mobility face diverse gendered mobility settings and gender inequalities. How do the youth involved in diverse mobility types deal with adverse circumstances caused by gender beliefs and gender prejudices? To answer this question, problem-centred interviews with young people (18-29) are analysed using Grounded Theory. These young people are European citizens and they are involved in five mobility types: higher education, employment, voluntary work, vocational education & training, and entrepreneurship. We apply Emirbayer and Mische’s (1998) categories (iterational, projective and practical-evaluative) to the analysis of gendered mobility narratives as unequal gender perceptions reveal themselves in the context of different types of youth mobility. The analysis allows to see the ways young people reflect on their actions: refusal of gender beliefs, acceptance or rejection of gendered prejudices, individual vs. collective solutions, demand for equality in numbers, comparison of gendered workplaces and assumption of leadership in initiating mobility. At the same time, we observe how geographical mobilities can increase the critical sensibility of youth towards gender inequalities, contributing to new conceptualisation of agentic responses to structural constraints. [less ▲]

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See detailAttracting and Protecting Seasonal Workers from third countries in the EU
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Rozenberga, Zane UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Report (2020)

For almost 150 years, Luxembourg depends on two kinds of migration, qualified and non-qualified, in order to deal with the workforce needs of its economy. Compared to other EU Member States, Luxembourg is ... [more ▼]

For almost 150 years, Luxembourg depends on two kinds of migration, qualified and non-qualified, in order to deal with the workforce needs of its economy. Compared to other EU Member States, Luxembourg is a country with the largest proportion of foreigners; however, this foreign population is mainly composed of EU citizens. In Luxembourg, 296.500 residents (47,4%) of a total population of 626.100 are foreigners. 247.900 are EU citizens representing 39.6% of the total population of the country and 83,6% of the foreign population of the country. The 48.600 third-country nationals represent only 7,8% of the total population and 16.4% of the foreign population. Due to its size and geographic location, Luxembourg has an access to a very particular form of economic migration: cross-border workers. Globalisation has also played a decisive role in the development of economic migration for the Luxembourgish labour market. The financial center was obliged to become highly specialised in order to remain competitive in regards to other financial centers and to maintain its volume of business. In order to maintain its competitive advantage, Luxembourg needs highly skilled personnel, which, up until now, the country has found within the Greater Region. With regards to the labour market: the number of salaried workers on 31 December 2019 shows that Luxembourgish residents represented only 26,5%, EU citizens (other than Luxembourgish) 23,4% and third-country national residents only 4,2%. Cross-border workers from Belgium, France and Germany represented 46% of the workforce. The Luxembourgish labour market is not a national labour market but rather a labour market of the Greater Region with a trend to become an international labour market. This situation can be explained in the context of the free movement of services and the posted workers coming from other Member States to Luxembourg. The need of workforce must be placed in this particular context, taking into account the “internal reserves”, the free movement of persons from which EU citizens, who reside in the country, benefit and the large majority of cross-border workers. To this framework one must add a range of measures that were introduced by the Luxembourgish authorities in order to regulate the labour market. Some of these measures did not have labour market needs as their only objective, but were also foreseen to manage integration processes. The attitude of the successive governments was to adapt immigration to the economic needs of the country. The government policy intends to implement an economic diversification policy, focused on attracting high added value activities such as ICT, health technologies, space, logistics, industry and FinTech. In consequence and taking into consideration the specificities of Luxembourg’s labour market, third-country national seasonal workers are not a priority of the Luxembourgish government. [less ▲]

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See detailANNUAL REPORT ON MIGRATION AND ASYLUM Luxembourg 2019
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Hallack, Florence UL; Rozenberga, Zane UL et al

Report (2020)

The present report provides an overview of the main developments and debates in relation to migration and asylum in Luxembourg in 2019. Luxembourg remains an important country of immigration, as evidenced ... [more ▼]

The present report provides an overview of the main developments and debates in relation to migration and asylum in Luxembourg in 2019. Luxembourg remains an important country of immigration, as evidenced by the figures on net migration, which remains the main reason for the demographic growth of the Luxembourgish resident population. Net immigration of third-country nationals remains high (7 336) and exceeds that of citizens of the European Union (EU; 4 806). The number of people applying for international protection remained high in 2019 (2 047 applications) compared to the levels registered pre-‘migration crisis’ (1 091 in 2014). Family reunification remains the principal reason for third-country nationals to immigrate to Luxembourg, followed by economic reasons and international protection. Several major developments occurred in the field of legal migration. The introduction of a new long-term visa simplifies the entry and stay of third-country nationals for a period of up to one year, without having to apply for a residence permit. In order to guarantee the rights of British citizens working and residing in Luxembourg before the withdrawal of the United Kingdom (UK) from the EU (Brexit) four laws were adopted, most of them were supposed to enter into force if there was a non-deal Brexit. Other important changes related to migration result from the adoption of the law of 4 December 2019 amending the law of 29 August 2009 on the free movement of persons and immigration (hereinafter Immigration Law). This law takes into account the expert’s comments during the evaluation in 2016 of the application of Schengen. [less ▲]

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See detailCountry study - Coronavirus COVID-19 outbreak in the EU - Fundamental Rights Implications - Luxembourg
Vysotskaya, Volha UL; Vukovich, Lilla UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Report (2020)

The report intends to cover the possible impacts of the outbreak of the virus on fundamental rights and freedoms within the Grand Duchy. This includes impacts of quarantine measures, issues concerning ... [more ▼]

The report intends to cover the possible impacts of the outbreak of the virus on fundamental rights and freedoms within the Grand Duchy. This includes impacts of quarantine measures, issues concerning pharmaceutical supplies and testing, situation of employees and families in this specific situation, as well as several other socio-political concerns. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 135 (7 UL)
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See detailBorder Experiences in Europe. Everyday Life - Working Life - Communication - Languages
Wille, Christian UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

Book published by Nomos (2020)

For a decade now, borders in Europe have been back on the political agenda. Border research has responded and is breaking new ground in thinking about and exploring borders. This book follows this ... [more ▼]

For a decade now, borders in Europe have been back on the political agenda. Border research has responded and is breaking new ground in thinking about and exploring borders. This book follows this development and strengthens a perspective that is interested in life realities and that focuses on everyday cultural experiences of borders. The authors reconstruct such experiences in the context of different forms of migration and mobility as well as language contact situations and are sensitive to the freedom of the participants. In this way, they empirically identify everyday cultural usage or appropriation strategies of borders as vastly different experiences of borders. The readers of this volume will gain insights into current developments in border research and life realities in Europe where borders are (made) relevant. With contributions by Christian Wille, Birte Nienaber, Carsten Yndigegn, Isabelle Pigeron-Piroth, Rachid Belkacem, Ursula Roos, Elisabeth Boesen, Ariela House, Ignacy Jóźwiak, Corinne Martin, Erika Kalocsányiová, Xosé-Afonso Álvarez, Konstanze Jungbluth, Florian Dost, Nicole Richter, Dominik Gerst. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 64 (1 UL)
See detailLändliche Räume Europas
Nienaber, Birte UL

in Gebhardt, Hans; Glaser, Rüdiger; Radtke, Ulrich (Eds.) et al Geographie - Physische Geographie und Humangeographie (2020)

The chapter of a university textbook explains the diversity of European rural areas and their development.

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Peer Reviewed
See detailBorders and border experiences
Wille, Christian UL; Nienaber, Birte UL

in Wille, Christian; Nienaber, Birte (Eds.) Border Experiences in Europe. Everyday Life - Working Life - Communication - Languages (2020)

The idea of a “Europe without borders” has been contested for the last decade and is increasingly overshadowed by rebordering phenomena. This development has sparked debates within border studies on how ... [more ▼]

The idea of a “Europe without borders” has been contested for the last decade and is increasingly overshadowed by rebordering phenomena. This development has sparked debates within border studies on how borders should be thought of and investigated. The introductory article deals with this and reconstructs the formation and differentiation of the bordering approach. Furthermore, the concept of border experiences is determined as an investigative perspective that is interested in everyday cultural arenas of bordering processes. It puts the agency of ‘border(lands) residents’ in the center and provides insights into everyday cultural border (re)productions.With this in mind, we will present the book articles in the final section. [less ▲]

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See detailCross-Border Cooperation in Europe: A relational perspective
Nienaber, Birte UL; Wille, Christian UL

in European Planning Studies (2020), 28(1), 1-7

Cross-border cooperation, border regions, soft spaces? This special issue approaches cross-border informal planning processes in cross-border regions by analysing them from a perspective that combines ... [more ▼]

Cross-border cooperation, border regions, soft spaces? This special issue approaches cross-border informal planning processes in cross-border regions by analysing them from a perspective that combines networks, governance and territorialization. Such a relational perspective will be developed by papers which deal with a variety of European cross-border regions and empirical evidence related to the nexus of networks, governance and territorialization. [less ▲]

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See detailCross-border cooperation in Europe: Networks, Governance, Territorialisation
Nienaber, Birte UL; Wille, Christian UL

in European Planning Studies (2020), 28(1), 119

Cross-border cooperation, border regions, soft spaces? This special issue approaches cross-border informal planning processes in cross-border regions by analysing them from a perspective that combines ... [more ▼]

Cross-border cooperation, border regions, soft spaces? This special issue approaches cross-border informal planning processes in cross-border regions by analysing them from a perspective that combines networks, governance and territorialization. Such a relational perspective will be developed by papers which deal with a variety of European cross-border regions and empirical evidence related to the nexus of networks, governance and territorialization. [less ▲]

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See detailBorders and the mobility of migrants in France
Paraschivescu, Claudia UL; Nienaber, Birte UL; Oesch, Lucas UL

E-print/Working paper (2019)

This country report investigates the ways in which the border as a site of control interferes with asylum seekers’ and refugees’ mobility trajectories before, upon and after arrival in France. The ... [more ▼]

This country report investigates the ways in which the border as a site of control interferes with asylum seekers’ and refugees’ mobility trajectories before, upon and after arrival in France. The interplay between borders and mobility plays a key role in the Common European Asylum System, the Schengen area and the Dublin regulation, which all have been affected by the 2015 so-called migration crisis. Based on in-depth qualitative interviews with thirteen migrants and ten institutional actors in the city of Metz, the overarching finding indicates that migrants’ movements evolve from geographical trajectories in order to reach a country of destination, to administrative trajectories, in order to become regularised in the host country. Furthermore, while physical borders have interfered with some informants’ migratory journeys, they have done so only by changing their trajectories, and, at times, the initial country of destination. Thus, they did not deter the migrants from reaching a safe country of destination. Once in Metz, the migrants become subject to administrative borders performed by state agents, such as the Préfecture and the French Agency for Immigration and Integration (OFII), as well as by private actors from the employment market. [less ▲]

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See detailBorders and the mobility of migrants in the EU and Turkey
Paraschivescu, Claudia UL; Nienaber, Birte UL; Oesch, Lucas UL

E-print/Working paper (2019)

This comparative report investigates the ways in which the mobility of applicants for international protection, beneficiaries of international protection and irregular migrants intersect with the borders ... [more ▼]

This comparative report investigates the ways in which the mobility of applicants for international protection, beneficiaries of international protection and irregular migrants intersect with the borders encountered during their trajectories before, during and after their arrival in six EU countries (Greece, Hungary, Germany, Luxembourg, France and Spain) and Turkey. After defining the concept of borders, this study contextualises the securitisation of EU external and internal borders, and it provides some background information on the CEAS and the Dublin Regulation, which are central to this research. Moreover, it engages with the legislative framework in place in the field of asylum in the seven countries on which this report draws. Based on qualitative interviews with a total of 96 asylum seekers, refugees and irregular migrants, as well as 94 state and non-state actors and ethnographic observation, the empirical part of the study explored the following aspects: experiences and conceptualisations of borders; mobility patterns and trajectories; the interplay between the Schengen zone and the Dublin system; the shortcomings of CEAS; as well as policies and experiences in the fields of housing and employment. The main finding of this comparative report is that while territorial borders cannot always impede human mobility, they are recreated within countries as administrative borders, which can encourage secondary movements. [less ▲]

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See detailBorders and the mobility of migrants in Luxembourg
Paraschivescu, Claudia UL; Nienaber, Birte UL; Oesch, Lucas UL

E-print/Working paper (2019)

This country report sought to explore the border as a site of control and the ways in which it interferes with migrants’ (asylum seekers, refugees and rejected asylum seekers) trajectories before, upon ... [more ▼]

This country report sought to explore the border as a site of control and the ways in which it interferes with migrants’ (asylum seekers, refugees and rejected asylum seekers) trajectories before, upon and after arrival in Luxembourg. To this end, it explored, through qualitative interviews with a total of 29 state and civil society actors and migrants, as well as ethnographic observation at Findel airport, Luxembourg’s only external border, the multiple conceptualisations and experiences of borders. It has identified that the suppression of internal controls within the Schengen area has been accompanied by a surge of controls within the member states, either at the stage of lodging an asylum claim, or at the street level, where migrants can be stopped and searched by police officers. Furthermore, the data showed that the migrants interviewed not only did they experience bordering practices during their interactions with public actors, but they were also subject to bordering during their interactions with private actors from the housing and employment market. The principal finding of this research with regards to the interplay between borders and the mobility of migrants is that cross-border mobility is commonplace, the migrants’ mobility practices reflecting the movements of the local population. As such, borders do not represent efficient mechanisms of control which can prevent migrants’ mobility trajectories. [less ▲]

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See detailRapport annuel sur les migrations et l'asile Luxembourg 2018
Sommarribas, Adolfo UL; Coda, Nicolas UL; Rozenberga, Zane UL et al

Report (2019)

Le présent rapport fait la synthèse des principaux débats et des évolutions majeures concernant les migrations et l’asile au Luxembourg en 2018. L’année 2018 a été marquée par les élections législatives ... [more ▼]

Le présent rapport fait la synthèse des principaux débats et des évolutions majeures concernant les migrations et l’asile au Luxembourg en 2018. L’année 2018 a été marquée par les élections législatives d’octobre 2018 qui ont débouché sur la reconduction de l’ancienne coalition gouvernementale. L’accord de coalition prévoit un certain nombre de mesures relatives aux politiques migratoires. Le Luxembourg reste un pays d’immigration important. Les mouvements migratoires expliquent en grande partie la croissance de la population. Les migrations pour raisons familiales et économiques demeurent à un niveau élevé. Si certaines nationalités stagnent ou reculent tandis que d’autres progressent, cela est avant tout dû à la conjonction de deux phénomènes : d’une part, le ralentissement des flux migratoires et d’autre part, la naturalisation. Le nombre de titres de séjour délivrés pour des raisons économiques a augmenté de plus de 23% par rapport à 2017, confirmant ainsi la nette tendance à la hausse observée depuis ces dernières années. Cette progression est notamment due à l’augmentation de titres de séjour accordés aux catégories « travailleur salarié », « carte bleue européenne » et « travailleur transféré intragroupe » pour experts et cadres. La loi du 1er août 2018 qui transpose la directive n° 2016/801/UE a introduit des modifications significatives dans la politique d’admission des étudiants et des chercheurs internationaux au Luxembourg. Cette loi permet aux étudiants et aux chercheurs de séjourner au Luxembourg pendant neuf mois s’ils ont terminé leurs études de master ou de doctorat et s’ils disposent de ressources suffisantes. Le Gouvernement issu des élections législatives d’octobre 2018 entend organiser l’immigration légale en tenant compte des besoins de l’économie. L’agenda politique de l’année 2018 a également été marqué par le débat autour de la signature du Luxembourg au Pacte mondial pour une migration sûre, ordonnée et régulière (PMM). Ce débat, tant au Luxembourg qu’à l’international, a suscité un certain nombre de réactions de suspicion et de rejet, en particulier dans les milieux nationalistes de certains pays européens. Toutefois, la majorité de la classe politique luxembourgeoise ainsi que le Gouvernement ont défendu le Pacte. Le nombre de personnes demandant une protection internationale est resté élevé en 2018 et demeure relativement stable par rapport aux deux années précédentes. Le taux de reconnaissance des demandes a continué à progresser. De nombreux BPI restent hébergés dans les structures d’accueil prévues pour les DPI en raison de leurs difficultés à trouver un logement sur le marché privé ou un logement social, ce qui augmente la pression exercée sur les structures d’hébergement. Cette question problématique figure parmi les priorités des autorités nationales, comme en témoigne l’accord de coalition. Les conditions d’accueil et d’hébergement ont suscité un certain nombre de débats et de réflexions au sein de la société civile. Elles ont été abordées dans la plupart des programmes des partis politiques dans le cadre des élections législatives de 2018 et occupent une place centrale dans le nouveau plan d’action national pluriannuel d’intégration 2018 (PAN), l’accueil et l’encadrement des DPI constituant l’un des deux grands domaines d’action de ce plan. Une évolution institutionnelle majeure a eu lieu à la suite des élections législatives de 2018 : il s’agit de l’extension des compétences du ministère des Affaires étrangères et européennes qui reprend le volet « Accueil des demandeurs de protection internationale », qui relevait jusque-là du ministère de la Famille et de l’Intégration. Enfin, sur le plan européen, le nouveau gouvernement confirme son engagement en faveur du Régime d’Asile Européen Commun qui tient notamment compte de la solidarité europenne. Les mineurs non accompagnés (MNA) ont été un autre sujet de préoccupation au cours de l’année 2018 comme en témoignent le projet de loi qui vise à instaurer une équipe pluridisciplinaire pour évaluer l’intérêt supérieur de l’enfant dans le contexte d’une procédure de retour, le débat largement médiatisé autour de la pratique des examens pour la détermination de l’âge des MNA DPI, ou encore l’accent particulier que le nouveau gouvernement entend donner au renforcement de la prise en charge de ces personnes. Dans le domaine de l’intégration, il convient de souligner l’établissement d’un plan d’action national pluriannuel d’intégration 2018 (ou PAN Intégration). Ce document est le résultat d’un large processus de consultation mené par les autorités avec les différentes parties prenantes impliquées dans l'accueil et l'intégration des ressortissants non luxembourgeois. Le PAN Intégration fournit un cadre général, stratégique et durable en vue de développer des programmes et outils en faveur de l’intégration de tous les non-Luxembouregois résidant sur le territoire et de la cohésion sociale entre Luxembourgeois et non-Luxembourgeois. La loi du 8 mars 2017 sur la nationalité luxembourgeoise a généré des conséquences sur le nombre d’acquisitions de nationalité et explique la stagnation, voire le léger recul de la population étrangère au Luxembourg (et en particulier de certaines nationalités) ainsi que l’augmentation du corps électoral au Grand-Duché de Luxembourg. Les deux organes consultatifs chargés de la défense des intérets des résidents étrangers au Luxembourg ont commencé à fonctionner avec, au niveau national, le Conseil national pour étrangers (CNE) et, au niveau communal, les Commissions consultatives communales d’Intégration (CCCI), renouvelées à la suite des élections communales de 2017. Le nouveau gouvernement entend valoriser ces deux organes. Il propose d’offrir le Contrat d’accueil et d’intégration (CAI) de façon décentralisée et soutenir les communes au niveau de leur travail d’intégration locale. Le système éducatif reste confronté à des défis majeurs résultant de l’hétérogénéité de la population scolaire. Le deuxième rapport national sur l’éducation a permis de mettre en évidence les inégalités du système éducatif dues aux facteurs sociaux et au contexte migratoire des élèves. Pour faire face à cette situtaion, les autorités ont développé plusieurs mesures telles que l’élargissement de l’offre scolaire internationale et européenne, le développement de classes spécifiques pour jeunes migrants, l’établissement d’un service de médiateur au maintien, à l’inclusion et à l’intégration scolaire ainsi que l’introduction du programme d’éducation plurilingue au niveau des mini-crèches. La question de la langue luxembourgeoise, en tant que facteur d’intégration, a également fait l’objet de débats tout au long de l’année. La loi du 20 juillet 2018 relative à la promotion de la langue luxembourgeoise a introduit un certain nombre de mesures visant à renforcer l’importance de la langue luxembourgeoise, à soutenir son utilisation, son étude et son apprentissage. Plusieurs organes ont été institués afin de mettre en œuvre ce plan d’action de promotion de la langue et de la culture luxembourgeoises. La question linguistique fut également omniprésente lors de la campagne électorale. La plupart des partis politiques ont souligné dans leurs programmes électoraux l’importance de la langue luxembourgeoise comme facteur d’intégration tout en mettant en évidence l’atout du multilinguisme pour le pays. Enfin, quelques évolutions sont à signaler au niveau de la politique de retour, en particulier deux propositions de modification de la loi sur l’immigration : l’une autorisant la police à pénétrer dans des locaux d’habitation afin de procéder plus facilement à l’exécution d’une décision d’éloignement en cas de retour forcé ; l’autre prévoyant un contrôle systématique par les juridictions d’une rétention prolongée au-delà de la durée de 4 mois. Le nouveau gouvernement s’engage à compléter le dispositif actuel de rétention à travers la création d’une structure spécifique de rétention pour femmes, familles et personnes vulnérables. [less ▲]

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